WELLS & SPRINGS
A spring is a component of the hydrosphere. Specifically, it is any natural situation
where water flows to the surface of the earth from underground.
A spring may be the result of karst topography where surface water has infiltrated the
Karst topography is a geological formation shaped by the dissolution of a layer or
layers of soluble bedrock, usually carbonate rock such as limestone, or dolomite but
Hot Springs and Geysers
A hot spring is a spring that is produced by the emergence of geothermally
heated groundwater from the Earth's crust. There are geothermal hot springs in many
locations all over the crust of the earth.
A geyser is a vent in Earth's surface that periodically ejects a column of hot water and
steam. Even a small geyser is an amazing phenomenon; however some geysers have
eruptions that blast thousands of gallons of boiling hot water up to a few hundred feet
in the air.
Conditions Required for a Geyser
Geysers are extremely rare features. They occur only where there is a coincidence of
unusual conditions. Worldwide there are only about 1000 geysers and most of those are
located in Yellowstone National Park (USA).
Where are Geysers Found?
Most of the world's geysers occur in just five countries:
1) United States 4) New Zealand
2) Russia 5) Iceland
Countries With Many Active Geysers
1) United States - Yellowstone National Park
2) Russia - Dolina Geiserov
3) Chile - El Tatio
4) New Zealand - Taupo Volcanic Zone
5) Iceland - Many locations
How Do Geysers Work?
To understand how a geyser works, you must first understand the relationship between
water and steam. Steam is a gaseous form of water. Steam is produced when water is
heated to its boiling point. When water converts into steam at surface conditions it
undergoes an enormous expansion because steam occupies 1600 times as much space as
the original volume of original water. The eruption of a geyser is powered by a "steam
explosion" when boiling hot water suddenly expands into the much more voluminous