Child and Adolescent Development.BinHun


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Child and Adolescent Development.BinHun

  1. 1. Lev Vygotsky  Lev Vygotsky was born November 17, 1896 in Orshaa city in the western region of the Russian Empire.  He attended Moscow State University, where he graduated with a degree in law in 1917.  His formal work in psychology did not begin until 1924 when he attended the Institute of Psychology in Moscow and began collaborating with Alexei Leontiev and Alexander Luria.  His interests in Psychology were quite diverse, but often centered on topics of child development and education. He also explored such topics as the psychology of art and language development.
  2. 2. About the Theory Vygotsky placed more emphasis on social contributions to the process of development. He focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact inshared experiences. According to Vygotsky, humans use tools that developfrom a culture, such as speech and writing, to mediatetheir social environments. Initially children develop thesetools to serve solely as social
  3. 3. Three Major Themes Social Interaction The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) Zone of Proximal Development
  4. 4. Social Interaction Vygotsky felt social learning anticipates development. He states: “Every function in the child’s culturaldevelopment appears twice: first, on the social level,and later, on the individual level; first, betweenpeople (interpsychological) and then inside the child(intrapsychological).”He believes that young children are curious andactively involved in their own learning and thediscovery and development of new understandings.
  5. 5. The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) MKO refers to someone who has a better understandingor a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. Many times, a child’s peers or an adults children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience.
  6. 6. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) This is an important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner. Vygotsky sees the ZPD as the area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given, allowing the child to develop skills they will then use on their own, developing higher mental functions.
  7. 7. Vygotskys theory differs from that of Piaget in a number of important ways: 1: Vygotsky places more emphasis on culture affecting/shaping cognitive development this contradicts Piagets view of universal stages and content of development. (Vygotsky does not refer to stages in the way that Piaget does). 2: Vygotsky places considerably more emphasis on social factors contributing to cognitive development (Piaget is criticized for underestimating this). 3: Vygotsky places more emphasis on the role of language in cognitive development (again Piaget is criticized for lack of emphasis on
  8. 8. Two Features of ZPD
  9. 9. Four Basic Principles Underlying the Vygotsky Framework
  10. 10. Two Types of Mental Function
  11. 11. Conclusion
  12. 12. Urie Bronfenbrenner Born in Russia Immigrated to the US at age 6 Enlisted in the US army immediately after completing his PhDCo-founder of the Head Start program-Designed to serve atrisk nursery students to prepare them for school
  13. 13. About the Theory Development is the result of the relationships between people and their environments.  Implications: Cannot evaluate a child’s development only in the immediate environment. Must also examine the interactions among the larger environments that a child develops in.
  14. 14. Conceptual Model Series of systems each is contained within the other so that literally children are affected by all systems but some are more immediate to the children and are able to be influenced by
  15. 15. Model Microsystem: Within this system the student has direct interactions with parents, teachers, peers, and others. Mesosystem: This system involves the linkages between microsystems such as family and school, and relationships between students and peers. Exosystem: This system works when settings in which a child does not have an active role influence the student’s experiences.
  16. 16. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 2014