NOUNS Nouns are words that denotate a person, a thing etc.Nouns may be subdivided into Simple (just one root)Ex.: book, raining Compound (when two or more simple are got together)Ex.: bookshelf, raincoat Primitive (the one that origins another noun)Ex.: book, rain Derivative (when it has been added a prefix or a suffix)Ex.: booker, rainingNouns may vary in kinds as Proper (when they name people, places, rivers, days of the week, months of the year etc.)Ex.: Susan, Amazon, Sunday Common (when they name all other things – common things)Ex.: book, car, fishNouns may vary in gender as Masculine (when they refer to the male sex)Ex.: boy, actor, emperor Feminine (when they refer to the female sex)Ex.: girl, actress, empress Common (when they fit either sex)Ex.: singer, teacher, dancer Neuter (when they fit no sex at all, but refer to objects, animals, nature phenomena etc)Ex.: tree, baby, rain, sunNouns may vary in number as Singular (when they refer to just a unit)Ex.: tree, baby, girl Plural (when they refer to more than one unit)Ex.: trees, babies, girlsFormation of plural: Collective (when they name a group of things thought of as a unit)Ex.: flock, crew The collective noun is usually a SINGULAR word (for it denotates a unit.) However, a collective noun admits a NOTIONAL AGREEMENT, that is, it is possible to use either singular or plural depending on the context.
Ex.: The crew is unanimous on their landing right now. The crew are divided on their opinions.PRONOUNSPronouns are words that substitute for a noun or a noun equivalent, which is calledthe pronoun antecedent. This pronoun antecedent may be expressed or implicit.Pronouns are restricted to relation or reference. They constitute a closed class offunction words that work as nominals and should agree with their antecedents ingender, number and person.The antecedent may be a noun, another pronoun, a phrase or a clause.Ex.: Everyone has his wishes denied sometimes. Don’t touch those pictures. They are mine. Susan didn’t mean hurting her husband. He understood her wrongly.Pronouns can be 1) personal (Three cases: subjective, objective, possessive) 2) reflexive 3) interrogative 4) demonstrative 5) indefinite 6) relative 1) Personal pronouns – They show the grammatical categories of person, number, gender or case. CasesNominative Objective Possessive(subjective)I Me MineYou You YoursHe Him HisShe Her HersIt Its ItsWe Us OursYou You YoursThey Them Theirs
2) Reflexive pronouns – They refer back, or reflect the antecedentEx.: He hurt himself with a knife. A Reflexive pronoun has double function: reflexive and emphaticEx.: I myself did the dishes. Nobody helped me.The reflexive pronouns are Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves 3) Interrogative pronouns – They indicate a question at the same time that substitute for a noun (who, what, which). Ex.: What is your name? Who is that woman? Which pen do you prefer?→ WHO may appear in nominative case Who objective case Whom possessive case Whose 4) Demonstrative pronouns – They are used to show and substitute for a noun. Ex.: These are my friends. This is our class. 5) Indefinite pronouns – They are used to refer to persons, things or conditions, without specifying them (none, one, anyone,someone,somebody, everybody, no one, nobody, all, many, more, most, few, several, enough, others). Ex.: Someone has to help me. No one came to help me. 6) Relative pronouns – They are used to refer to a noun in another clause (who – whom, whose -, that, which [and their compounds: whoever, whomever, whichever]). Ex.: That is the man who bought my car. She is the woman whom I talked to you about. The book she gave me is excellent. The guy whose book I borrowed lives in Alabama.
ADJECTIVES Adjectives are words used to describe, modify or determine the nouns or noun equivalents. They are semantic borderlines to nouns and pronouns because they limit their meanings.a) Proper adjectivesThe proper adjectives are made of proper nouns (and take initial capital letter).Russian, American, French etcEx.: a Russian book an American spyb) Descriptive adjectivesThe descriptive adjectives show the quality or state referring to the noun.Adjectives may come in attributive position (directly before a noun) or inpredicative position (right after a copula). (when they are attributive, they form a phrase with the modified noun).Ex.: wise man – good person – deep river But to make statements or sentences out of these phrases, adjectives are placed in the predicate, after the linking verb. They will be either a subject complement or an object complement. So, we call them predicative.Ex.: The river seems deep. (subject complement) That man is tired. (subject complement) She found the ceremony boring. (object complement) So, In a phrase, the adjective is attributive; In a sentence, the adjective is predicative.c) Quantitative adjectivesThe quantitative adjectives show how much of a thing it is said. It is related onlyto singular uncountable nouns.some, little, half, any, whole, much, allEx.: There is still some sugar left I have much trouble.d) Numeral adjectivesThe numeral adjectives show how many or in which order the modified noun ornouns come. How many things there are ⇨ cardinals The serial order the things are ⇨ ordinals How many times a thing is repeated ⇨ multiplicativese) Demonstrative adjectivesDemonstrative adjectives are used to point out or demonstrate, show the nouns.this, that, these, thoseEx.: You don’t need such humiliation.
These books belong to me. Observation ⇨ There is a category of demonstrative adjectives, the articles a/an and the that has a peculiar way to determine the following noun. The articles have peculiar rules of usage. But, as a category, the articles may be included within the adjectives.f) Indefinite adjectivesIndefinite adjectives denote an indefinite number or idea of things (that’s whysome grammarians call them Indefinite Numeral Adjectives).Some, any, one, certain, such, all, several, enough, no, few, little, many, otheretcEx.: Do you need any books? There are several books here to choose. ⇨ The difference between quantitative adjectives and indefinite adjectives is that the quantitatives are related to singular uncountable nouns and the indefinites are related to plural countable nouns.g) Distributive adjectivesThe distributive adjectives show the things are taken separately or in separatelots.each, every, either, neitherEx.: Each student should take this task. The common noun fits either gender.h) Possessive adjectivesThe possessive adjectives indicate possession of the modified noun.My, your, his, her, its, our, your, theirEx.: My pencil is here. Our classes start at 7.i) Interrogative adjectivesThe interrogative adjectives are used to ask questions.which, whatEx.: Which flavor do you prefer? What color is that?j) Relative adjectivesWhat, which, whatever, whicheverEx.: Make whatever comments you desire. She ran out of money, which circumstance made her stay home.k) Intensive adjectives: VERY and OWNThese adjectives are used to give emphasisEx.: This is the very book I was looking for. He did his own exercise. In general, any word which modifies a noun or a noun equivalent is an adjective.
1) There are cases when a noun modifies a noun. It functions as an adjective on that particular case but, even though, one cannot call it an adjective, as a category, but an incidental adjective.Ex.: horse race fire department.2) There are other cases when a primary adverb or a preposition-adverb (adverb derived from preposition) is used as an adjective. Again, one can see a case of incidental adjective.Ex.: I need a day off. The game is over.EXERCISE 1) Identify and classify the adjectives. a) The young lady bought a new hat which cost much money. b) Do you have any books to lend me? c) I’ll call you some Monday. d) A shared joy is a double joy. e) You may use either pencil. f) This is the eleventh floor. g) She has a beautiful dress. h) He is jealous. i) That conversation makes her angry. j) Give whatever examples you choose. k) Which color do you prefer your backpack? l) Rio de Janeiro is wonderful. m) New York is also a fascinating city. n) I could marry you this very day. o) The guides seemed tired. p) She made me a French cake.