Principles of Teaching for LET Reciew

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Principles of Teaching for LET Reciew

  1. 1. PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHING METHODS •Traditional: old fashion way of teaching •Time tested: methods that stood the test of time and are still being user at present •Progressive: these are newer and more improved methods of teaching
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD METHOD •It makes use of the principles of learning •It utilizes the principles of “learning by doing” •It provides for growth and development •It liberates the learners •It stimulates thinking and reasoning
  4. 4. VARIABLES THAT EFFECT TEACHING METHOD •Objectives •Nature of students •Nature of subject matter •The teacher •Technology •School environment •Teacher’s knowledge of group dynamics
  5. 5. B. MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION LESSON PLANNING Learning Objectives: Their Importance and Construction What is a Learning Objective? • A learning objective is a statement of what students will be able to do when they have completed instruction. A learning objective has three major components: A description of what the student will be able to do The conditions under which the student will perform the task. The criteria for evaluating student performance.
  6. 6. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A GOAL AND A LEARNING OBJECTIVE? • A GOAL is a statement of the intended general outcome of an instructional unit or program. A goal statement describes a more global learning outcome. A learning objective is a statement of one of several specific performance, the achievement of which contributes to the attainment of the goal. A single GOAL may have many specific subordinate learning objectives: For Example • GOAL: The goal of the Learning Assessment course is to enable the students to make reliable and accurate assessment of learning.
  7. 7. • Learning Objective #1: Given a learning objective the student will be able to develop an appropriate multiple-choice question to measure student achievement of the objective. • Learning Objective #2: Given a printout from an item analysis of a multiple choice exam the student will be able to state the accuracy of the test score. • Learning Objective #3: Given the discrimination and difficulty indices of an item the student will be able to determine if the item contributes to the reliability of the exam.
  8. 8. WHY ARE LEARNING OBJECTIVES IMPORTANT? LEARNING OBJECTIVES ARE GUIDE TO: • Selection of content. • Development of an instructional strategy. • Development and selection of instructional materials. • Construction of test and other instruments for assessing and then evaluation student learning outcomes.
  9. 9. HOW DO YOU WRITE A LEARNING OBJECTIVE? IN WRITING A LEARNING OBJECTIVE: •Focus on student Performance not teacher performance. •Focus on product – not process. •Focus on terminal behavior – not subject matter. •Include only one general learning outcome in each objective.
  10. 10. A LEARNING OBJECTIVE - IS A STATEMENT DESCRIBING A COMPETENCY OR PERFORMANCE CAPABILITY TO BE ACQUIRED BY THE LEARNER. Behavior – First, an objective must describe the competency to be learned in performance terms. The choice of a verb is all-important here. Such frequently used terms as know, understand, grasp, and appreciate do not meet this requirement. If the verb used in stating an objective identifies an observable student behavior, then the basis for a clear statement is established. In addition, the type or level of learning must be identified. Criterion – Second, an objective should make clear how well a learner must perform to be judged adequate. This can be done with a statement indicating a degree of accuracy, a quantity or proportion of correct responses or the like.
  11. 11. A LEARNING OBJECTIVE - IS A STATEMENT DESCRIBING A COMPETENCY OR PERFORMANCE CAPABILITY TO BE ACQUIRED BY THE LEARNER. Conditions –Third, an objective should describe the condition under which the learner will be expected to perform in the situation. What tools, references, or other aids will be provided or denied should be made clear. Sometimes, one or even two of these elements will be easily implied by a simple statement. Other times, however, it may be necessary to clearly specify in detail each element of the objective. The following is an example of a completed learning objective: OBJECTIVE: “Given a set of data the students will be able to compute the standard deviation.” Condition: Given a set of data. Behavior: the student will be able to compute the standard deviation. Criterion: (implied) the number computed will be corrected.
  12. 12. CHECKLIST FOR WRITING A SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVE: 1. Begin each statement of a specific learning outcome with a verb that specifies definite, observable behavior. 2. Make sure that each statement meets all three of the criteria for a good learning objective: observable behavior, the conditions under which the student will be expected to perform, and the criteria to be used for evaluation of the student’s performance. 3. Be sure to include complex objectives (appreciation, problem- solving, etc.) when they are appropriate.
  13. 13. TABLE OF PROCESS ORIENTED LEARNER BEHAVIOR KNOWLEDGE recall, identify, recognize, acquire, distinguish COMPREHENSION translate, extrapolate, convert, interpret, abstract, transform APPLICATION apply, sequence, carry out, solve, prepare, operate, generalize, plan, repair, explain ANALYSIS analyze, estimate, compare, observe, detect, classify, discover, discriminate, identify, explore, distinguish, catalog, investigate, breakdown, order, recognize, determine, outside SYNTHESIS write, plan, integrate, formulate, propose, specify, produce, organize, theorize, design, build, systematize EVALUATION evaluate, verify, assess, test, judge, rank, measure, appraise, select, check
  14. 14. DOMAINS OF LEARNING Learning is a psychology process. Thus, the assessment of learning of necessity, requires the assessment of various psychological processes. In developing assessment tools (test) it is important that we first have an understanding of these psychological processes and how to go about measuring them. Although there are many psychological models for the process of learning. For this workbook we have chosen Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy as a useful tool. In Bloom’s taxonomy there are three fundamental learning domains: Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective.
  15. 15. • Affective learning of beliefs, attitudes and values. • Psychomotor learning of physical movements such as ballet steps, how to pitch a curve ball, how to drill out a cavity in a motor, etc. • Cognitive learning of information and the processes of dealing with that information.
  16. 16. THERE ARE SIX LEVELS OF COGNITIVE LEARNING AS SPECIFIED BY BLOOM: • Basic Knowledge • Comprehension • Application • Analysis • Synthesis • Evaluation
  17. 17. Generally it can be said that the first category, Knowledge, is information-oriented as it stresses the ability to recall existing knowledge. The other five categories can be termed “Process Oriented” because they entail more sophisticated learner behavior and competencies that require increasing degrees of understanding. The following are brief definitions of these six levels with a suggestion as to how to assess this level of learning.
  18. 18. • Basic Knowledge: To recall and memorize – assess by direct questions. The object is to test the student’s ability to recall facts, to identify and repeat the information provided. • Comprehension: To translate from one form to another – Assess by having students 1) restate material in their own words, 2) reorder or extrapolate ideas, predict or estimate. Assessments must provide evidence that the students have some understanding or comprehension of what they are saying. • Application: To apply or use information in a new situation – Assess by presenting students with unique situation (i.e. one not identical to that used during instruction) and have them apply their knowledge to solve the problem or execute the proper procedure.
  19. 19. • Analysis: To examine a concept and break it down into its parts – Assess by presenting students with a unique situation of the same type but not identical to that used during instruction, and have them analyze the situation and describe the appropriate procedure of solution to the problem. • Synthesis: To put together in a unique or novel way to solve a problem – Assess by presenting students with a unique situation NOT of the same type used during instruction, and have them solve a problem by selecting and using appropriate information. • Evaluation: To make quantitative or qualitative judgment using standards of appraisal – Assess by presenting the students with a situation which includes both a problem and a solution to the problem and have them justify or critique the solution.
  20. 20. LEVELS OF AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES • Krathwohl’s affective domain taxonomy is perhaps the best known of any of the affective taxonomies “The taxonomy is ordered according to the principle of internalization. • Internalization refers to the process whereby a person’s affect toward an object passes from a general awareness level to a point where the affect is ‘internalized’ and consistently guides or controls the behavior.
  21. 21. • Receiving is being aware of or sensitive to the existence of certain ideas, materials, or phenomena and being willing to tolerate them example include: to differentiate, to accept to listen (for), to respond to. • Responding is committed in some small measure to the ideas, materials, or phenomena involved by actively responding to them. Example are: to comply with, to follow, to commend, to volunteer, to spend leisure time in, to acclaim. • Valuing is willing to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas, materials, or phenomena. Examples include: to increase measured proficiency in, to relinquish, to subsidize, to support, to debate. • Organization is to relate value to those already held and bring into a harmonious and internally consistent philosophy. Examples are: to discuss, to theorize, to formulate, to balance, to examine. • Characterization by value or value set is to act consistently in accordance with the values he or she has internalized. Example include: to revise, to require, to be rated high in the value, to avoid, to resist, to manage, to resolve.
  22. 22. LEVELS OF PSYCHOMOTOR OBJECTIVES • Observing – active mental attending of a physical event. • Imitating – attempted copying of a physical behavior. • Practicing – trying a specific physical activity over and over. • Adapting – fine tuning. Making minor adjustments in the physical activity in order to perfect it.
  23. 23. • The psychomotor domain refer to the use of basic motor skills, coordination, and physical movement. Bloom’s research group did not develop in–depth categories of this domain, claiming lack of experience in teaching these skills. However, Simpson (1972) developed seven psychomotor categories to support Bloom’s domain. These physical behaviors are learned through repetitive practice. A learner’s ability to perform these skills is based on precision, speed, distance, and technique.
  24. 24. DIRECT INSTRUCTION/LECTURE Advantages • Teacher controlled • Many objectives can be mastered in a short amount of time • Lends to valid evaluations Disadvantages • Teacher controlled • Students involvement is limited to the teacher • Depends in part to role learning (repetition from memory, often without meaning) When to use? • When the objectives indicate effectiveness • When the teacher determines that it is the best use of time & effort
  25. 25. SIX STEPS IN DIRECT INSTRUCTION 1. Review previously learned material • a short review before/with the new lesson’s interest approach • check & grade previous homework • put problems on the board (can be part of bell work) • re-teach if necessary 2. State objectives for the lesson • Students should know what is to be taught -Stated clearly -Written on the board -Handed out • Follow the objectives • Use them to develop evaluations
  26. 26. 3. Present new materials • Your teaching depends on your analysis and preparation • Organizing content • From general to specific • From lower level objectives to higher • From previous information to new material Lectures • Be aware of attention spans • Be aware of number of major points made • Be repetitious • Review and summarize • Demonstration • Learning activity, experiment, demonstration • WOW em’! • Allow students to practice immediately 4. Guided practice with corrective feedback • Guided and independent practice • Teacher controls & monitors guided • Teacher evaluated & corrects independent • Question should be prepared in advance
  27. 27. 5. Assign independent practice with corrective feedback • Homework • A formative step … not a summative step • Worksheets 6. Review periodically with corrective feedback if necessary • Check homework promptly • Base new instruction on result • Re-teach if necessary
  28. 28. OTHER TEACHING TECHNIQUES BRAINSTORMING Situations for use: • Generate ideas (quantity is more important than quality) • Students have some level experience Planning required: • Formulate the question • Plan for recording ideas Brainstorming steps • Pose question to class • Generate ideas with group • Accept all ideas (do not criticize) • Go back to summarize • Discard “unacceptable” or unworkable ideas • Determine the best solution(s)
  29. 29. SUPERVISED STUDY • Common technique used in problem solving instruction, but certainly not the only technique appropriate for problem solving instruction. • Also a major technique used in competency-based education programs. • Often misused technique. A really bad form of this technique is: Read the chapter in the textbook and answer the question at the end of the chapter. • Would be classified as an individualized instruction technique.
  30. 30. SITUATIONS APPROPRIATE FOR USE • Discovery or inquiry learning is desired • Access to good reference materials (textbooks, extension publications, web resources, industry publications, etc.) • Students may need to “look up” information • May be alternative answers that are acceptable • Many structured lab activities are actually a form of supervised study
  31. 31. STRENGTHS • Provides skills in learning that are useful throughout students’ lives. They need to know how to locate and analyze information. • Recall is enhanced when student have to “look up” information, rather than being lectured to. • Students have to decide what information is important and related to the question posed. • Opportunity for students to develop writing and analytical skills.
  32. 32. WEAKNESSES: • Easy for students to get off-task • Students may interpret questions differently and locate incorrect information (practicing error). • Unmotivated students will do the absolute minimum. • Students tend to copy information from sources rather than analyze and synthesize information • Requires more time than lecture • Relies on students being able to read and comprehend information at the appropriate level.
  33. 33. PROCEDURES IN CONDUCTING SUPERVISED STUDY: • Teacher develops a list of study questions for students to answer. • Resources and reference materials are located or suggested to students as possible sources of answers. • Students are given time in class to find answers to the questions and to record the answers in their notes. • Note: Due to time constraints, teachers may want to assign different questions to specific students, so that every student is not looking for the same information • Summary consists of discussing the correct answers to the question with the entire class. • Note: Teachers must be careful to emphasize that incorrect answers must be connected
  34. 34. ROLE OF THE TEACHER • Develop a list of study questions that focus on the objectives of the lesson • Develop the anticipated answers to the questions - it is important that he teacher have a firm idea of what are correct or incorrect answers. • Establish time frame for completing the activity. Students need to feel a sense of urgency, so don’t give them more time than you think they will need. • Supervise during this activity, NOT A TIME TO GRADE PAPERS, MAKE PHONE CALLS, PLAN FOR THE NEXT LESSON, OR LOCATE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS IN THIS LESSON! • Assist student in locating information, but not find it for them. • Keep students on task and eliminate distractions. • Plan for reporting of answers
  35. 35. SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION Also Called: • Buzz Groups • Huddle Groups • Phillips 66 • 6 people per group • 6 ideas to be generated • 6 minutes Advantages • Increased participation • Good for generating ideas • Cooperative activity (students learn from each other) •
  36. 36. Planning Required • Clearly form the question of topic • Develop a plan for grouping the students • Plan for reporting • Summarize the activity (what they should have learned) Conducting Small Group Discussion • Write question or topic on board or handout • Give specific instructions on how the group will operate • Establish the limits • Circulate among the groups to help keep them on task (Not as participant!) • Give warning near end of time allocated • Reports: Rotate among the groups for answers
  37. 37. GAMES Situations for use: • Motivate students • Reviews • Check for understanding Strengths: • Active learning technique • Appeals to competitive students • High interest level Planning Required • Game must be developed by teacher • Rules must be established. Try to anticipate all potential situations that might occur. You do not want the effectiveness of the activity to be destroyed by arguments over rules. • Develop a plan for determining teams • Developing plan for keeping score • Determine rewards-make them appropriate (usually very minor in nature) Types: Games may take a variety of forms, but most often they are modeled after: • TV game shows • Sports • Home board games
  38. 38. FIELD TRIPS AND RESOURCES PERSONS Situations for use: • First hand experiences are needed • Need expertise Planning Needed: • Objective • Trial run/visit • Special considerations (safety, grouping, etc.) • Summarize (don’t give up responsibility!). It is critical to know what the students have learned from the activity. Tips: • Provide advance organizers (report forms, fact sheets) • “plant” questions among students • Assign students to begin the questions With-it-ness – The teachers knows what is going on in the classroom at all times. Seemingly, the teacher has eyes in the back of his/her head. This is not only when the teacher is in small group setting, but when he/she is presenting a topic or students are working as individuals. It can be as simple as looking around the room frequently or making sure your back is never turned to the class. It is not necessary to know what the teacher knows is going on - it is what the students believe she knows
  39. 39. OTHER HELPFUL INFO ON STUDENT CONTROL • The Hawthorne affect is a phenomenon in industrial psychology first observed in the 1920s that refers to improvements in productivity or quality resulting from the mere fact that workers were being studied or observed. • Pygmalion effect (or Rosenthal effect) which refers to situations in which students performed better than other students simply because they were expected to do so.
  40. 40. • John Henry Effect has also been identified: an experiment my spur competition between groups, precisely because they are conscious of being part of an experiment. The term “halo effect” describes what happens when a scientific observation is influenced by the observer’s perceptions of the individual, procedure, or service that is under observation. The observer’s prejudices, recollections of previous observations, and knowledge about prior observations or findings can all affect objectivity and must be guarded against. • JACOB KOUNIN All of this came about from an incident that happened while he was teaching a class in Metal Hygiene. A student in the back of the class was reading newspaper, the newspaper being opened fully in front of the student so that he couldn’t see the teacher. Kounin asked the student to put the paper away and pay attention. Once the student complied, Kounin realized that other students who were engaging in non-appropriate behaviors (whispering, passing notes) stopped and began to pay attention to the lecture. This gave him an interest in understanding classroom discipline on not only the student being disciplined, but also the other students in the classroom. This is the effect that became known as the “Ripple Effect”
  41. 41. D. EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUE The Art of Questioning • Teachers ask sometimes over a hundred questions in a class session to encourage student thinking. Let’s examine some aspects of the art of questioning, including: types of questions wait time, and questioning and creativity. Categories of Questions There are many systems that teachers use to classify questions. Upon close observation in most systems questions are typically classified into two categories. Various terms are used to describe these two categories (Figure 1) The binary approach is useful because two categories are more manageable for a beginning teacher to learn to implement than the typical approach of using systems with six categories.
  42. 42. FIGURE 1. CATEGORIES OF QUESTIONS Category 1 Category 2 • Factual Higher cognitive • Closed Open • Convergent Divergent • Lowe level Higher level • Low order High order • Low inquiry High Inquiry
  43. 43. Low inquiry questions. These questions focus on previously learned knowledge in order to answer question posed by the teacher which require the students to perform ONE of the following tasks: 1. Elicit the meaning of a term 2. Represent something by a word or a phase 3. Supply an example of something 4. Make statements of issues, steps in a procedure, rules, conclusions, ideas and beliefs that have previously been made. 5. Supply a summary or a review that was previously said or provided 6. Provide a specific, predictable answer to a question.
  44. 44. High inquiry questions. These question focus on previously learned knowledge in order to answer questions posed by the teacher which require the students to perform ONE of the following tasks: • Perform an abstract operation, usually of mathematical nature, such as multiplying, substituting, or simplifying. • Rate some entry as to its value, dependability, importance, or sufficiency with a defense of the rating. • Find similarities or differences in the qualities of two or more entities utilizing criteria defined by the student. • Make a prediction that is the result of some stated condition, state, operation, object or substance. • Make inference to account for the occurrence of something (how or why it occurred).
  45. 45. • Wait Time. Knowledge of the types of questions and their predicted effect on student thinking is important to know. However, researchers have found that there are other factors associated with questioning that can enhance critical and creative thinking. One of the purposes of questioning is to enhance and increase verbal behavior of students.
  46. 46. BASIC APPROACHES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION • Montessori Approach: Based on the philosophy of Maria Montessori, this approach believes that the child will reach his/her maximum potentials in a “prepared” environment. This approach make use of “autodidactic” materials or self-correcting materials. The system encourages the children to take care of their own belongings like preparing their own snacks, cleaning toys and materials after using etc. the teacher of oftentimes called “directress” clinically observes the child as he/she progresses with activities. • Waldorf Approach: Rudolf Steiner is the founder of Waldorf Approach. Creation of “dependable routine” is the main concept of Waldorf. Daily schedule and weekly schedule follow a certain rhythm. Students stays with the teacher for up to 8 years making them bond and trust as they relate with their teachers. The approach foster home-like atmosphere and environment focusing on creative learning (play, drama, story reading, cooking etc.) The child total development (emotional, physical and intellectual) is therefore enhanced.
  47. 47. • Reggio Emilia Approach: The people of Reggio Emilia in Italy made a significant development in their preschools back in 1940’s wherein the curriculum consisted of activities that shows the interest of the students. The “projects” of the students reflects the students’ interest and the teacher simply guide them in the realization of their pursuits. Children learn by their mistakes and all their projects are documented by photos and records using the students’ own words thus allowing the parents and the teachers see the students’ progress. • High/Scope Approach: Dr. David Weikart, an educator from Michigan started the High/Scope Approach emphasizing on the academic skill development rather than social and emotional development. Collaboration between the teacher and students are encouraged in making decision on materials and even activities. The program was initially focused on children in the urban areas who are considered to be at risk. • Bank Street Approach: Based on the early childhood program of Bank Street College of Education in New York, the program looked at the children as active learners and the world is around them is the best teaching tool. The lesson is Bank Street approach is focused on social sciences (history, geography, anthropology) and art lesson are integrated in curriculum, Students are encouraged to be creative and can work alone and in group Teacher are trained in guiding the students.

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