The Korean War


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The Korean War

  1. 1. Kate Whitney and Sravya CharyTHE KOREAN WAR E Block World 한국전쟁 History II Honors
  2. 2. WHAT WAS THE KOREAN WAR? 한국전쟁은 무었일까?A three-year struggle near the start of the Cold War between communist North Korea and democratic South Korea which involved othercountries such as the United States, China, and a multinational United Nations coalition
  3. 3. BACKGROUND: A DIVIDED KOREA 배경: 갈라진 한국 February 1945: Yalta Conference  Trusteeship to rule Korea formed by Roosevelt and Stalin Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference July-August 1945: Potsdam Conference  Korea divided along the 38 th Parallel Korea divided by the 38th parallel
  4. 4. THE KOREAN WAR: CAUSES 한국전쟁의 이유 US/Soviet Disagreement Republic of Korea (ROK)  Syngman Rhee Democratic People’s Republic of Korea  Kim II Sung Both leaders wanted to unite Korea  Kim eager to introduce Soviet-style Syngman Rhee communism June 25, 1950: Kim attacked South Korea  Soviet support  War between the two Koreas Kim II Sung
  5. 5. AMERICAN & UN INVOLVEMENT 미국의 참여 South Koreans outnumbered and outgunned  Forced to retreat President Harry S. Truman pledges support  Truman Doctrine UN request for cease fire ignored by North Korea UN members asked to assist South Korea  Multinational military coalition led by U.S. September 15, 1950: UN staged Inchon Landing Harry S. Truman
  6. 6. PUSAN PERIMETER 인천 방문 Retreat of U.S. forces General Walton Walker Late July 1950: Dug in along 145 mile front called Pusan Perimeter General Walton Walker North Korean human charges Allowed buildup of troops Beginning September 16, 1950: U.S, and South Korean troops began advance north Map highlighting the Pusan Perimeter
  7. 7. PUSAN PERIMETER – EFFECTS 인천 방문의 성공United States North Korea• Stronger, harder fighting units • Immense casualties• Use of technology • Casualties replaced by poorly • Decreased North Korean trained teenage recruits advantage A tank Wounded North Korean soldiers at the Pusan Perimeter
  8. 8. INCHON LANDING 중국의 개입 (SEPTEMBER 15, 1950) Directed by Douglas MacArthur Land army at Inchon Harbor  Close to Pusan Perimeter Many challenges  Tidal changes, underwater islands, mud flats, guns at mouth of harbor, high walls guarding harbor Scaling wall at Inchon Harbor  Required special equipment Large force  Troops from 6 UN countries  More than 200 ships & many planes  Outnumbered North Korean forces Troops landing in Inchon Harbor
  9. 9. INCHON LANDING – UN SUCCESS 부산의 둘레 September 27, 1950: Seoul fell to UN troops UN established in powerful Kimpo Airport strategic position October 1950: North Korean forces retreating northward toward China Seoul during the Korean War
  10. 10. CHINESE INTERVENTION 부산 둘레의 효과 New UN Goal October 1950: Brief Chinese involvement UN forces approaching Yalu River  General Douglas MacArthur Chinese troops marching across the Yalu River  Most of Korea under UN control November 1950: 260,000 Chinese troops intervened  Fought at Yalu River for 3 days  UN retreat Map of Korea in early 1950
  11. 11. THE END OF THE WAR 전쟁의 끝Spring 1951: lines stabilized near 38 th parallelJuly 27, 1953: Map of Korea in late 1951 armistice signed  No peace treaty made Signing the armistice at Panmunjom
  12. 12. EFFECTS OF THE WAR – ECONOMIC 전쟁의 경제적인 효과 Increased US defense spending US Spending in Billions  Never returned to previous level of Dollars 60 Shortages, inflation, & deficits for Western European 50 nations 40 Revitalized Japanese economy 30  One of world’s largest economies by 1970s 20 Boosted South Korean 10 Economy 0 Before War During War
  13. 13. EFFECTS OF THE WAR – SOCIAL & CULTURAL 전쟁의 사회적인, 문화적인 효과 Accelerated racial integration of US military  Civil Rights Movement North Korean movement of women in workforce North Korean women working in a factory  Result of great casualties South Korea & Japan opened to Western culture Integrated troops fighting in the Korean War
  14. 14. EFFECTS OF THE WAR – GEOPOLITICAL 전쟁의 지오폴리티컬 효과 Strengthened presidency Legitimized UN Militarized US’s containment policy  Continued commitment to containment  Involvement in Vietnam War Poor relations between China & US for 20 years The flag of the UN, 1950 Temporarily drew Chinese & Soviets together  Set stage for eventual split