Blood types

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Blood types

  1. 1. BLOOD TYPES 1
  2. 2. Blood is a complex, living tissue that contains many cell types and proteins. Atransporter, regulator, and defender, bloodcourses through the body carrying out many important functions. 2
  3. 3. PROTEINS & BLOOD TYPES:Distinct molecules Another level ofcalled agglutinogens (a specificity is added totype of antigen) are blood type byattached to the surface examining the presenceof red blood cells. or absence of the RhThere are two different protein. Each bloodtypes ofagglutinogens, type "A" type is either positiveand type "B". Each type "+" (has the Rh protein)has different or negative "-" (no Rhproperties. The ABO protein). Forblood type example, a personclassification systemuses the presence or whose blood type is "Aabsence of these positive" (A +), hasmolecules to categorize both type A and Rhblood into four types: proteins on the surface of their red blood cells. March 8, 2012 3
  4. 4. BLOOD TYPE IS GENETIC The A and B antigen molecules on the surface of red blood cells are produced by two different enzymes. These two enzymes are encoded by different versions, or alleles, of the same gene: A and B. The A and B alleles code for enzymes that produce the type A and B antigens respectively. A third version of this gene, the O allele, codes for a protein that is not functional and does not produce surface molecules. Two copies of the gene are inherited, one from each parent. The possible combinations of alleles produce blood types in the following way:March 8, 2012 4
  5. 5. WHEN BLOOD TYPES MIX There are two special blood types when it comes to blood transfusions. People with type O blood are universal donors because there are no molecules on the surface of the red blood cells that can trigger an immune response. People with type AB blood are universal recipients because they do not have any antibodies that will recognize type A or B surface molecules. Note: Blood cells are covered with a variety of surface molecules. For simplicity, only type A and B surface molecules are shown here.March 8, 2012 Sample footer 5
  6. 6. WHEN BLOOD TYPES MIX Blood plasma is packed with proteins called antibodies. The body produces a wide variety of antibodies that will recognize and attack foreign molecules that may enter from the outside world. A persons plasma does not contain any antibodies that will bind to molecules that are part of his or her own body. When conducting a blood transfusion, it is important to carefully match the donor and recipient blood types. If the donor blood cells have surface molecules that are different from those of the recipient, antibodies in the recipients blood recognize the donor blood as foreign. This triggers an immune response resulting in blood clotting. If the donor blood cells have surface molecules that are the same as those of the recipient, the recipients body will not see them as foreign and will not mount an immune response.March 8, 2012 Sample footer 6
  7. 7. RH FactorsScientists sometimes study Rhesusmonkeys to learn more about the humananatomy. While studying Rhesus monkeys, acertain blood protein was discovered. Thisprotein is also present in the blood of somepeople. Other people, however, do not havethe protein.The presence of the protein, or lack of it, isreferred to as the Rh (for Rhesus) factor. A+ A-If your blood does contain the protein, yourblood is said to be Rh positive (Rh+). If your B+ B-blood does not contain the protein, your blood AB+ AB-is said to be Rh negative (Rh-). O+ O-

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