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The Origin, Dispersal and   Bioarchaeology of     Homo sapiens        Chapter 13         ATH 255
Chapter goalsExamine three sources of evidence:1)hominid  fossils2)archaeological record3)Genetic - DNA [modern and ancien...
Anatomical ‘signals’ of Homo  sapiens in the cranium
Homo sapiens Crania   High domed    [rounded] cranium   Retracted face    Delicate jaw                         Modern S...
Bulging of Parietal RegionCro Magnon        Modern
Cranial Vault - Modern Crania   1350 cc – varies   Vertical forehead   Rounded occipital    contour      loss of      ...
Mandible - Modern Crania   No retromolar gap   Always a    distinctive chin                        Qafzeh
Modern Crania   Face tucked    under anterior    braincase   Flexed cranial    base                        Qafzeh
Modern CraniaBrow ridges reduced Males > Females Brow ridges separated
Modern CraniaCanine Fossa   None in Neanderthals     Present in African H.      heidelbergensis
Cranial Features of Moderns   Variability in featuresliving people                 Qafzeh
Postcrania   Reduction in robusticity       Reduced muscle markings       Thinner cortical bone   Early are warm adapt...
Reconstructions•French anatomist & sculptress,Elisabeth Daynes•From  specific fossil individuals:examples: H.s.s., Mechta ...
Homo sapiens sapiens ~ 25,000 years    ago; Mechta Afalou, Algeria
Homo sapiens sapiens ~ 25,000 years ago
La Ferrassie 1, Neandertal    Dordogne, France
Neandertal male based on La        Ferrassie 1
Neandertal male based on La Ferrassie 1 –                 profile
Incisor Wear: this image from chapter 12    powerpoint– see next two slides !
H. neanderthalensis “Classic male”Museum of Natural History – NYC diorama
H. neanderthalensis “Classic female”Museum of Natural History – NYC diorama
On the Verge…   Herto, Ethiopia Fig    13.3       Two adults       One juvenile       Nature 2003   About 160,000 yea...
Homo sapiens   120k to about 50k   South Africa   Klassies River Mouth                           Klassies River Mouth
Near East Homo sapiens   Qafzeh and Skhul, Israel   110,000- 90,000 years ago   Logical place for movement out    of Af...
European Homo sapiens   Oase 1   Romania   36-34,000 years ago   40,000 years ago to    present       Upper Paleolith...
European Homo sapiens   “Cro Magnon”   France   27,000 years ago   Typical - Other Cro    Magnon fossils more    mosai...
Qafzeh     Skhul     Omo KibishKlassies River MouthDie KeldersBorder Cave
Earliest Asian H. sapiens   Niah Cave, Borneo       40,000 years ago       Debated – stratigraphy        & provenience...
Modern H. sapiens migration to          Australia
Australian Homo sapiens   Lake Mungo   40kya       1 adult female        cremated       1 old male, buried,        cov...
Australia, Lake Mungo ~ 40,000            years ago
Australian Homo sapiens   Kow Swamp   Willandra Lakes   More robust than    Lake Mungo       13,000 to 9,500       H....
From Where Did We Come?                         BodoKNM ER 3733                 Amud
From Where Did We Come?Two major models:   Multi-Regional   Replacement, aka,    Out-Of-Africa, or    OOAII, or OOA2    ...
Multi-RegionalHypothesisOut of Africa 2
Multi-Regional HypothesisGeneral Concerns: Regional characteristics may be parallel  evolution for similar environmental ...
Multi-Regional HypothesisBy Region: Europe – lacks  transitional fossils     abrupt change at 40 k     Neanderthals ove...
evidence for interbreeding?   Portugal – 25,000    years ago   4-year-old   modern       chin       tooth size      ...
Multi-Regional HypothesisBy Region: Africa – evolutionary series from H.  ergaster to H. sapiens   (This applies to both...
Multi-Regional Hypothesis   Aborigines to    Javanese H. erectus       brow ridges       receding forehead       facia...
Replacement: Out of Africa 2Rapid Replacement Model
An ‘out of Africa’ phylogeny
Replacement: Out of Africa 2   Africa –130 k       160 kya   Israel – 100 k   Europe 40 k to 30 k   Asia – 50 k   Au...
0k100 k                              Homo sapiens        Homo        neanderthalensis400 k         • H. sapiens in Africa ...
Technology
Upper Paleolithic Tools   40 – 27 K [Europe]       Chatelperronian (35 – 30 k)       Aurignacian (34 – 27 k)   blades...
Upper Paleolithic blade tools in flint
L: Skhul, Israel; R: Cro-Magnon, France      Upper Paleolithic technology
Upper Paleolithic Tools –Magdalenian
Upper Paleolithic Tools –Solutrean Laurel       leaf blades and engravers
Upper Paleolithic -Solutre, France         Horse Kill Site
Upper Paleolithic burials and settlements                in Europe
Upper Paleolithic burials and settlements         in Dordogne, France
Sungir, Burial Upper Paleolithic 23,000 years ago               ~ 130 miles East of MoscowGrave goods – headband carved iv...
African Evidence   Archaeological evidence in MSA looks    ‘modern’   E.g. blades – 75,000; microliths – 65,000   ‘more...
The Spread of Image Making
Homo sapiens“Art” Wall paintings  [parietal] Portable art   Rare or never for    Neanderthals
Homo sapiens ArtCave painting E.g.s - Altamira, Spain  Lascaux, France 32,000 years agok   mixed ores and oils to    ex...
Homo sapiens ArtMeaning?   art for art’s sake   magic   religion   territorial boundaries   choice of animals   iden...
Homo sapiens ArtPortable Art 45,000-38,000 years ago Mumba Cave, Tanzania Border Cave, South  Africa     ostrich shell...
‘Modern’ Behavior in MSA Blombos Cave, South  Africa, 75,000 cross-  hatched ochre Blombos Cave -Shells  drilled with ho...
Burial and Cremation   Upper Paleolithic Europe       Grave goods: beads, animal teeth [time &        labor intensive – ...
Chapter 13 origin, dispersal and bioarchaeology of homo sapiens part 1
Chapter 13 origin, dispersal and bioarchaeology of homo sapiens part 1
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Chapter 13 origin, dispersal and bioarchaeology of homo sapiens part 1

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Biological Anthro Ch 13

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  • Transcript of "Chapter 13 origin, dispersal and bioarchaeology of homo sapiens part 1"

    1. 1. The Origin, Dispersal and Bioarchaeology of Homo sapiens Chapter 13 ATH 255
    2. 2. Chapter goalsExamine three sources of evidence:1)hominid fossils2)archaeological record3)Genetic - DNA [modern and ancient]4)See handout [from Auerbach, B.,ed. Human Variation in the Americas]
    3. 3. Anatomical ‘signals’ of Homo sapiens in the cranium
    4. 4. Homo sapiens Crania High domed [rounded] cranium Retracted face Delicate jaw Modern Skull
    5. 5. Bulging of Parietal RegionCro Magnon Modern
    6. 6. Cranial Vault - Modern Crania 1350 cc – varies Vertical forehead Rounded occipital contour  loss of transverse Qafzeh
    7. 7. Mandible - Modern Crania No retromolar gap Always a distinctive chin Qafzeh
    8. 8. Modern Crania Face tucked under anterior braincase Flexed cranial base Qafzeh
    9. 9. Modern CraniaBrow ridges reduced Males > Females Brow ridges separated
    10. 10. Modern CraniaCanine Fossa  None in Neanderthals  Present in African H. heidelbergensis
    11. 11. Cranial Features of Moderns Variability in featuresliving people Qafzeh
    12. 12. Postcrania Reduction in robusticity  Reduced muscle markings  Thinner cortical bone Early are warm adapted  Tall and thin Later morphology reflect Bergman’s and Allen’s rules
    13. 13. Reconstructions•French anatomist & sculptress,Elisabeth Daynes•From specific fossil individuals:examples: H.s.s., Mechta Afalou,Algeria; H.s.n./H.n. La Ferrasie 1,Dordogne, France.
    14. 14. Homo sapiens sapiens ~ 25,000 years ago; Mechta Afalou, Algeria
    15. 15. Homo sapiens sapiens ~ 25,000 years ago
    16. 16. La Ferrassie 1, Neandertal Dordogne, France
    17. 17. Neandertal male based on La Ferrassie 1
    18. 18. Neandertal male based on La Ferrassie 1 – profile
    19. 19. Incisor Wear: this image from chapter 12 powerpoint– see next two slides !
    20. 20. H. neanderthalensis “Classic male”Museum of Natural History – NYC diorama
    21. 21. H. neanderthalensis “Classic female”Museum of Natural History – NYC diorama
    22. 22. On the Verge… Herto, Ethiopia Fig 13.3  Two adults  One juvenile  Nature 2003 About 160,000 years ago H. sapiens sapiens or H. sapiens idaltu
    23. 23. Homo sapiens 120k to about 50k South Africa Klassies River Mouth Klassies River Mouth
    24. 24. Near East Homo sapiens Qafzeh and Skhul, Israel 110,000- 90,000 years ago Logical place for movement out of Africa Mammalian fossil composition similar to African Qafzeh
    25. 25. European Homo sapiens Oase 1 Romania 36-34,000 years ago 40,000 years ago to present  Upper Paleolithic Tools
    26. 26. European Homo sapiens “Cro Magnon” France 27,000 years ago Typical - Other Cro Magnon fossils more mosaic? Cro Magnon
    27. 27. Qafzeh Skhul Omo KibishKlassies River MouthDie KeldersBorder Cave
    28. 28. Earliest Asian H. sapiens Niah Cave, Borneo  40,000 years ago  Debated – stratigraphy & provenience Wadjak, Java  Eugene Dubois - recovered late 1800s  40,000?
    29. 29. Modern H. sapiens migration to Australia
    30. 30. Australian Homo sapiens Lake Mungo 40kya  1 adult female cremated  1 old male, buried, covered in red ochre Flake tools  50kya
    31. 31. Australia, Lake Mungo ~ 40,000 years ago
    32. 32. Australian Homo sapiens Kow Swamp Willandra Lakes More robust than Lake Mungo  13,000 to 9,500  H. erectus traits?
    33. 33. From Where Did We Come? BodoKNM ER 3733 Amud
    34. 34. From Where Did We Come?Two major models: Multi-Regional Replacement, aka, Out-Of-Africa, or OOAII, or OOA2 Cro Magnon
    35. 35. Multi-RegionalHypothesisOut of Africa 2
    36. 36. Multi-Regional HypothesisGeneral Concerns: Regional characteristics may be parallel evolution for similar environmental pressure Strong variability in key features combined with small sample size
    37. 37. Multi-Regional HypothesisBy Region: Europe – lacks transitional fossils  abrupt change at 40 k  Neanderthals overlapped Cro Magnon for 10k
    38. 38. evidence for interbreeding? Portugal – 25,000 years ago 4-year-old modern  chin  tooth size  pelvis Neanderthal  short limbs
    39. 39. Multi-Regional HypothesisBy Region: Africa – evolutionary series from H. ergaster to H. sapiens (This applies to both hypotheses)
    40. 40. Multi-Regional Hypothesis Aborigines to Javanese H. erectus  brow ridges  receding forehead  facial prognathism Living Chinese  upper face flatness  sagittal keel?  shovel-shaped incisors Kow Swamp
    41. 41. Replacement: Out of Africa 2Rapid Replacement Model
    42. 42. An ‘out of Africa’ phylogeny
    43. 43. Replacement: Out of Africa 2 Africa –130 k  160 kya Israel – 100 k Europe 40 k to 30 k Asia – 50 k Australia – 40 k Skuhl
    44. 44. 0k100 k Homo sapiens Homo neanderthalensis400 k • H. sapiens in Africa antedate end of Neanderthals • Overlap • Disappearance of Neanderthal with anatomically modern800 k
    45. 45. Technology
    46. 46. Upper Paleolithic Tools 40 – 27 K [Europe]  Chatelperronian (35 – 30 k)  Aurignacian (34 – 27 k) blades burins compound tools novel materials variable assemblages rapid pace technological development
    47. 47. Upper Paleolithic blade tools in flint
    48. 48. L: Skhul, Israel; R: Cro-Magnon, France Upper Paleolithic technology
    49. 49. Upper Paleolithic Tools –Magdalenian
    50. 50. Upper Paleolithic Tools –Solutrean Laurel leaf blades and engravers
    51. 51. Upper Paleolithic -Solutre, France Horse Kill Site
    52. 52. Upper Paleolithic burials and settlements in Europe
    53. 53. Upper Paleolithic burials and settlements in Dordogne, France
    54. 54. Sungir, Burial Upper Paleolithic 23,000 years ago ~ 130 miles East of MoscowGrave goods – headband carved ivory & teeth of Arctic fox; beads, bracelets
    55. 55. African Evidence Archaeological evidence in MSA looks ‘modern’ E.g. blades – 75,000; microliths – 65,000 ‘more evolutionary than revolutionary’ p. 343 [McBrearty and Brooks]
    56. 56. The Spread of Image Making
    57. 57. Homo sapiens“Art” Wall paintings [parietal] Portable art Rare or never for Neanderthals
    58. 58. Homo sapiens ArtCave painting E.g.s - Altamira, Spain Lascaux, France 32,000 years agok mixed ores and oils to extend paint life
    59. 59. Homo sapiens ArtMeaning? art for art’s sake magic religion territorial boundaries choice of animals identity
    60. 60. Homo sapiens ArtPortable Art 45,000-38,000 years ago Mumba Cave, Tanzania Border Cave, South Africa  ostrich shell beads
    61. 61. ‘Modern’ Behavior in MSA Blombos Cave, South Africa, 75,000 cross- hatched ochre Blombos Cave -Shells drilled with holes – beads, 73,000 – adornment? Katanda, DRC, Harpoon- like bone points, 90,000+ years ago
    62. 62. Burial and Cremation Upper Paleolithic Europe  Grave goods: beads, animal teeth [time & labor intensive – vignette] Symbolic behavior – ochre Australia – Cremation, Lake Mungo – ochre Israel – Qafzeh - ochre
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