The Partition of India Migration studies by Emerald, Kate and Catherine
Introduction <ul><li>Originally, India and Pakistan were both part of the British Empire and were one country. In 1947, India wanted independence and split from the British Empire, during which Pakistan and India split. All of the Muslim people in India were moved to Pakistan, and all of the Hindu people in Pakistan were moved to India, so Pakistan became Muslim based and India became Hindu based. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a lot of conflict between the two new countries, resulting in many deaths. This migration is one of the largest in history, in terms of numbers of people involved. </li></ul>
Causes <ul><li>The movement of all the people was actually decided years ahead by the British, but was not put in place until 15 August 1947. </li></ul><ul><li>When India left the British Empire, the British left many boundary issues, which caused major conflict between the two new countries. </li></ul><ul><li>There was also a huge migration between India and Pakistan as people moved because of religion, as they were afraid of being </li></ul>
Key People Involved <ul><li>Mohammed Ali Jinnah- widely regarded as the founder of Pakistan and was crucial in the splitting and conflict of the two countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Mahatma Gandhi- a famous philosopher and was important in the Partition because he worked with both of the leaders of the Muslim and Hindu faith, to try and resolve the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Jawarhalal Nehru- the first and so far the longest serving Prime Minister of India. He was a leading influence in the Independence movement, and was elected by Congress as the first Prime Minister. </li></ul>
Effects on the Country <ul><li>There have been many effects on the countries involved in this issue. Many of these effects are based on diminished populations in areas where there has been substantial migration. </li></ul><ul><li>Some states, such as Kashmir- a "princely state"- had to choose whether to be part of India or Pakistan, which led to major conflict and the Indo-Pakistani War. </li></ul><ul><li>Burma was granted independence from the British Indian Empire on January 4, 1948. Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) was granted independence on February 4, 1948. </li></ul>
Effects on the People <ul><li>Many people were separated from family and friends when the migration began. 12 million people were homeless refugees in either Pakistan or India as they had to flee countries because of discrimination. </li></ul><ul><li>No-one knows how many people died, but most estimates are around 500,000 dead, but some range up to 1 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people had to make long journeys during the move, and often people were too old, young or sick to complete it and were left for dead along the way. </li></ul>
Pictures Above: Map of India after the Partition showing the areas of Muslim domination in red. Above right: Map of India also after the partition showing borders and disputed borders. Left: Refugees piling onto trains to evacuate from India.
Bibliography <ul><li>http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partition_of_India http://indiafacts.headlinesindia.com/partition-india.html http:// www.english.emory.edu </li></ul><ul><li>http://markmywords.southasiastrategicforum.com/2009/08/18/did-britain-wreck-the-world </li></ul><ul><li>Millennium Family Encyclopaedia , edited by Jayne Parsons, p445- India and Sri Lanka, first published in 1997 by Dorling Kindersley </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering Partition: Violence, Nationalism and History in India, by Gyanendra Pandey, first published in 2002 by Cambridge University Press </li></ul>