Indoor air quality in hospitals

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Indoor air quality in hospitals

  1. 1. INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN HOSPITALS
  2. 2. <ul><li>WHAT IS IAQ? </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor Air Quality refers to the nature of conditioned (Heat/Cool) air that circulates throughout the space/area where we work and live i.e. the air we breathe during most of our lives. </li></ul><ul><li>IAQ, refers not only to comfort, which is affected by temperature, humidity and odours but also to harmful biological contaminants and chemicals present in the conditioned space. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Why IAQ? </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor air can be up to 10 times more polluted than outdoor air. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people spend up to 90% of their time indoors and many spend most of their working hours in an office environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor air quality in office buildings can result in loss of productivity, absenteeism and medical problems. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Effects of poor IAQ <ul><li>Poor indoor air quality can lead to a number of physical symptoms and complaints Headaches,Fatigue,Shortness of breath, Sinus congestion,Coughs,Sneezing,Eye, nose, and throat irritation,Skin irritation,Dizziness,Nausea,asthma,lung cancer,Legionnaire’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Categorized as </li></ul><ul><li>SBS </li></ul><ul><li>BRI </li></ul>
  5. 5. Factors affecting IAQ <ul><li>A number of factors can affect the indoor air quality of a building or facility, including: </li></ul><ul><li>The physical layout of the building </li></ul><ul><li>The building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)system </li></ul><ul><li>The outdoor climate </li></ul><ul><li>The people who occupy the building </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminants inside and outside the building </li></ul>
  6. 6. Indoor air pollutants,sources&health effects
  7. 9. Common exposers in hospitals <ul><li>Sensitizing and Allergenic Agents </li></ul><ul><li>histamines </li></ul><ul><li>glutaraldehyde, </li></ul><ul><li>formaldehyde, </li></ul><ul><li>latex allergen, </li></ul><ul><li>hexachlorophene, and psyllium laxatives </li></ul><ul><li>Irritants </li></ul><ul><li>Methylmethacrylate </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Direct Toxins, Mutagens, and Teratogens </li></ul><ul><li>Anesthetic agents </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious Aerosols </li></ul><ul><li>source </li></ul><ul><li>patients having infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles (Rubeola), and German measles </li></ul><ul><li>(Rubella) can be spread easily in the air </li></ul>
  9. 11. Exposure limits Compounds Exposure limits Halogenated TLV (NIOSH): anaesthetic agents 8-h TWA: 2 ppm without concomitant N2O exposure 0.5 ppm with concomitant N2O exposure Nitrous oxide TLV for hospital environments (NIOSH): 8-h TWA: 25 ppm (40 mg/m3) Formaldehyde 8-h TWA: 0.75 ppm (0.94 mg/m3) 15-min STEL: 2 ppm (2.5 mg/m3) Glutaraldehyde TLV:0.2 ppm (0.82 mg/m3) (ceiling level) Ethylene oxide 8-h TWA: 1 ppm 15-min STEL: 5 ppm Action level 8-h TWA: 0.5 ppm
  10. 12. Halothane 50 ppm ACGIH 8-h TLV-TWA 2 ppm NIOSH 60-min REL-C Enflurane 75 ppm ACGIH 8-h TLV-TWA 2 ppm NIOSH 60-min REL-C Methoxyflurane 2 ppm NIOSH 15-min REL-C carbon dioxide 1000 ppm ASHRAE Std 62-1989 8-h TLV-TWA 5000- 9000 ACGIH 15min TLV-TWA carbon monoxide 9 ppm ASHRAE Std 62-1989 8-h TLV-TWA 25 ppm ACGIH 8-h TLV-TWA Nitrogen dioxide 3 ppm or 5.6 mg/m (8-hr) ASHRAE Sulpur dioxide 2 ppm or 5.2 mg/m (8-hr) ASHRAE
  11. 13. <ul><li>Thermal comfort conditions </li></ul>

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