Multi-Regional HypothesisGeneral Concerns: Regional characteristics may be parallel evolution for similar environmental pressure Strong variability in key features combined with small sample size
Multi-Regional HypothesisBy Region: Europe – lacks transitional fossils abrupt change at 40 k Neanderthals overlapped Cro Magnon for 10k
evidence for interbreeding? Portugal – 25,000 years ago 4-year-old modern chin tooth size pelvis Neanderthal short limbs
Multi-Regional HypothesisBy Region: Africa – evolutionary series from H. ergaster to H. sapiens (This applies to both hypotheses)
Multi-Regional Hypothesis Aborigines to Javanese H. erectus brow ridges receding forehead facial prognathism Living Chinese upper face flatness sagittal keel? shovel-shaped incisors Kow Swamp
Replacement: Out of Africa 2Rapid Replacement Model
Homo sapiens“Art” Wall paintings [parietal] Portable art Rare or never for Neanderthals
Homo sapiens ArtCave painting E.g.s - Altamira, Spain Lascaux, France 32,000 years agok mixed ores and oils to extend paint life
Homo sapiens ArtMeaning? art for art’s sake magic religion territorial boundaries choice of animals identity
Homo sapiens ArtPortable Art 45,000-38,000 years ago Mumba Cave, Tanzania Border Cave, South Africa ostrich shell beads
‘Modern’ Behavior in MSA Blombos Cave, South Africa, 75,000 cross- hatched ochre Blombos Cave -Shells drilled with holes – beads, 73,000 – adornment? Katanda, DRC, Harpoon- like bone points, 90,000+ years ago
Burial and Cremation Upper Paleolithic Europe Grave goods: beads, animal teeth [time & labor intensive – vignette] Symbolic behavior – ochre Australia – Cremation, Lake Mungo – ochre Israel – Qafzeh - ochre
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