The camp system of registration, food, water, and fire- wood distribution encourages crowding of large groups in small, confined spaces. In addition, malnutrition, high population density and poor shelter conditions may con- tribute to the elevated rates seen in this population.
Results from inadequate quality and quantity of water, substandard and insufficient sanitation facilities, overcrowding.\\, poor hygiene, and scarcity of soap.
Beyond the tendency to focus primarily on physical health concerns, a growing emphasis has been geared toward the significant mental health needs in refugee camps. In view of the geopolitical realities of post-conflict/conflict settings of refugee camps, it’s important to consider the relationship between psychosocial needs(i.e. emotional/relational) and physical well-being For instance, about half of the 400,000 refugees in Kenya's Dadaab camp have suffered from war or torture trauma, causing what some call an 'emotional death/hunger’.
cause:The struggle to process memories of war, conflict, genocide, rape, political persecution, the loss of loved ones effect:mental illness can debilitate one's ability to engage in economically productive opportunities and educational activitiesIt is not uncommon to see refugees chained or imprisoned often by their own relatives in order to reduce their vulnerability to interpersonal conflict, abuse, and rape AND to keep them from harming themselves
Stoic: endure pain or hardship without showing their feelings or complaining.In regards to solutions/approaches in addressing mental health of refugees, need to carefully assess the cross-cultural validity of mental health care and psychosocial interventionsFor instance, study showed that Westernized approaches tend to expect outcomes based on expressive emotional vulnerability, which ran counter to the natural coping strategies of Sudanese refugees often cope with their psychological war trauma in silence, stoicism and suppression
Finalslides health concerns in refugee camps group one presentation
+Health Concerns inRefugee Camps By Katherine MacGregor, Rachel Ding, Rachel Rodrigo, and Jill Rankin
+ Why talk about Health Concerns in Refugee Camps? Disparity in health care needs and provision Many camps around Africa Refugees from war, famine etc. Population density in camps Easily spread illness
+Communicable Diseases inRefugee Camps of East Africa By Jill Rankin
+ Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) At risk because of overcrowding, suboptimal living conditions, and malnutrition. High infection rate among children under 5 Viral infections can cause chronic asthma Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenovirus ( Adv) Pneumonia People in camps more at risk because of the camp system.
+ Malaria Caused by infected mosquitos who carry a parasite called Plasmodium and bite the host. Two thirds of world’s refugees are living in malaria endemic regions Women and children most at risk Significant cause of mortality and morbidity among refugees Solution- prevent infection by use of mosquito nets and mosquito repellent with deet
+ Diarrheal diseases Cholera Dysentery Result from? Accounted for 40% of deaths in acute phase of emergency in these camps. Source of infection: polluted water sources, contamination of water during transport and storage, scarcity of soap, shared cooking pots, contaminated foods. 60% from Cholera and 40% caused by shigella dysentery.
+ Measles Often endemics occur because of emergencies Overcrowding causes fast transmission Frequency of severe measles higher in malnourished children Blindness occurs because of vitamin A deficiency
+Non-CommunicableDiseases in Refugee Camps By Rachel Rodrigo
+ School of Thought Change in Global Understanding View and treatment Change in Global Health Regulation Adjust World Health Organization United Nations Policy What are the limitations of this policy? Why? How can they change?
+ Chronic Disease Lack of knowledge Heavy usage of tobacco Lack of treatment options (resources) Types Asthma Hepatitis B Heart Disease New disease spreading with ‘globalization’ and ‘development’
+ Plan of Action Education For both recipients & doctors Severity Treatment Precautions Change in Global View Policy Changes Health Changes
+Mental Health Concernsin Refugee Camps By Rachel Ding
+ Why Address Mental Health? Geopolitical realities of refugee camps War/Torture trauma in post-conflict/conflict settings Psychosocial needs Basic emotional and relational needs Mental health’s relation to physical health Psychiatric distress affects physical well-being
+ Underlying Causes & Effects of Mental Health Issues Causes War trauma, Struggle to process memories of war, violence, family tragedies, etc. Psychiatric distress especially among youth Effects PTSD, Depression, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorder, Anxiety Vulnerability to Interpersonal conflicts, abuse, social fragmentation Stagnation Economic productivity Educational activity
+ Gaps & Limitations in Mental Healthcare Delivery Scant availability of services Scarcity of mental health workers available for aid Limited uptake of services Due to social stigmas associated with mental illness Predetermined coping strategies : Silence, stoicism, suppression Approaches to Solutions/Intervention Cross-cultural validity of health care interventions
+ Solutions to Health Concerns By Katherine MacGregor in Refugee Camps
+ Structural Issues Education Teaching good habits etc. Making people aware of health threats Sanitation and hygiene Keeping disease from spreading Access to clean water Malnutrition, malnourishment, dehydration Building habitants’ immunity so they can avoid and combat disease
+ Immunization Proactivity to problems Getting people immunized before disease impacts habitants of camp Reactivity to problem Immunizations in the face on oncoming epidemic Issue: Patient health records Tracking who has been immunized and who hasn’t been (and against what)
+ Distribution of Resources Equity issues Who should be given health aid? Who get immunized? How to make sure everyone who needs aid is getting it (i.e. marginalized groups) Logistics Difference between emergency situations and long term situations How to distribute aid amongst a group of transient people?