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World History Chapter 6: Ancient Rome and Early Christianity
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World History Chapter 6: Ancient Rome and Early Christianity


Notes taken from McDougal Littell's "World History"

Notes taken from McDougal Littell's "World History"

Published in Education , News & Politics
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  • THANK YOU SOOO MUCH!!!! I HATE TAKING NOTES!!!! Could you please do one on chapter 7 thanks!!
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  • 1. Origins of Rome/ Geography
    Founded in 8th century by Romulus and Remus- sons of Latin princess and Mars
    Abandond on Tiber river and raised by she-wolf
    Built city near Tiber river for strategic location and fertile soil
    Built on seven rolling hills at a curve on T. R., near center of Italian Peninsula
  • 2. First Romans
    Latins, Etruscans, and Greeks settled on Italian peninsula in prehistoric times
    built original Rome settlement, a wooden cluster of huts on 1/7 hills called Palatine Hill
    skilled metalworkers + engineers – contributed arch
    natives of N. Italy
    Contributed alphabet
    established colonies along southern Italy + Sicily
    Cities were commercially active & prosperous
    Brought Italy + Rome into closer contact with Greek civil.
  • 3. The Early Republic
    Etruscan became king and Rome grew from hiltop villages to city which covered 500 squ. miles.
    Temples and Public centers were built
    Forum: public center and heart of pol. Life
    Last King of Rome: Tarquin the Proud- harsh tyrant driven from power
    Citizens created a republic: form of gov. in which power rests with citizens who have right to vote
    Citizenship with voting rights only granted to free-born males
  • 4. 2 Groups Struggle for Power
    wealthy landowners
    Inherited power and social status- claimed ancestry gave right to make laws for Rome
    Common farmers and artisans -90 % of pop.
    Had right to vote
    Barred by law from holding most important gov. pos.
    Elected by Plebeians to represent them and protect them from unfair acts of Patrician officials
  • 5. Twelve Tables- Rome’s Laws
    Plebeians forced officials to make written law code so patricians code not interpret the law to fit their own needs.
    Carved on tablets that hung in Forum
    Basis of Roman law- idea that all free citizens had right to protection of the law
  • 6. Government under Republic
    Took the best of the monarchy , arist., dem.
    Monarchy: 2 Consuls: commanded army and directed gov. 1 years term. Could veto other consuls decisions
    Aristoracy: Senate: 300 upperclass members
    Influence over domestic and foreign policies
    Had legislative and administrative functions
    Plebeians allowed in later
    Democracy: Tribal Assemblies
    Tribal Assembly- formed by pleb.- elected tribunes
    Made laws for people and later the republic itself
    In times of crisis, republic could appoint a dictator- leader with absolute power to make laws and command army
    In power for 6 months
    Chosen by consuls and elected by senate
  • 7. Roman Army
    Citizens who owned land were required to serve army
    Seekers of public office had to serve 10 years
    Legion- large military unit made of 500 heavily foot soldiers called infantry
    Cavalry- horseback soldiers who supported legion
    Century- Group within legion made of 80 men
    Military Org. and fighting skills were key factors in Rome’s rise to greatness
  • 8. Rome Spreads Its Power
    Power grew slow and steady
    Defeated Etruscans and conquered Italian peninsula
    Lenient policy toward defeated enemies helped Rome to expand
    Latins enjoyed full Roman citizenship
    Others enjoyed citizenship except voting rights
    Farther conquered territories were allies and Rome did not interfere as long as they supplied troops and pledged loyalty only to Rome
  • 9. Rome’s trading Network
    Location gave it easy access to riches of Med.
    Carthage (N. African peninsula) interfered with this access and thus the Punic Wars were started.
    1st War: Over control of Sicily (23 yrs.)- Carthage defeated
    2nd War: Hannibal- Carthaginian general who led large army and elephants on long trek from Spain across France through Alps. To surprise Rome and inflicted enormous losses on Rome. Rome used help from allies to prevent H. from overtaking them
    3rd War: Scipio, Roman military leader forced H. back to Carthage At Zama H. was defeated. Carthage was burnt, pop. Was enslaved, and Carthage was made a Roman province
    Victories gave Rome dominance over W. Med. Then conquered East: Anatolia to Spain.
  • 10. The Republic Collapses
    Economic Turmoil:
    Poverty- enslaved people made 1/3 of pop.
    Farmers were unable to compete with wealthy landowners with huge estates who had war-captured slaves to run them. They sold their land became jobless and homeless
    Most worked as seasonal migrant laborers, went to cities for work, and joined ¼ of the urban poor.
    Tiberius and Gaius: Tribunes who attempted to help poor by proposing reforms like limiting estate size and giving the land to poor.
    Came to violent deaths due to being enemies of senate who were threatened by ideas.
    A period of civil war followed these deaths.
  • 11. Military Upheavel
    Generals began to seize greater power for themselves by recruiting soldiers from the homeless and promising them land
    Allegiance was payed only to commanders-not republic itself
    Julius Caesar, one of these military leaders, partnered with Crassus, wealthy Roman, and Pompey, a popular general.
    Through their help, Caesar was elected consul and the men dominated as a triumvirate.
  • 12. Caesar Rises in Pol. And Social Pop.
    Following his self-appointment as governor of Gaul, he led a grueling campaign to conquest Gaul and won his men’s loyalty because shared fully in the hardships of the war.
    Pompey became Caesar’s political rival and urged senate to order Caesar to disband his legions and return home in fear of his growing pop.
    Caesar defied these orders and defeated Pompey’s armies in Greece, Asia, Spain, and Egypt
    He returned home will full support of the masses and his army and the senate appointed him dictator for life.
  • 13. Caesars Contributions
    Granted citizenship to people in many provinces
    Expanded the senate-added friends, Italian and other region supporters
    Helped poor by creating jobs through the construction of new public buildings
    Started colonies where people without land could own properties
    Increased pay for soldiers
  • 14. Caesar- A Threat?
    Many nobles and senators were concerns about C.’s growing power and feared losing their influence
    Some considered him a tyrant
    Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius with a number of important senators plotted and executed Caesar’s assassination.
    The stabbed him
  • 15. Beginning of the Empire
    After Caesar’s death, civil war broke out again and destroyed what was left of the Roman republic.