Problem based learning<br />Student-centred approach, students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their progress <br />Learning driven by practical problems<br />Tutors’ role as facilitators of learning<br />Instructional activities to develop interpretation and reasoning skills<br />4<br />
Learning as conversation<br />5<br />Teacher<br />Learner<br />Why questions ~ answers require explanations in terms of relations between topics<br />How questions ~ answers require demonstrations, models or problem solutions<br />Receives or offers explanation in terms of relations between topics<br />Receives or offers explanation in terms of relations between topics<br />Why questions & response<br />Offers demonstrations or elicits models and problem solutions<br />Receives demonstrations, builds models or solves problems<br />How questions & response<br />Modelling facility for performance of tasks such as model building and problem solving<br />(Pask 1975; Laurillard 2002)<br />
10<br />Nicaragua: Distant access<br />Wins<br />VoIP over satellite (standard data link)<br />IP video (fixed data rate 200kbps)<br />Losses<br />Sunlight and heat<br />Sourcing mobile broadband<br />
11<br />Extendable toolkit<br />Networking<br />Local area: Ethernet switch and IEEE 802.11* WiFi<br />Wide area: Broadband (ADSL), mobile broadband (3G) or satellite terminal (BGAN)<br />Devices<br />Netbooks, WiFi cameras, IP video cameras and encoders, Android phones<br />Services<br />XAMPP web, Asterisk VoIP and Prosody IM chat<br />
Discussion<br />Role of technology ~ communication tools<br />Synchronous (time critical)<br />Live video, voice calls, instant message chat<br />Asynchronous (less time critical)<br />Photos, video files, email, discussion boards, wikis, blogs, datasets, mapping<br />Metadata<br />Geocoding, time-stamped<br />12<br />
References<br />Blumenfeld, P. C., Soloway, E., Marx, R. W., Krajcik, J. S., Guzdial, M. and Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating Project-Based Learning: Sustaining the Doing, Supporting the Learning. Educational Psychologist 26, no. 3: 369.<br />Collins, T.D., Lea, J. and Gaved, M.B. (2010). Remote fieldwork: using portable wireless networks and backhaul links to participate remotely in fieldwork. In The Proceedings of the 9th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2010). Valetta, Malta, October. http://oro.open.ac.uk/24711/<br />Laurillard, D. (2002) Rethinking University Teaching: A Conversational Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies. 2nd edition. London: Routledge, Falmer.<br />Linn, M. C., Clark, D. and Slotta, J.D. (2003). WISE design for knowledge integration. Science Education 87, no. 4: 517-538.<br />Pask, G. (1975). Conversation, cognition and learning: A cybernetic theory and methodology. Elsevier, Amsterdam. <br />Salomon, G. (1992). What does the design of effective CSCL require and how do we study its effects? ACM SIGCUE Outlook 21 February: 62–68.<br />14<br />
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