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Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
Final2010 literaryelement
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Final2010 literaryelement


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  • 1. The Basic Elements of a Story Ms. Martin/Mr. Doran/Mrs. Sepp English 8
  • 2. Setting
    • place and time in which the story takes place.
      • may be multiple settings in a story
        • novels
    1590s, London
  • 3. Imagery
    • consists of words and phrases that appeal to readers’ senses.
      • help readers imagine how things look, feel, smell, sound, and taste.
    • “ With wonder, she ran her fingers over the beautiful marble horses that stood along the edge of the pool and gazed down at the water with opaque eyes” (Hosseini 28).
  • 4. Plot
    • The series of events that make up a story.
  • 5. The Parts of a Plot-Freytag’s Pyramid 1. Exposition: setting the scene. The writer introduces the characters and setting, providing description and background. 2. Inciting Incident: something happens to begin the action. A single event usually signals the beginning of the main conflict. The inciting incident is sometimes called 'the complication'. 3. Rising Action: the story builds and gets more exciting. 4. Climax: the moment of greatest tension in a story. This is often the most exciting event. It is the event that the rising action builds up to and that the falling action follows. 5. Falling Action: events happen as a result of the climax and we know that the story will soon end. 6. Resolution: the character solves the main problem/conflict or someone solves it for him or her.
  • 6. Narrator-the teller of the story
    • ▪ Point of View: the perspective from which the story is told
    • • First-person - the narrator is a character in the story and uses first-person pronouns, such as I , me, we, and us.
    • • Third-person - the narrator is not a character; he or she uses third-person pronouns, such as he, she, it, they, them.
  • 7. Characterization
    • includes all the techniques writers use to create and develop characters
      • four basic methods of developing a character.
        • 1. Presenting the character’s words and actions
        • 2. Presenting the character’s thoughts
        • 3. Describing the character’s appearance
        • 4. Showing what others think about the character
  • 8. Static/Dynamic Characters
    • • Static characters [flat]: characters who change little, if at all, throughout the literary work.
    • • Dynamic characters [round] : characters who change significantly throughout the work.
  • 9. Conflict
    • the struggle between two
    • opposing forces
      • Internal Conflict
        • Man vs. self
      • External conflict
        • Man vs. Man
        • Man vs. Nature
        • Man vs. society
  • 10. Theme
    • a message, moral or idea that the author wants to impart to the audience through the story.
    • can be complex or they can be as simple as the story of “The Tortoise and the Hare” theme, slow and steady winds the race.
  • 11. Symbol
    • is a person, a place, an object, or an action that stands for something beyond itself
      • the bald eagle is a symbol of the United States.
  • 12. Finally,
    • Figurative Language : Authors use figurative language to create fresh and original descriptions. Figurative expressions, while not literally true, help readers picture ordinary things in new ways.
  • 13. Figurative Language
    • Simile : comparison between two unlike things using like or as
    • Metaphor- This is a stated or implied comparison between two relatively unlike things using a form of “to be.” The comparison is not always announced by “like or as.” Example: “Juliet is the sun.”
  • 14. Figurative Language
    • Personification -
      • figure of speech which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea.
      • a comparison which the author uses to show something in an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to control the way a reader perceives it.
        • The moon winked. The trees waved to us. The rock told a story.
    • Hyperbole
      • An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect.
      • It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point.
        • She told me a million times.