Author Name 1Dissertation SampleByhttp://www.dissertation-services.co.uk
Author Name 2The Role of Business Management Techniques in Increasing the Productivityand Efficiency of an OrganisationNam...
Author Name 3AbstractThis dissertation addresses the management techniques and styles and which techniquewill be helpful i...
Author Name 4Table of ContentsAbstract.......................................................................................
Author Name 52.4 Productivity................................................................................................
Author Name 6Undervalued Talent .............................................................................................
Author Name 7Chapter 1: Introduction1.1 Title of the researchThe title of this dissertation is “The Role of Business Manag...
Author Name 82. To review the overall impact of business management techniques on the short term andlong term performance ...
Author Name 9business management techniques to increase the levels of productivity and efficiency from timeto time.1.5 Dis...
Author Name 10be widely used in this research that is the reason why qualitative research approach will beutilised in this...
Author Name 11Now the question is how to increase the efficiency along with the productivity? And toanswer this question, ...
Author Name 12This chapter would focus on different approaches of research methodologies. Primary, secondarydata types and...
Author Name 13Chapter 2: Literature ReviewThis chapter would focus on different theoretical terminologies and aspects that...
Author Name 14possibilities faced by their companies in regards to current economic situations prevailing, theircompetitio...
Author Name 15Tactical planning is intermediary planning that is intended to create comparatively solid andprecise methods...
Author Name 16complete their assigned work it means that the company is not organized efficiently. The lack oforganization...
Author Name 17behavioural sciences. Research studies should be conducted regarding personality traits and joboutlooks by m...
Author Name 18focuses on the role of manager in inculcating important steps to ensure that the employees’ jobactivities ar...
Author Name 192.2 Management StylesA managers style is dependent upon various factors like the situation, the circumstance...
Author Name 20processes. This style of management is generally sponsored as the fast cure of low self-esteemand poor organ...
Author Name 21In participative management, representative participation is thought as bad option for improvingperformance ...
Author Name 22As per the Theory Y employee behaviour is different when they are dealt by theirsuperiors differently. Theor...
Author Name 23Lower level needs are fulfilled by paying special attention to welfare of employees. Middlelevel needs are f...
Author Name 24The pioneers of the quality movement were the Americans W. Edward Deming and JosephM. Juran. They contribute...
Author Name 25the best one. The manager also identifies a good business, and commends that team fellows givethis associati...
Author Name 26Senior managers collaborate with middle line managers and middle line managerscollaborate with lower level m...
Author Name 276. Employee EmpowermentEmployee empowerment is one of the styles of management that places the managers in t...
Author Name 28creates a greater feeling of contentment and greater states of inspiration. There are probableissues with au...
Author Name 29dependent on a certain task, the management of employees, or the managers disposition.Management style can u...
Author Name 30subordinates. They prefer to provide commands and have those adhered to promptly. Theirmethod is to regulate...
Author Name 31A senior manager will identify that each worker is diverse and that a single particularmanagement practice w...
Author Name 32vegetation and fruits the schemes outputs.Productivity is merely the quantity of output you acquire per unit...
Author Name 33management’s perspective regarding productivity is going to be highlighted initially then from amore persona...
Author Name 34help avoid impact of economic recession it is important to comprehend the viewpoint of thesuperior managemen...
Author Name 35Focusing over on the input assessment issue is the query of how investment contribution isevaluated. Therefo...
Author Name 36understand that productivity concept forms the foundation for examining the features thatelucidate productiv...
Author Name 37If workers are correctly inspired, trained, given the correct data at the correct period, usage ofeasy effic...
Author Name 38procedures by which the superior can assist the employee to resolve main cause of the issue andto work towar...
Author Name 39By using a productive performance management scheme, an organization can help stimulateemployee efficiency a...
Author Name 40The management achievement is assessed by its ability and understanding in identifying andevaluating problem...
Author Name 41Chapter 3: Research Methodology3.0 IntroductionA detailed analysis of methods to be implemented for study an...
Author Name 42ideas. The process of data collection and interpretation through different methods in researchmethodology is...
Author Name 43collected using quantitative approach of statistical analysis is completed using average ormeasures of centr...
Author Name 44logical principles and by ultimately arriving at specific conclusion in the disciplined or subjectarea.The r...
Author Name 453.1.2 Interpretivisit ParadigmThis interpretivisit paradigm conducts researches based on subjective manner r...
Author Name 46social sciences and other subject areas where arithmetical and statistical data are not accessible;in such c...
Author Name 47cost for designing of questionnaire, travelling and transportation and telecommunicationexpenses for the col...
Author Name 483.4 Proposed Research StrategyThe research strategy shows an important aspect of conducting research which r...
Author Name 49Chapter 4: Findings and analysisAs implied by the name this chapter is linked with the scenario of findings ...
Author Name 50• The head office presents them with infrastructure that enables Tesco to run the businessefficiently with c...
Author Name 51Another crack that has been exposed in a successful business model is, BMW, a knowntechnology-driven finest ...
Author Name 52were previously implemented by not only emphasizing on lean management not only forstreamline processes but ...
Author Name 53management and customers and provides better customer services which in result enhance thequality of the pro...
Author Name 54personnel, 60% employees work part-time and 40% works as full-time. Of total 60% employeesin Sainsbury workf...
Author Name 55This paper discusses about performance management and its evaluation which includessupervision of top manage...
Author Name 56Performance Management SystemsJust like most organization, Sainsbury has its formal performance management s...
Author Name 57management relates to the pay or promotion it can be understood as a useful tool fordevelopment of staff. In...
Author Name 58to evaluate the performance of prior period and for this the team member is need to be equipped.A planned me...
Author Name 59that is needed in a team member will be identified by others if the person itself fails tounderstand, as it ...
Author Name 60ASDAAsda is a British chain of supermarkets which deals with food, clothing, toys and generalmerchandise. It...
Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk
Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk
Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk
Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk
Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk
Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk
Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk
Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk
Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk
Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk
Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk
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Business management dissertation sample for mba students by dissertation-services.co.uk

  1. 1. Author Name 1Dissertation SampleByhttp://www.dissertation-services.co.uk
  2. 2. Author Name 2The Role of Business Management Techniques in Increasing the Productivityand Efficiency of an OrganisationName of the writer:Name of the instructor:Date:Keywords:
  3. 3. Author Name 3AbstractThis dissertation addresses the management techniques and styles and which techniquewill be helpful in what circumstances. The constant increase in productivity of an organisationdepends upon the right choice of the management techniques. The main aim of the businesses isto function in the most effective and efficient manner. Most of the times, company’s owner takesthe responsibility on his shoulder to make this happen. A part from owners, managers alsodelegates this responsibility. In any case, there are a list of different managing strategies that canbe adopted in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. Selecting andimplementing the best strategy for the organisation can be difficult decision. The criticalanalysis of the CEO and managers of the organisation can definitely help them to choosethe best strategy that can be helpful in increasing the productivity and efficiency of theorganisation and to keep their customers happy and satisfied. Employees, partners, andcustomers should all be evaluated when the management finalise the techniques that proves to bethe best for the business, because some management techniques motivate some employees butothers might need a different form of motivation. For instance, incentives and training programmight be helpful in order to motivate, educate and retain employees but for partnership,managers need to think of different or innovative management techniques which can bring achange or modification in the partnership functions in order to generate stronger partnership.
  4. 4. Author Name 4Table of ContentsAbstract........................................................................................................................................... 3Chapter 1: Introduction................................................................................................................... 71.1 Title of the research............................................................................................................... 71.2 Aim of the research ............................................................................................................... 71.3 Research Objectives.............................................................................................................. 71.4 Research Scope ..................................................................................................................... 81.5 Disclaimer ............................................................................................................................. 91.6 Proposed Research Methodology.......................................................................................... 91.7 Background of the Research ............................................................................................... 101.8 Structure of the Report........................................................................................................ 11Chapter 2: Literature Review........................................................................................................ 132.1 Management Functions ....................................................................................................... 13Planning................................................................................................................................. 13Organizing ............................................................................................................................. 15Leading.................................................................................................................................. 16Controlling............................................................................................................................. 172.2 Management Styles ............................................................................................................. 19Participative Management..................................................................................................... 192.3 Business Management Techniques ..................................................................................... 29
  5. 5. Author Name 52.4 Productivity......................................................................................................................... 31Employee Productivity .......................................................................................................... 33Improving Productivity ............................................................................................................. 36Chapter 3: Research Methodology................................................................................................ 413.0 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 413.1 Research Methodology........................................................................................................ 413.1.1 Positivist Paradigms ..................................................................................................... 423.1.2 Interpretivisit Paradigm................................................................................................ 453.2 Primary Data ....................................................................................................................... 463.2.1 Primary Data Collection Methods................................................................................ 473.3 Secondary Data ................................................................................................................... 473.4 Proposed Research Strategy................................................................................................ 48Chapter 4: Findings and analysis.................................................................................................. 49Tesco ......................................................................................................................................... 49Performance Management Systems....................................................................................... 56Preparation for a Performance Management System........................................................... 57During An Evaluation Meeting.............................................................................................. 58ASDA........................................................................................................................................ 60New anti-discrimination legislation....................................................................................... 61Skills Shortages in Business and Finance.............................................................................. 61
  6. 6. Author Name 6Undervalued Talent ............................................................................................................... 62The Myths of Age.................................................................................................................. 62Part of Employee Retention................................................................................................... 63Customer Awareness............................................................................................................. 64Chapter 5: Conclusion................................................................................................................... 65  
  7. 7. Author Name 7Chapter 1: Introduction1.1 Title of the researchThe title of this dissertation is “The Role of Business Management Techniques in Increasingthe Productivity and Efficiency of an Organisation”.1.2 Aim of the researchThere are number of business management techniques which can be helpful in order toincrease the productivity and efficiency of any organisation but to choose the best technique isone of the difficult decisions to execute. Therefore the aim of this research is to study differentmanagement techniques, their impact on the organisation and the right choice of those techniqueswhen it comes to different levels of management, employees and the organisation partners, andhow to keep the employees and the organisation satisfied.1.3 Research ObjectivesThe primary aim of this research is to investigate, analyse ad review the role of businessmanagement techniques in increasing the productivity and efficiency of an organisation. Thisaim will be achieved by reviewing various business management techniques and their impact onthe productivity, effectiveness and efficiency of an organisation. The primary aim will beaccomplished by achieving several research objectives which are outlined below.1. To analyse theoretical models of various management techniques and the implementationof these techniques in business.
  8. 8. Author Name 82. To review the overall impact of business management techniques on the short term andlong term performance of an organisation.3. To review models of productivity, effectiveness and efficiency in the context oforganisations.4. To investigate how productivity of organisations can be measured and what steps can betaken to increase productivity.5. To determine how management techniques are implemented by several retailingorganisations in the United Kingdom.6. To determine whether theoretical models of business management techniques areimplemented effectively in organisations.1.4 Research ScopeThis research has a scope limited to the research methods explained in the third chapterof this research report and the research is performed to analyse the role of business managementtechniques in the productivity and efficiency of an organisation. Although the title of thisresearch implies that the research is based on a broad concept but the scope has been narroweddown to analyse the role of business management techniques in the United Kingdom. The scopeof this research has been further narrowed down to focus specifically on the retailing sector inthe United Kingdom. The research focuses on three organisations belonging to the retailingsector of the United Kingdom which are Sainsbury, Asda and Tesco. The business managementtechniques implemented in these organisations are reviewed and a comparative analysis iscarried out to evaluate the role and impact of these techniques on the productivity and efficiencyin the organisations. The research also analyses how these companies implement and review
  9. 9. Author Name 9business management techniques to increase the levels of productivity and efficiency from timeto time.1.5 DisclaimerThe research has been conducted after acquiring proper permission and approval from thesupervisor and all data and information contained in this research report is presented afterthoroughly reviewing and considering all issues relevant to copyright and plagiarism. Theresearcher has written this report with an objective of not to be exhaustive and only the mostrelevant and reliable information has been included in the report. The respondents and researchparticipants were only approached after receiving approval from the research supervisor and theresearcher has taken extreme care to protect and safeguard the identities and personalinformation of all research participants. Any information and data acquired from researchparticipants is presented in this report after receiving permission from the participants. Albeit theresearcher has taken extreme care in performing the research and preparing the research reportbut this report should not be used for making important decisions. This report is distributed withthe sole purpose of research and the report should not be resold, lent out, rented out anddistributed for commercial gains without taking prior permission from the supervisor andresearcher.1.6 Proposed Research MethodologySelecting the best research methodology for a research is one of the most important decisionthe researcher have to make, since the entire result of the report depends upon it. There aredifferent methods of research that can be applied in a proper research to arrive at possible results.When it comes to research methods it can be said that there are two major approaches of researchwhich are known as qualitative research and quantitative research. Since, theoretical models will
  10. 10. Author Name 10be widely used in this research that is the reason why qualitative research approach will beutilised in this research. Data would be collected from different websites, books, journals,articles etc. Case study method would be utilised in this approach and through this approach thecase studies of different organisations that are working in the retail sector would be utilised likeASDA, Tesco and Sainsbury.1.7 Background of the ResearchPeter F. Drucker long ago made the vital distinction between ‘efficient’ and ‘effective’, in hisbook, Management, as he implied that when an activity is performed in a swift and economicalmanner it is efficiency and if the right thing is being done correctly it is effectiveness. On theother hand, he also suggested that whenever a wrong thing is being done it is totally ineffectivewith respect to definition (Drucker). Rare sense plays a very important role as it can guide theemployees and organisations towards the correct and specific objective whereby achievementwill be quite effective. But if the wrong thing is being done then the efficiency of theorganisation will be driven into the ground. Rare sense can enable an organisation to achievesuccess as it is the rarity which will lead to success.However, if we talk about productivity, it implies yielding the desired results, creatingstrong strategies, creativity in ideas, achieving business goals and targets and coming up with thebest and appropriate business solutions.When a team lacks in efficiency and productivity, more chances are that the problem is notwith their qualifications, experience or knowledge. The problem usually occurs because of theincorrect implementation of management technique and lack of motivation (Fuchsberg).
  11. 11. Author Name 11Now the question is how to increase the efficiency along with the productivity? And toanswer this question, different management techniques came into the picture that can increasethe efficiency and productivity.Another question arises now, what method do we need to adopt? Is there a single strategythat can be used in order to facilitate everyone or different type of strategy must be implementedwith respect to organisational hierarchy?By the help of this research we will identify which management technique best fit in theorganisation and how they can be implemented and how they are going to help increase theorganisations productivity and efficiency.1.8 Structure of the ReportThe entire report is divided into 5 main chapters. A brief description of these chapters is givenbelow:Chapter 1: IntroductionThis chapter gives a quick overview about aim and purpose of the research, why there’s a needof this research and what would be our analysis or outcomes of conducting this research. Theback ground of the research is also included in first chapter i.e. what is efficiency, productivityetc.Chapter 2: Literature ReviewThis chapter will give detail information about the research topic. Various materials fromdifferent modes like internet, different e-books and articles will be included in this chapter.Different researchers and their study would also be included in this chapter and in the light oftheir study; critical analysis would also be done.Chapter 3: Research methodologies
  12. 12. Author Name 12This chapter would focus on different approaches of research methodologies. Primary, secondarydata types and different models are analysed in this research. A final research strategy is alsoselected in this chapter through which the entire research will be carried on.Chapter 4: Findings and analysisThis chapter will portray the actual results and findings of the research. Analysis and findingsthat are collected through different books, websites, and journal articles etc. will be included inthis chapter.Chapter 5: ConclusionThe conclusion or the final outcome of the research is the last chapter of the research report. Theentire research, its study and findings would be concluded in this chapter. Certainrecommendation would also be included in the last chapter of the dissertation which is theconclusion chapter.
  13. 13. Author Name 13Chapter 2: Literature ReviewThis chapter would focus on different theoretical terminologies and aspects that are directlyrelated with the management of organisations.2.1 Management FunctionsThe management function solely clarifies the job of the managers. The commonlymentioned management functions are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, thoughsome of them are classified as additional functions. The management functions define themanagement procedure as distinct from various business functions like accounting, finance,marketing, etc. Through these functions it is facilitated to obtain a practical means ofcategorizing information about management. Also a functional framework has been developedconsisting of the most significant management transcripts present since the year 1950 (Stephen J.Carroll).Planning The first component of management is planning which comprises of setting goals and definingan action plan for attaining these goals. Planning entails that planners or managers should beaware of the environmental settings faced by their company and predicts impending situations. Itis also vital that planners or managers should be able to make good decisions.Planning process consists of various stages. The process initiates with environmental skimming,which merely means that the planners or managers should be conscious of the serious
  14. 14. Author Name 14possibilities faced by their companies in regards to current economic situations prevailing, theircompetitions, and their customer base (Dobson, Starkey and Richards). Planners or managersmust then try to predict future circumstances. The planning function is based on thesepredictions.The objectives of the organization should be decided by the planner or managers and a planshould be chalked out on how to achieve them. The vision and mission of the organizationprovides mostly the much needed information. The function of planning comprises of two coreparts that are the formulation of core activities to achieve the objectives and then ensuring thatthe plan is being implemented (Hitt and Ireland). For example, for a new restaurant business, theplanner or manager need to work upon various types of plans like the marketing plan, hiring planand sales plan.There are various kinds of plans and planning.(a) Strategic PlanningStrategic planning comprises of scrutinizing competitive prospects and pressures, as well asthe organizational strength and weaknesses, and then deciding on how to run the organisation soit can effectively and efficiently competent in market. Strategic planning is a lengthy procedure,mostly three years and above. Planning strategically usually comprises the whole company anddevising of goals (David). The function of strategic planning is mostly built on the mission of thecompany, which is its core purpose of being. The function of strategic planning is mostly carriedout by the top management of the company.(b) Tactical Planning 
  15. 15. Author Name 15Tactical planning is intermediary planning that is intended to create comparatively solid andprecise methods to apply the strategic plan. Tactical planning is commonly done by mid-levelmanagers. The tenure of tactical planning is usually one to three years. (c) Operational PlanningOperational planning generally undertakes the responsibility of objectives and statesmethods to achieve them. Operational planning is short-range planning that is planned tocreate particular action plan that backs up the strategic and tactical plans (David).Operational planning generally has a short tenure that is from one week to one year.Organizing Organizing is a management function that comprises of creating a structure in the companyand then assigning human resources to confirm the achievement of goals. The company isorganized within the proposed structure inside which the work is synchronized accordingly. Thestructure is typically portrayed with help of an organizational chart of the organizationalhierarchy describing the authoritative positions in the organization explicitly (David). Decisionswhich are taken regarding the organizational structure are usually denoted as "organisationaldesign" decisions.Managers are answerable for administration of the organization that comprises of managingpersonnel and resources. If the human personnel are not allocated sufficient resources to
  16. 16. Author Name 16complete their assigned work it means that the company is not organized efficiently. The lack oforganization in a job place will create a perception in the employees that the manager isincompetent and lacking proper organizational capabilities. This will result in loss in thatparticular manager’s respect regarding his managerial capabilities in the eyes of his subordinates.Nowadays various companies have tried to achieve equilibrium between the requirement forspecialization of employee and the desire for employees to possess jobs that involve diversityand sovereignty. Principles like job improvement and employees coordination are kept in mindwhen designing a job description (Dess and Lumpkin).Leading Leading comprises of persuading people to achieve the goals of the organization. Leadingwill only be effective and efficient when manager is able to motivate and encourage his team ofemployees, connect with them by regularly giving feedback on their work, and using theauthority upheld fairly and wisely. Managers who effectively lead compel the team ofsubordinates to work enthusiastically and put in the right amount of work to achieve the goals ofthe organization (David). When manager acts as a leader an ideal situation arises. Leading can bedone effectively by managers when they identify the factors behind employee motivation andinspire them to achieve the organizational goals.To become an effective leader a manager should for a start understand the personality traits,morals, behaviours and passions of the employees’ personnel. Thus, management functions aremore understandable through the countless theories contributed by the subject matter of
  17. 17. Author Name 17behavioural sciences. Research studies should be conducted regarding personality traits and joboutlooks by managers to obtain significant information on how to lead employees efficiently.Motivational theories and research studies offer significant information regarding methods toencourage employees to perform productively. Communication research studies offer guidanceas to how managers can communicate effectively and convincingly (Hunger and Wheelen).Leadership research studies responds to queries like on how a manger can become an effectiveleader and what leadership styles works best in different situations.Controlling Controlling mostly comprises of assuring that employee work performance do not deviatefrom set criterions. The function of controlling includes of three stages, which are creatingperformance criterions, matching actual performance against set criterions, and taking correctivemeasures when required. Performance criterions are usually recognized in financial terminologylike revenue, costs, or profits, but can be also specified in other words, like units produced,number of faulty goods, or customer service level (Humby, Terry and Phillips).Performance can be measured by various methods based on the principles of performancethat comprises of financial statements, sales reports, production results, customer satisfaction,and formal performance appraisals. The controlling function is somewhat practiced by managersat all levels in the organizational hierarchy.The administrative goal of controlling must not be mixed with control in the behavioural orscheming manner. This function does not include that managers must try to control or influencethe employees’ personalities, values, attitudes, or emotions. Rather, the management function
  18. 18. Author Name 18focuses on the role of manager in inculcating important steps to ensure that the employees’ jobactivities are constant and working to attain the goals of the organisation and departments. Effective controlling needs the presence of action plans, as planning offers the importantfulfilment to achieve criterions or goals (Hunger and Wheelen). Controlling also needs a clearunderstanding of how accountability for unconventionalities from criterions is dealt with. Thebudget and the performance audit are the two traditional controlling methods. Thoughcontrolling is frequently thought of in regards to financial measures, managers shouldaccomplish production/operations procedures, delivery process of services, compliance withorganizational rules, and various extra happenings inside the company.The functions of management like planning, organizing, leading, and controlling areextensively evaluated to be the top methods of defining the job of the manager and also the finestmethod to classify gathered information regarding management studies. Though there have beensignificant alterations in the environmental society confronted by managers and the proceduresimplemented by managers to accomplish their duties, managers continue to implement thesebasic functions.A manager is responsible to undertake various tasks. The tasks being planning, organizing,leading and controlling as four core tasks which should be implemented in management level.Management is a balance amongst various constituents and an effective manager should becapable enough to sustain the balance and retain employees’ motivation.The information given above highlighted the rudimentary business management methods inincreasing the efficiency and competence of an organisation.
  19. 19. Author Name 192.2 Management StylesA managers style is dependent upon various factors like the situation, the circumstances, therequirements, desires and the characters of the employees in the organization, the culture and theorganizational environment. Modification in organisational framework and culture has broughtaround a revolution in the management styles also that vary with time accordingly (Keller).For example, previously, authoritarian management style was implemented in organisationswhich focused on control being the main function. Now the style has been replaced by the onefocusing on employee fellowship and employee sovereignty. Managerial styles that emphasizedon managers being technical specialists who directed, commanded, coordinated and controlledthe employees’ work have now been resolved with those which focus on managers beinginstructors, supporters, guidance counsellor, organizers, and team leaders. (S. Robbins, 9)The best effective management style is the one that comprises team structuring, relationshipnetworking, training and development of employees and motivating people. There is a morefocus on participative style of management and people management expertise. Theories ofmanagement have discovered proof that supports the merits of styles of management likeparticipative management, Theory Y versus Theory X; Theory Z, Total Quality Management(TQM), Management by Walking Around, Management by Objectives, and employeeempowerment. The styles of management mentioned are described below: Participative Management Participative management comprises information distribution amongst employees andinvolving them in making decisions. Employees are encouraged and facilitated to manage theirdepartment and to suggest new ideas and viewpoints and to take decisions to make rules and
  20. 20. Author Name 20processes. This style of management is generally sponsored as the fast cure of low self-esteemand poor organizational productivity. Though, this approach is not appropriate and applicable inevery company and at every hierarchical level.Employees possessing robust talents and capabilities should partake in the organizationalevents. Employees should have the technical experience, communication abilities, and intellectto take decisions and converse those decisions efficiently and proficiently to the third party(Keller). The organizational culture should be helpful and should acknowledge employeeparticipation though the employees should be cautious to participate in only the relevant subjects.Representative participation acknowledges employees who are represented by a small teamby contribute towards the organizational goals. Reallocating power inside the business is anobjective of representative participation. The interests of the workers hold similarly that much ofimportance like the interests of management and stockholders.In the book Essentials of Organizational Behaviour, written by Stephen P. Robbins it is debatedthat the two greatest prevalent kinds of representative participation are works councils and boardrepresentatives.a. Works councilsA group of workers who have been chosen by their colleagues and who possess thepower to be included in or checked by management when taking decisions related toemployees.b. Board representativesThese employees are who are part of the board of directors and represent welfare ofworkforce.
  21. 21. Author Name 21In participative management, representative participation is thought as bad option for improvingperformance and morale. As indicated by various proofs, the whole effect of representativeparticipation is not so vast. The employees involved in representing workforce acquire greateradvantage than to those are represented (Schilling).1. Theory Y versus Theory XIn the book, The Human Side of Enterprise written by Douglas McGregor it describes TheoryX. The Theory X states that people are lazy; they are not concerned with work, and manager’sduty is to coerce or compel the employees to put in effort. The Theory X presented by McGregorexpresses three main norms that are:(1) Many people do not prefer to work and create all the imaginable reasons to avoid doingit(2) Most of the people need to be forced, compelled, controlled, guided, terrorized orpenalized to complete their jobs in order to accomplish goals and objectives of theorganization(3) Generally, people like to be guided, to receive directions from top management or theircolleagues; they are not eager to be held accountable for the work done by them, possesslow motivation and low morale than others and concentrate greater on job protection insteadof career goals.According to this theory, displaying creativity and enthusiasm is the duty of the employeeand if he fails to perform he is accountable for the failure (Drucker, The Practice ofManagement). Extrinsic rewards such as money, promotions, and tenure are some of the factorsthrough which employees are motivated.
  22. 22. Author Name 22As per the Theory Y employee behaviour is different when they are dealt by theirsuperiors differently. Theory Y considers employees are controlled by high-order needs. TheTheory Y assumes:(1) Most of the human being does prefer to work and it is as normal as playing;(2) To attain goals, many people will use self-direction and self-discipline;(3) To accomplish structural aims, benefits of satisfaction and self-actualization are acquiredthrough work the worker puts in;(4) The normal human being not only takes but also pursues obligation;(5) Most of the workers are imaginative and creative in resolving administrative difficulties;(6) The rational capabilities of the normal human being is only partly appreciated. If aworker does not perform effectively and is not contributing productively it is considered thatthe manager has failed. Managers are also accountable if workers are not inspiredadequately (Hunger and Wheelen).2. Theory ZWilliam Ouchi was the one who founded the Theory Z after studying management practicesin the United States and Japan. Theory Z is the mixture of both the portion of U.S. and Japanesestyles of management and is occasionally referred to as Japanese Management (Aaker).As per this theory, the finest styles of management are the one which encompasses workersat all organizational levels. Certain specific features in Theory Z comprises of long-standingoccupation, fewer career specializations, easy-going regulator, team decision taking, andapprehension for the employee enhancement over the occupational matters. This theory fulfilsneeds requirement at both the levels of lower and higher needs.
  23. 23. Author Name 23Lower level needs are fulfilled by paying special attention to welfare of employees. Middlelevel needs are fulfilled by assimilating group procedures in making decision and inspiringemployees to accept responsibility and charge for the work and to actively participate in makingdecision fulfils higher-level needs. There’s an enhancement in the most of the firm’sproductivity, as they are now providing more focus on collective decision-making and teamwork.Organizations are also involved in the personal problems of the employees, such as childcare,easy work timetables, and tele-working to enhance organizational productivity (Aaker).3. Total Quality Management (TQM)Total Quality Management (TQM) is a style of management that includes all roles of anorganization to acquire a highly superior product. The main features are customer gratification,employees’ responsibility for high quality, and employee collaboration. As a unified technique,this theory involves every dimension of the company (Aaker and Mcloughlin, Strategic MarketManagement: Global Perspectives). The whole human personnel, from the employees like theline worker to the CEO, should be involved in a common obligation to develop the businessquality.TQM encourages employees to improve, nurture and acquire and to donate in expansions, soit exhibits a participative style of management. TQM also inspires a varying or an on-goingprocedure, and highlights the notions of continues enhancement or better quality (Deming, 49)
  24. 24. Author Name 24The pioneers of the quality movement were the Americans W. Edward Deming and JosephM. Juran. They contributed mostly after World War II in Japan, and are accredited with thegreatest improvement in the Japanese products quality by the 1970. Later in the era of 1980sboth pioneers were extremely prominent in the quality management movement of the UnitedStates.4. Management by Walking AroundManagement by Walking Around (MBWA) is a traditional method implemented byrighteous managers who are active listeners. Managers implementing this style gatherinformation so that a puzzling situation does not create a greater issue. When managers listenintently to employees propositions, demands and apprehensions will aid to evade likelypredicaments. MBWA encourages managers by giving real-time information regardingprocedures, techniques and rules that is frequently evaded in proper communication networks.Management acquires a perfect image by walking around of the state of self-esteem in thecompany and can help out if there is an issue.A likely apprehension of MBWA is that the manager will foretell employees choices. Themanager should endure their character as instructor, counsellor and analyst. By empoweringemployees with decision-making duties, managers can be confident of the fastest possibleresponses and feedback (Drucker).As per the views of Max Messmer, an error managers commit is to unintentionally createmore responsibilities for employees. By proposing recommendations that should be assumed astasks, managers can improve the work capacity and restrict growth.Messmer describes a case of employee team working on a venture that involves a dealer ofplastic moulding. When the manager comes, the team has studied three businesses and chosen
  25. 25. Author Name 25the best one. The manager also identifies a good business, and commends that team fellows givethis association a call. They will not feel happy in admitting that the choice has been made, andwill call the company to please the manager.5. Management by ObjectivesManagement by Objectives (MBO) is a widely spread process in the company whereemployees energetically participate in goals setting that are concrete, certifiable, andquantifiable. In 1954, in the book, The Practice of Management; Management theorist PeterDrucker founded this style.MBO conveys a methodical process of promising that all workers and teams establishobjectives that are in alignment with accomplishing the overall company’s objectives. Smeexamples of businesses that implement MBO at various levels in organizational hierarchy areXerox, Intel, and Du Pont. Overall administrative goals are converted into fixed goals foremployees (S. P. Robbins).Goals at each organizational level are fixed together by a "bottom up" technique and also a"top down" technique. So, if every person achieves the respective objectives, then eachorganization divisions will accomplish its objectives and the overall organizational goals too willbe achieved (Schilling).There are four stages included in the MBO process:a. Goal formulation,b. making decision by participation,c. plan execution, andd. Performance feedback and correction.
  26. 26. Author Name 26Senior managers collaborate with middle line managers and middle line managerscollaborate with lower level managers to establish objectives for the respective departments.Every manager then collaborates with personnel of their department and assigns separateachievable work objectives (Dobson, Starkey and Richards). The participative decision-makingstage allows managers and employees to jointly develop objectives, outline accountability forachieving the objectives, and establish the appraisal procedure.Managers are allowed to device their policies and regulate their own work. This stage ofMBO abuses each manager’s proficiency to profit the business and applauds and permitsmanagers to continuously improve their expertise.The last stage is to continuously offer criticism on job done and achievement of goals. Byoccasionally revising employees objectives can be enhanced or better objectives can bedeveloped. This stage matches the certified evaluation scheme because the incessant criticismthrough the year enables people to remain aware of their development.Like any other styles of management, the organizational ethics must be advantageous forMBO to be successful. Senior management should be devoted and included in the MBO schemefor it to be productive. This style of the management is not without its problems. Managersregularly set the objectives of their departments too closely at the cost of the organizationaltactical aims and objectives (Drucker, Management).One more issue originates when managers are not supple in establishing goal developmentand assessment measures and employees fail to respond to problems quickly. Unfeasibleanticipations regarding consequences are frequently an issue with MBO schemes also theunwillingness of management to apportion compensation according to the attainment ofindependent objectives.
  27. 27. Author Name 276. Employee EmpowermentEmployee empowerment is one of the styles of management that places the managers in thecharacter of coach, counsellor, consultant, trainer, promoter, or organizer. Decision-making isbeing dedicated down to the lowest hierarchical level of the company. The method by whichperformance is evaluated and the method through which companies are organized are revolving.Empowerment comprises entrusting the power of decision-making by perceiving the act to bereserved for a chore that is assessed to be important by both the manager and employee (Dobson,Starkey and Richards). The key reasons for applying an authorization scheme is to offerimmediate answers to business issues; to offer probabilities for employees to develop and nurtureand; to decrease administrative expenditures by permitting the manager to work on manyschemes.Employee authorization is typically productive when management has established perfectlyachievable objectives and stated certain responsibility criterions. The achievement of employeeauthorization is based on the capability of management to deliver means like time and money; tooffer help through authority; and to offer relevant and accurate information so employees cantake intellectual decisions efficiently and effortlessly (Aaker and Mcloughlin).Certain other parts that are imperious to the accomplishment of authorization schemes comprise:employees training so that they can develop and make comprehensive decisions that areapproved by senior management as well as lower management, and hold themselves responsiblefor those choicesEmployees are benefited from authorization as they have extra obligations in theiroccupations. Employee authorization increases the state of employee participation and thus
  28. 28. Author Name 28creates a greater feeling of contentment and greater states of inspiration. There are probableissues with authorization schemes that frequently end up in adversarial consequences.Sometimes inconsequential, insignificant and dull responsibilities are delegated by themanagers to the employees and work on the complex, significant and essential assignmentsthemselves. Authorization will not be productive unless the power and decision-making dutiesare observed extremely significant and important by the worker (Aaker and Mcloughlin).One more issue arises when managers not only allocate insignificant responsibilities to thehuman personnel but also they assume that the worker will always look for their direction andrefer them for consent. Managers should evaluate the capabilities and talents of the employeesand decide if the business culture can maintain an authorization scheme before introducing it.7. Self-Managed Work TeamEmployee authorization leads to the development of self-managed work teams. This style ofmanagement delegate the power to take decisions like how to use money, whom to select andrecruit, and what ventures to accept and to toil on. Self-managed work teams are generallyencompassed of 10 to 15 individuals and need minimal regulation. Xerox, General Motors,PepsiCo, Hewlett-Packard, and M&M/Mars are some of the companies that have implementedself-managed work teams. As per the views of Stephen P. Robbins, out of every five companiesthere is a must that one of them exercise self-managed work teams (S. P. Robbins).Managers should select a style of management that suits them, their divisions, theircolleagues, their team fellows, their juniors, and lastly the company they work in the greatest.The circumstances managers face might entail the use of diverse styles of management
  29. 29. Author Name 29dependent on a certain task, the management of employees, or the managers disposition.Management style can ultimately decide the work outcome of employees and an organization’sdevelopment rest upon the management styles of the workers. Thus, to decide the utmostappropriate style of management, it is vital to initially evaluate earlier outcomes created as aconsequence of a definite organization technique (Schilling).     Management levels need a certain amount of power and so managers might mostly discoverthemselves in leadership situations. Though, all leaders are not managers and all managers arenot leaders. Managers who possess leadership expertise impact and inspire employees to achievecompany objectives. It is thus important to remark that specific style of leadership develop asproductive styles of management too.   2.3 Business Management TechniquesEvery specific business styles of management have its portion of qualities, difficultiesand problems.A manager implements numerous diverse management practices to take responsibility ofrespective business divisions. The management procedure an individual implements can depicthis character or it might be an outcome of personal understandings from his time as an employee.Every business management style possesses its portion of qualities and issues.a. Autocratic TechniqueAn autocrat is a leader of limitless control and power. An autocratic management system isimplemented by a manager who prefers to take all of the verdicts and have total power over his
  30. 30. Author Name 30subordinates. They prefer to provide commands and have those adhered to promptly. Theirmethod is to regulate employees to attain full efficacy and output (David). They are notconcerned in heeding to worker’s opinions. An autocratic management system can affect most ofthe workers negatively, but it could be productive in a huge organization with amateurishemployees, or when a company is facing an emergency situation and choices are required to bemade promptly.b. Paternalistic TechniqueA paternalistic management practice is mostly focused on the societal part of the organization.They are worried regarding their employees feeling about the tasks assigned and added problemsand will constantly deliberate their opinions when taking decisions (Kincki and Kreitner). Theyare ready to make ultimate decisions, but would like to refer with their subordinates frequentlyand do what is fine with all. A paternalistic management practice can decrease generally thedecision making process, and might not be the suitable for a running situation. c. Democratic TechniqueA manager who implements a democratic management method attempts to implant faith in theworkers. They allow them to take decisions and authorize them by giving power. Theydemonstrate decent conversing abilities and are accepting of new propositions and notions fromthe workers. A democratic style of management can end in unhurried decision making processand more errors because the employees entrusted with the duty of making decisions are not at alltimes capable enough to do it correctly (Kincki and Kreitner).a. Hybrid Technique
  31. 31. Author Name 31A senior manager will identify that each worker is diverse and that a single particularmanagement practice will not be effective for every person. He will create a mixture of the threemanagement procedures that takes into account every employees distinct learning method andcharacter. This kind of management practice can be stimulating when collaborating with hugeemployee teams, but with tolerance and serenity, would eventually acquire the maximum out ofeveryone (Kincki and Kreitner).2.4 ProductivityAn easier technique of viewing productivity in a company is to ponder it in relation to theproductivity model depicted below.Fundamentally, productivity is a measure to assess how efficiently an institute (or individual,business, nation) transforms various resources like human resource, supplies, machinery intofinal products of goods and services (Jackson).This is generally stated in fractions of input resources to output resources. That is (input) priceper (output) finished goods / service. It is not said to be an evaluation of how productive thetransformation procedure is.The Productivity Conceptual Model depicted underneath adopts the image of a productivitytree. The roots signify the inputs to the scheme, the trunk the transformation procedure and the
  32. 32. Author Name 32vegetation and fruits the schemes outputs.Productivity is merely the quantity of output you acquire per unit of input. It is a cost benefitanalysis of a process (Jackson). So for example the process with an input of 5 and output of 5,its productivity is less when compared to a process with input of 5 and an output of 10. Statingproductivity with the help of an analogy it is just like the miles per gallon of fuel in your vehicle.It conveys how far a vehicle can be driven on a certain quantity of fuel. Here, the superior
  33. 33. Author Name 33management’s perspective regarding productivity is going to be highlighted initially then from amore personal outlook it is going to be evaluated (Jackson).Employee ProductivityMathematically, the formula for productivity is output divided by work put (input). So Odenotes output, I denote input then P denotes productivity. Hence the equation of productivity ismentioned as follows:P = O/I = Output / InputIf an employee creates widgets, the boss will possibly evaluate the result (output) in relation tohow many widgets were produced and input in relation to how much it costs. So, if theemployee can produce 100 widgets hourly and it costs $15 hourly to produce it, the productivityis calculated to be 100/15 or 6.6 (Brooks). For example, now if a colleague who produces 75widgets hourly but it charges the boss $10 hourly. Who the boss thinks is more productive?The productivity is calculated as 75/10 = 7.5. So the colleague is really more productive inregards to the quantity of output the boss receives for a certain level of input.This is amazingly significant to comprehend. If the boss needs to lay off an employee he will firethe worker with low productivity even if the colleague is producing 33% less widgets per hour.The boss is considering only the less cost factor and high productivity (Brooks).When you work for someone, it is easier to emphasize on the output and not on the expenditure.You simply can over state your input by not considering the real productivity you produce. To
  34. 34. Author Name 34help avoid impact of economic recession it is important to comprehend the viewpoint of thesuperior management regarding productivity.Measurement of ProductivitySimply stated, measurement of productivity is the assessment of the output and input of aproductive scheme. The purpose is to develop a schedule measuring quantifiably. The goal ofproductivity assessment is output enhancement, which comprises of a mixture of amplifiedefficiency and an improved usage of accessible assets (Brooks). Defining productivity in ashorter manner is simply the relationship between output and input, though what productivityactually is has been a bone of contention amongst many professionals’ opinions. It can be thus bestated that the productivity measurement seems simple only theoretically. Practically, though, both assessment of outputs and inputs includes an accumulation issue, andthis issue has placed measurement of productivity in the dimension of intricacy. Such as, thequery of how to combine diverse goods that do not always have superiority includes the cloak tobe detached from output measurement. In a similar manner, the issue of how to combine the various kinds of inputs into a definitecompound component rests a serious one in input measurement. To resolve output and inputaccumulation issues, chiefly when diverse inputs and outputs are joined, some writersrecommend that inputs must be aggregated up in ‘fixed price’ monetary standards (David). Similarly it should be implemented also for output measurement. The ambiguity in this methodis that the resulting efficiency schedule would be economic output and not physical output,which would more mean more to people implementing efficiency procedures.
  35. 35. Author Name 35Focusing over on the input assessment issue is the query of how investment contribution isevaluated. Therefore, inclination is frequently stated for a particular feature about the assessmentof efficiency, and it is not unusual to understand that focus is on manual labour contribution.Three motives are occasionally placed in front to validate the usage of labour contribution foraim of measuring fractional efficiency, which are:(i) Labour is considered as the greatest significant aspect of productivity;(ii) Labour is the easiest aspect of productivity that can be quantified;(iii) Labour is the sole aspect of productivity that has power about the influence on output.A quantity or schedule of collective production divided by the witnessed amount of a lonecontribution hence became the first method of efficiency evaluation (Armstrong). This index-number tactic centred over the usage of solitary or fractional feature of output procedures has asingle exclusive benefit: calculation easiness and practicality given that the essential cumulativelabour contribution statistics are accessible. The utmost inadequacy of limited aspect ofefficiency processes, chiefly labour efficiency processes is its incapability to classify thefundamental reasons responsible for perceived output evolution. For example, replacement ofwealth for labour, the use of (labour) competent features of capital, the comprehension ofeconomies of scale and the service of efficiently skilled workers would be showcased in aschedule of productivity per man per hour.Evolving works on efficiency assessment shows that primary efficiency procedures rotated roundthe worth of combined productivity per man-hour of work contribution in spite of the issuesrelated with gauging labour contribution. Currently, efficiency investigation has concentratedgreater on total factor productivity (TFP) evaluations, where widespread collections ofproductivities and contributions are of importance (Dodd and Sundheim). It is useful to
  36. 36. Author Name 36understand that productivity concept forms the foundation for examining the features thatelucidate productivity level variations. It is acknowledged from existing texts that, the degree ofproductivity is influenced by three aspects:(i) The level of technological equipment or the sort of manufacturing procedure implemented;(ii) The amounts and kinds of asset resources used in the output manufacturing procedure;(iii) and the proficiency with which those asset resources are used.Improving ProductivityAdvancement in productivity can be noticed by implementing the productivity model:• Attaining additional productivity from the same input resources• Attaining equal productivity from a lesser amount of input resources• Attaining greater productivity for a little extra input resources• Receiving little productivity from very few amount of input resourcesThere are six methods to expand the efficiency ratio of a company, which are:• Develop rudimentary procedure by initiating research and development (long term)• Develop and use a new production building, production tools and machinery (long term)• Shorten product line and decrease variations (middle term)• Develop current approaches and processes (short term)• Develop the organization of work tasks and the usage of employees (short term)• Enhance the whole efficiency of workers (short term)
  37. 37. Author Name 37If workers are correctly inspired, trained, given the correct data at the correct period, usage ofeasy efficiency enhancement processes and methods and are remunerated in a suitable manner(Brooks).It is of common knowledge that human personnel are the central asset of any organization. Thebest top businesses are those with the finest manpower and the best workforces are those whoperform to their maximum capacities. As per the facts and figures, many corporations exploithardly twenty percent of the employees talent. Performance administration is dire in allowingmanagers to not just stimulate employees and enhance productivity, but also to resolve meagerperformance problems.How Performance Management Increases ProductivityManagers who need to enhance level of motivation in the workforce should implement operativeperformance management practices. They should to take into account that every human being ismotivated differently through the use of diverse tools and measures. While financial rewardsmight affect some individuals to perform better, other personnel might desire acknowledgementor appreciation for work done. Literature of various researches indicates that officialacknowledgement is the sole major stimulus for many individuals. Employees like to beappreciated in front of an audience who may be their peers, family, or friends. This humbleacknowledgement transforms straight to improved efficiency (Leimberg).Catering to the issue of employees poor job performance and methods to enhance theperformance is a part of performance management. If an employee has been late occasional orhis performance indicates a downward decrease, there are productive performance management
  38. 38. Author Name 38procedures by which the superior can assist the employee to resolve main cause of the issue andto work towards personal development. Authorization of employees is an additional performancemanagement practice that can improve efficiency levels. Many workers like being responsiblefor jobs and appreciates the fact that they are trusted by the senior management to be entrustedwith a work task and to perform efficiently to complete the task (Crouch).How Performance Management can decrease turnoverWhen the topic of performance management is floated, many organizations adhere to the factthat they can more regarding it. Regrettably, most organizations are of the view thatcompensating employees is sufficient to hold gifted human resources. This is barely thesituation. Productive performance management at all hierarchical levels in an organizationinvolve workers in evaluating how performances could be enhanced. For instance, appointing aspecialist to carry out an unspecified investigation and centred on the investigation statistics,making workers focus groups to review alarming issues (Crouch). This enhances the value of thestatistical data and also inspires workers to participate in the procedure.Additionally, employees can be requested for contributing their opinions related to theprocedure. Such involvement of workers is a vital aspect of performance management andpersonnel retention. The use of monetary benefits must comprise of all personnel who havefinished definite assessment duration. This assists to highlight that personnel retention is vital tothe company. One more productive performance management practice is to take intoconsideration the faithfulness to the organization or amount of duty as a measure of themotivational strategy.
  39. 39. Author Name 39By using a productive performance management scheme, an organization can help stimulateemployee efficiency and diminish employee turnover (Crouch).How to increase productivity of an employeeIt is imaginable for an organization to have extra workers than its competition yet theorganization have less production output leaving the management disappointed, because thewages of employees are too greater than its competition and still the employees areunproductive. Productivity analyses and situational analysis show that augmented employeeinspiration and contentment can enhance employee productivity. Creative managers nowadaysattain output improvements with human resource management procedures other than payincentives.Employee productivity can be enhanced by inspiring with providing good work environment andby altering remunerations to meet the requirements of workers (Crouch). Expenditures areprogressive human resource management costs which are not greater than personnel turnoverthat is recruiting and training and development of new workers, unjustified pay increments, andpoor yield. Benefit derived are improved efficiency; faithful, competent employees; superiorwork, and improved chancing of operating the business.The crux of employee incentive and efficiency is the way in which they are accomplished. Adirect relationship exists between productive management; that is, offering a workingenvironment which facilitates to accomplish organizational and employee objectives; andcontemporary human resource management are directly related (Crouch).
  40. 40. Author Name 40The management achievement is assessed by its ability and understanding in identifying andevaluating problems that relates to the workers and by the management’s capability to solvethese apprehensions by collaborating with the workers.
  41. 41. Author Name 41Chapter 3: Research Methodology3.0 IntroductionA detailed analysis of methods to be implemented for study and assessment of data for researchare examined and analysed in this chapter. The concept behind research methodology, its variousmodels and tools used in research and its further explanatory details are about these paradigms,the association of positivist and interpretivisit with the qualitative and quantitative approach toresearch are highlighted in this chapter. The main emphasis on this chapter is given to variousresearch methodology and its implications of its application in the research process, a likewiseimportance is given to research strategy applied by the researcher.3.1 Research MethodologyThe research methodology is understood as the process through which a person acquireknowledge by the assessment of past data of previous researches, books, articles and othersources in order to carry out personal research on specific topic. The main theme behind theresearch in a specified area is to enhance the knowledge of individual on facts of present orprove subject area or disciplined. The basis of research methodology is based on theinterpretation of researches that were initially performed and the detailed clarification of thestudy, (Bryman and Bell, 2007).a fresh and innovative viewpoint are derived through theassessment and analysis of specified subject area.An effective research is not carried out through the process of collection and interpretation ofdata. It requires a support that is attain through conclusive study of other researchers. Aneffectual data collection, analysis and results to be presented are required to carry on an effectiveresearch. Research is referred to the process which strives for the unidentified and explored new
  42. 42. Author Name 42ideas. The process of data collection and interpretation through different methods in researchmethodology is needed to reach the conclusive position of the study.3.1.1 Positivist ParadigmsThe basis of positivist paradigm is raised on the quantitative data and is objective in nature. Thisparadigm supports the research relating to experimental, clinical and scientific practices. A clearpicture of reality that is easily identified and measured is obtained through the implication ofpositivist paradigm. A very common use of positivist paradigm is for the scientific researchquantitative research, (Adams, H., Raeside, & White, 2007).the element of quantitativetechniques in positivist paradigm shows an objective viewpoint of the research rather thansubjective view. The use of quantitative model of positivist paradigm is applied in medicalscience for the analysis and evaluation of the relation in various variables that relates to humanhealth, infections and diseases.3.1.1.1 Quantitative ApproachThe combination of measurements and numerical data interprets and presents data byimplementing the quantitative approach. The basis of the approach is on numerical and statisticaldata. Different statistical methods are applied on the arithmetical data that is gathered throughvarious research areas and subjects matters. The most common application of quantitativeapproach is for the scientific use such as psychology to perform research tests hypotheses byobtaining data through various sources. The numerical and statistical data present the similaritiesand differences that are established on the basis of research conducted. If the research isconducted using statistical and arithmetical data which have previously been used should providethe same results as the one that have been achieved by the previous researcher, if the previouslyconducted research work is to be utilize any editing of data is not allowed. The data that is
  43. 43. Author Name 43collected using quantitative approach of statistical analysis is completed using average ormeasures of central tendency, (Cassell and Symon, 2004). The application of statistical data thatis collected from the population is applied using technique such as regression and correlation3.1.1.1.1 Advantages and LimitationsVarious advantages and disadvantage has been studied from the quantitative approach. Thequantitative approach is flexible in nature as the time required to collect, evaluate and present thedata is negligible and it allows the researcher to make any changes in variables that can besimply identified and measured. The objective nature of quantitative data assists the researcher tocompare the numerical data with each other that might be difficult for the user as compare tosubjective data. The limitation that is associated with this method is the quantitative approach isits over simplicity characteristics and its inability to provide required results that may be linkedto general situation is real life scenario. Another limitation of quantitative approach is itsobjective nature because the statistical techniques would not be useful if they are applied tosubjective data. The conclusion that is reached by implementing quantitative approach is onlyuseful if it is utilize for specific research rather than general condition. The process might causedifferent variables to be ignored as it emphasis on specific variables, (Fisher, 2007).3.1.1.1.2 Deductive MethodThe conclusion under the deductive method of quantitative approach of research methodology isarrived by tapering the facts. Various principles and logical rules are used by the researcher toreach the conclusion under deductive method, (Easterby-Smith, Thrope, and Jackson, 2008). Theresearcher would obtain an accurate conclusion if the research is initiated from accurateprinciples. Under this deductive method, the research process starts from general premised
  44. 44. Author Name 44logical principles and by ultimately arriving at specific conclusion in the disciplined or subjectarea.The research under deductive approach is mostly based upon previously established hypothesesrather formulating the new approach. This approach is known as top down approach because itsprogress from the generalised pattern to the specific conclusion that are drawn, (Krueger, 1994).It is worthwhile; to note that the deductive method does not formulate new hypotheses nor itaccepts of rejects the hypotheses that have been previously established by the researcher.3.1.1.1.3 Inductive MethodThe research under inductive method formulates its research based on newly establishedhypotheses on the researches that have been not worked on. When working on the research underinductive method a specific subject area is selected based on different assumptions, principles orfacts that are employed to reach the conclusive stage. Researches that are conducted on the basisof inductive method assist the researcher on every step during the flow of researches elucidateeach essential in order to avoid uncertainty.The research under inductive method is conducted on the basis of newly formulated hypothesesrather initiating its research on the basis of conventional research hypotheses. This method ismost appropriate or reliable to work on the subject areas where no clear research has beenpreviously conducted due to vivid values or facts that are inappropriately interpreted, (Easterby-Smith, Thrope, and Jackson, 2008). The research is begun by choosing the appropriate researchand data are gathered from previous researches, books, journals and other sources. The betterresearch method is achieved under inductive method on the areas where previously less work hasbeen performed and no specific knowledge is known to the people.
  45. 45. Author Name 453.1.2 Interpretivisit ParadigmThis interpretivisit paradigm conducts researches based on subjective manner rather in objectivemanner. It uses qualitative method of evaluating the data rather than quantitative method.Interpretivisit paradigm is more beneficial on the areas such as social science and behaviouralstudies. It is form on the basis that reality can be partly calculated or experimented throughattitudes, beliefs and behavioural patterns. These outline may be provide useful knowledge but itcannot be successful applied for quantitative research approach, (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill,2006). The characteristic such as its subjective nature of qualitative approach facilitates theresearcher to reach the general conclusions. This paradigm studies and performs tests on humanbehaviour under different scenarios. The research conducted under interpretivisit paradigm isinvolves interviews, ethnography, questionnaires, participant observations, study of smallillustrations and case studies.3.1.2.1 Qualitative Approach to ResearchThe qualitative approach to research is used to conduct on the basis of potency, concentrationand affluence that relates to the happening or issue by understanding the real life incidents andbehavioural pattern, which relates to the areas such as social sciences, finance, economics andbehavioural studies, (Wellace and Wray, 2006). The emphasis under qualitative approach isbased on the abilities and coordination between the researcher and participants associated in theprocess. On the other hand, the quantitative approach emphasis on the analysis and interpretationof data during research process. The factors such as personal beliefs, knowledge, abilities andviews of the researcher play an important role regarding the outcome of research. The researchperformed under quantitative approach cannot be applied in the area such as finance, economics,
  46. 46. Author Name 46social sciences and other subject areas where arithmetical and statistical data are not accessible;in such case qualitative approach is used.3.1.2.1.1 Advantages and LimitationsThe qualitative approach also has its advantages and disadvantages. Qualitative approach tendsto be more flexible as it can be as it can be sort according to the circumstances. The continuousparticipant that is seen in this research process results in better conclusion. As this approachconsists of more open ended questions in the questionnaire and interviews, the researchparticipants reaches to better stated answers that assist the researcher in the process, (Miles andHuberman, 1994).The basic limitation that is linked with this approach is the preference the researcher gives to theparticipants on the subject areas. Another drawback is limited possibility and importance is thatis given upon the subjectivity because the use of same sort of samples for different areas givesdifferent conclusion and the research process under this approach requires extensive time period.3.2 Primary DataThe primary data is the collection of data that is used for the current research work and have norelevance to the past performance. The primary data has its various advantages as it is gather tofacilitate in the current research process and hence it is more relevant, (Krueger 1994). As theprimary data is collected due to the personal involvement of the researcher its findings are moreaccurate and are adequate to execute the research process. However, the criticism that is linkedto the application of primary data is the extensive amount of time that is needed to datacollection. Another drawback of primary data is the fact that it is not cost effective as it incurs
  47. 47. Author Name 47cost for designing of questionnaire, travelling and transportation and telecommunicationexpenses for the collection of primary data.3.2.1 Primary Data Collection MethodsThere are different techniques that are used for primary data collection during the researchprocess. The commonly used primary data techniques are survey research and observations. Thesurvey research has two main essentials: interviews and questionnaires. Questionnaire is mostoften send through postal services, e-mail or questionnaire posted on the blog, website or one-to-one interview conducted or through telephone. The other method observation includes theresearcher’s personal observation in evaluating the cause and outcome of the interrelation ofvariables. The most effective observation of data collection relates to focus group discussionusing personal observation.3.3 Secondary DataThe secondary source of data roots from the primary research that has been initially carried out.Secondary source of data attracts most researchers for its cost and time effectiveness during theprocess as its biggest advantage. As with the other sources and model of researches secondarydata has its drawback, as it lacks credibility of data collected, (Adams, H., Raeside, and White2007). The another drawback linked with secondary data is to obtain the most relevant and recentdata from sources such as university and public libraries, government sources which have greaterextend of past record on various research areas. Directories and catalogues are another set ofsources for data collection.
  48. 48. Author Name 483.4 Proposed Research StrategyThe research strategy shows an important aspect of conducting research which reflects the entireresearch process. This would facilitate the researcher in understanding the methods that woulduse to gather data based on either primary or secondary sources. The research strategy to beapplied will further evaluate the fact the research is either processed on the basis of formulatingnew hypotheses under inductive approach or to utilize the already formulated hypotheses. Thisstrategy would help to determine whether the required data is needed to be collected throughsecondary data.This research process is more of an explanatory type as it requires research for critical issues likejob satisfaction to be used during research process. Therefore it deems appropriate that mixedresearch approach would be used for data collection and it is understood that it would require thecombination of quantitative and qualitative approach in the entire process. This research strategyinvolves the collection of data from both primary and secondary sources to evaluate the variableresults. The source of secondary data involves data collected from books, articles, journals etc.these sources relates to the past scenario of Sainsbury and they are linked with motivationalaspect and job satisfaction.The core methodology that would be utilised in this research would be focused on secondarydata and that is the reason why secondary data is collected from different sources that books,journals, websites etc. A case study approach is actually selected for the collection of data andcase studies of different retail organisations of United Kingdom will be selected in this regard.
  49. 49. Author Name 49Chapter 4: Findings and analysisAs implied by the name this chapter is linked with the scenario of findings and analysis of theresearch. A case study approach is followed in this chapter and that is the reason why three retailorganisations of United Kingdom and their managerial aspects are discussed in detail.TescoTesco is the leading private company in retail sector organization in UK. Operating with largestmarket share, this company has employed more than 36,000 employees worldwide. Its total salecomprises of 86% from UK ranging from retail outlets of small local Tesco Express sites to largeTesco Extras and superstores. Tesco has its network spread over to 12 countries beside UK,which includes China, Japan and Turkey and has been successful in opening number of newstores in United States. This international exposure of opening new stores worldwide is theconstituent of Tesco’s strategy for diversification of business and its growth. With continuousefforts Tesco has built an image as a market leader is UK supermarket sector but itsimultaneously aims to local needs (Humby, Terry, & Phillips, 2008). In Thailand, by adoptingthe local culture the company gratitude its customer who are accustomed of shopping in wetmarkets. Following this approach Tesco has adopted this manner of business in its Bangkok storerather than providing them with pre-packaged goods as they did in UK stores.With continuous growth in its business Tesco requires people across wide range of skilledpersonnel for store-based and non-store based jobs:• For stores Tesco requires checkout staff, stock handlers, supervisors and specialists suchas pharmacists and bakers• For its distribution department Tesco requires personnel for stock managing and logistics
  50. 50. Author Name 50• The head office presents them with infrastructure that enables Tesco to run the businessefficiently with combine efforts from human resources, legal services, propertymanagement, marketing, and accounting and information technology.A continuous effort by the management of employing right number of people at jobs accordingto their talents is done through well-structured program of recruitment and selecting the bestapplicants for both managerial and operational roles (Moses, 1997).Tesco management has the historical record of utilizing the technology at its best. They were thefirst to implement the epos system in its operation, giving them an edge over other thecompetitors in retail industry particularly ones related to supermarket through superior ITadvancement in their business operation (Humby, Terry, & Phillips, 2008).The key elements that build up a strong the Tesco Strategic Management are Tesco Managersand Tesco Management Trainings. With the superior knowledge of business models Tescoslowly filled the cracks of Wal-Mart equivalent. With the innovative idea of the management, itsloyalty card helps the team to understand the needs of each of its customers; something whichWal-Mart failed to incorporate in its large system. The new opening of a range of formats tomirror customer circumstances is another incentive over the chain of Wal-Mart stores. Theanother edge that Tesco holds over Wal-Mart is the rapid, reflexive, replenishment supply chainwhich serves all its formats, including home shopping. The walk-through supply chain is nowawe for many. With its continuous efforts Tesco now supply each of its customers according totheir needs, location and low costs (Humby, Terry, & Phillips, 2008). It may not be thought asextravagate the fact that Tesco is now the Toyota of grocery business, by striving to provide itscustomer the best with continuous improvement. Tesco didn’t attempted to keep its strategy asecret; and is allowable for its competitors to follow their example.
  51. 51. Author Name 51Another crack that has been exposed in a successful business model is, BMW, a knowntechnology-driven finest carmaker declared that it needed combine efforts with another motorcompany to develop hybrid engines alone even though Honda has been successful doing it. Andafter the vast development of third generation hybrid car production by Toyota, BMW joinedforces with Daimler-Benz and General Motors for hybrid cars after claiming for years thatdiesels and hydrogen were the source for step ahead. Toyota strategic development of premiumhybrid cars is more demandable by consumers as compare to the precedent production andstuffing car technology that is not preferable by many now.In every industry the business models of the mass production and mass consumption era arebroken or had scraped. The hub and spoke airlines which were depended on supplying trafficthrough big hub airports are fraught in order to compete with point-to-point airlines. Due tooutsourcing strategy of customer support many banks and telecoms firms are losing theircustomer. The ‘low cost’ sourcing of goods from China have aroused different questions fromretailers and manufacturers, due to awareness created among the customers about competitivestrategy in clothing and footwear.The Dell’s ability of ‘build to order’ has been undermined by the maturing computer technologyas the esteemed company is unable to compete with corresponding products that is available atlocal computer store at the same day. These changes can be seen at every field of business, aspeople serving rate at general hospitals for diagnosis and treatment or waiting by your car to getit fix at a car dealers have reduced with the passage of time (Humby, Terry, & Phillips, 2008).It is about time that changes in business models have to be amended by studying the previousbusiness failures. This is seen as many firms have started rethinking about their strategies that
  52. 52. Author Name 52were previously implemented by not only emphasizing on lean management not only forstreamline processes but as an effective strategy for turning the tables towards competitors andproviding improved deals to consumers as well as its employees.The process of rethinking business models is applied in an organizations by considering thefactors such as what products should be manufactured in the future at low cost and where themanufacturing process should be located. On the other hand, lean thinkers begins byunderstanding who their customers are, what are their needs relating to each products andservices and in what was will the customers served at its best.With the combined combination of hardware, software and the knowledge relating to the processof each documents, makes it into a computer (Aaker & Mcloughlin, 2010). And it involvesextensive time period like production, relating to obtaining, installing, upgrading and replacingall the previous process which involves consumer’s time and patience.By following the each production and consumption process, the management comes across thoselinks (through consumer report) that has been either broken or exasperating. Furthermore, theprocess which has been outsourced results in gap from consumer contacts as there is no otherway to obtain feedback from consumer which would assist the management for redesigning themanagement strategy.The solution to lean management is done through the process of mapping the processes fromconsumers through the underlying layers of distributors to production which goes back to rawmaterials exposing to astounding opportunities of removing the excess cost factors from eachelement of product, including consumer (Sparks & Fernie, 2004). This results in win-win-winopportunities for all parties. Thus this lean management provides great convenience to the
  53. 53. Author Name 53management and customers and provides better customer services which in result enhance thequality of the product.The process of critical success factor that relates to each product is the ability to initial itsprocess from consumers by understanding provisions of customers demand and resolving theirissues by providing them what, when and where they exactly wish from the product (Humby,Terry, & Phillips, 2008). The underlying facts does not relates to who manufacture the specificproduct but with who exactly responds to ongoing business consumer demands.US have provided the greatest platform of industrious that ranges from supermarkets andfluorescent lighting to hamburgers and sticky tapes. The success of transatlantic flow will neverstop but it would prove difficulty it automatically translating to success. The few renditionswould be encouraging than baking soda toothpaste (Sparks & Fernie, 2004). After the week longextensive advertising of previously unknown brand in Britain, sales in Tesco of the Arm &Hammer Dental Care brand has quadrupled. It was successful in achieving 5% share in a highlycrammed competitive market, which results in a bit panic in competitors that they felt need toadd soda brands back to its range (Sparks & Fernie, 2004).SainsburyJ Sainsbury Plc is a leading food retail business in UK and US market with its foot in financialservices and property business. The Sainsbury group comprises of Sainsbury’s Supermarket andSainsbury’s Bank in UK and by name of Shaw’s Supermarkets in US. The network of SainsburySupermarket was established in 1869 by John James and Mary Ann Sainsbury and in nowBritain’s pioneer food retailing chain (Zentes, Morschett, & Klein, 2007). SainsburySupermarket has provided work to over 145,000 people, including Savacentre. Of these
  54. 54. Author Name 54personnel, 60% employees work part-time and 40% works as full-time. Of total 60% employeesin Sainsbury workforce are women. The Sainsbury well-established supermarket offers over23,000 products out of which 40% products relates to Sainsbury’s own brand. Besides offering arange of quality food and grocery products, Sainsbury offers baked bread facility, delicatessen,meat and fish counters, pharmacies, coffee shops, restaurants and petrol stations on its premises(Reynolds & Cuthberston, 2003). Sainsbury has a record of serving over 11 million customers aweek and as at June 2002 had 463 stores throughout UK.In an organization, the team efforts and its outstanding performance is the organization’sperformance. Hence, it is dynamic outcome enhances the performances from everyone. Eachindividual in the group is more complex than other in the component.The responsibility of the manager is to motivate each individual and the team as a whole toimprove the organizational performance. As the source to team motivation stems throughpersonal enthusiasm of the manager, how the work is allocated and controlled, a clearvisualization of the goal and plan to achieve it. Each organization manager sets its personalbehavior as an example in the organizational for creating a climate of progress and chance toaccept the change for betterment. Motivation factor for each individual is achieved throughpersonal empathy and what it is called the ‘unwritten contract’ from individual and organizationmanager as a two way communication. The important element for the motivation is the design ofindividual’s allotted work with specified challenges and different types of works that directs tovarious innovative products due to specialization (Dobson, Starkey, & Richards, 2004). As toobtain personal and career development an agreed set of objectives is required that can be donethrough challenging work, professional standards, feedback and coaching.
  55. 55. Author Name 55This paper discusses about performance management and its evaluation which includessupervision of top management of Sainsbury for its employees and for the organization supplieras a whole for its wide range of goods and products. The long established chain of Sainsburysupermarkets of J Sainsbury Plc since its establishment in 1869 strives to fulfill company’smission of providing first class choices of food products for its consumer through value formoney, excellent services and quality that is expected by every customers. The company has atotal of 145,000 people in its 535 stores, serving over 11 million customers each week (Dobson,Starkey, & Richards, 2004). The most important theory that is needed to understand are the onessurrounding performance management.
  56. 56. Author Name 56Performance Management SystemsJust like most organization, Sainsbury has its formal performance management system, whichvaries according to great purpose, depth, style and degree of bureaucracy. This performancemanagement varies according to the benefits it brings to the organization as well as the level ofattraction it gains from its workforce. Question as to what are the purpose of my organization’smanagement system would be answered as assistance it provides to the management for thedetermination of pay rise, or promotional benefits to be entitled to one. In these circumstancesthe key trait to efficient performance management will be fairness. To obtain the knowledge ashow the pay system work in your organization so that staff could be trained accordingly. As nopay system is totally objective it is essential to provide thorough understanding about thesubjective element (Dobson, Starkey, & Richards, 2004). An effective performance measurehelps to measure against the objectives. This will help the team to understand the reasoning whyother members got the pay raise.As according to another scenario the answer could be the development of staff. Performancemanagement system is another scenario of a person continuous efforts to develop according toones skill for the combine workforce in different sorts of situation and to make its contributionaccordingly to the period of software development (Reynolds & Cuthberston, 2003). For theperformance management fairness is not considered as an element because the performanceevaluation focuses on one person at a time. The other answer is the combination of above bothcharacteristics.The basic essential of performance management system is the development of staff and provideassistance about pay decision to according to ones performance. Even if the performance
  57. 57. Author Name 57management relates to the pay or promotion it can be understood as a useful tool fordevelopment of staff. In an organization, staff believes that a performance management is thereason which for their pay level, whether it is linked with strategic factors (Zentes, Morschett, &Klein, 2007).The difficulty that comes across during this process is when a manager inquires the employeeswhat area of his work would he think is needed an improvement to increase its output; theemployee would if believes that this discussion relates to his performance development he wouldreadily discuss its issues. However, if the employee assumes that the motive behind thisdiscussion is to evaluate its pay review he might attempt to hide his weaknesses. Hence, toovercome this problem it might be appropriate to link pay rewards with the proven developmentof one (Aaker & Mcloughlin, 2010). Because it does seems to be logical to give a pay raise to theemployee if the performance has not improved compared to the previous year result. So in thefuture when the manager conduct the performance evaluation meeting, the employee would bemore eager to discuss its weakness in order to resolve it through manager’s help and to avail theopportunity for pay raise at next evaluation period. This provides the clear objective about theemployee team development.Preparation for a Performance Management SystemHypothetically the most appropriate way to implement a system is to use the system for day-to-day practice of development management, by regular reviewing the objective that has beenagreed by team members at after appropriate duration, and to mentor the employees accordingly(Dobson, Starkey, & Richards, 2004). The employee might try it useful to record its continuingrelations that will assist for its performance evaluation. However, the employer would still need
  58. 58. Author Name 58to evaluate the performance of prior period and for this the team member is need to be equipped.A planned meeting will allow the employee and manager to be prepared for the meeting inadvance. And by reminding the team member prior the period about the motive behind theevaluation and the tools that will assist them to prepare for the meeting will provide better results(Dobson, Starkey, & Richards, 2004). If it happens to be the first evaluation meeting theemployer would ease up the employee by discussing the weaknesses and provide remedy to theproblems.During An Evaluation MeetingThe past performance of an employee is reviewed to understand the future prospect by themanager. With a clear head, the weak points about the employee are raised in order to improvethe weak points, progress opportunities or ceremonial notes. The approach is not to elevate theweak points of the employee but to give chance to the personnel to draw weak points out toperform personal assessment (Dobson, Starkey, & Richards, 2004).This is performed by asking unbiased question from the employee and not burdening themregarding the questions about their own opinion about its performance on which they considerimprovement is needed (Sparks & Fernie, 2004). As it is seen that most people are modestregarding their own performance, this would result in praises from the employer to the teammembers for the assistance they provide to its manager about the weak areas they might haveoverlooked during their evaluation. Many employees would be more eager to point out the areasthey think is needed for improvement as compare to the understanding of the employer theymight have considered important. This process facilitates in greater deal of improvement that isseen as it avoids any criticism by the colleagues regarding their assessment. The improvement
  59. 59. Author Name 59that is needed in a team member will be identified by others if the person itself fails tounderstand, as it is persuasive to turn unbiased drawings into a form of obligatory affirmation.The employer, hence, could make such mistake that would result in demoralize its credibility asa legitimate listener and as a good manager (Reynolds & Cuthberston, 2003). This processinvolves two-way communication during the meeting. The team member may itself brings up afew weakness in its performance which when compared to the manager view point are moreimportant, the manager might abandon its point by first attending to the team member. But in thedue course the employer might itself never try to abandon his initial point because of theawkwardness he feels in discussing them. For example, during discussion the employer mightsay that it I’ve come across the areas that I think it is necessary for improvement. According tothe view point of the employer these points would be significantly important but on the otherhand the employee might not regard this as important or might not have genuinely consideredthis point. The second problem associated with this drawing out process is the fact that employermight overdo it. Mostly the team members are eager to know what is being thought of theirperformance in the eyes of employer. In this case, the manager would recall the facts told byemployee even if it is simply an agreement. Listening is the most important essential in thisprocess. But if the employer realizes that he is the one doing most of the talking and nocontribution are obtained from the team member than it may be because the discussion isconducted wrongly (Reynolds & Cuthberston, 2003). The second step is the future point ofreference, after drawing out the important areas of weakness the manager and employee shouldplan the future objectives that would measure the outcome as improvement.
  60. 60. Author Name 60ASDAAsda is a British chain of supermarkets which deals with food, clothing, toys and generalmerchandise. It also deals in mobile telephone network, Asda Mobile. Its head office known asAsda House is in Leeds, West Yorkshire. Asda is a subsidiary of the well-established Americanretail chain Wal-Mart, the world largest retailer in 1999 and is the second largest chain of storesin UK, after Tesco by overhauling Sainsbury’s in 2003. Asda has been successful in attracting17% of grocery shopper’s population by its ‘special offer’ promotional campaign (Fisher &Raman, 2010).Asda’s promotional campaign has been based upon the pricing strategy, running under the sloganof Britain’s Lowest Priced Supermarkets, 13 years running. Being a wholly owned division ofWal-Mart, Asda enjoys the benefit of not presenting quarterly or half-yearly earning, insteadthey submits its books of account, each year in the month of October.The top management structure of Asda comprise of Wal-Mart, the world’s biggest retailer, whobrought the company in 1999 (Fisher & Raman, 2010). The management strategy of Asdaincludes high profile media marketing campaign and competitive pricing.The growth and changes that was seen for many years in finance and industry was taken as agolden age for accountants, particularly for people that have people management skills. Thisgave chance to the rapid growth and commercialization of public sector during 19thcentury(Fisher & Raman, 2010). Accountants who have been displaced by industry during recessionfound jobs in public sectors from the employers eager for commercial exposure. The otherincentives such as PFI would have resisted. This resulted in the ratio of unemployment steadilydecreasing that lead to the period of ‘skill shortage’ that opened doors to immigrants particularly,in the field of Teaching and Nursing. The arrival of anti-age legislation in 2006 caused tapping

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