▪ Point of View: the perspective from which the story is told
• First-person - the narrator is a character in the story and uses first-person pronouns, such as I , me, we, and us.
• Third-person - the narrator is not a character; he or she uses third-person pronouns, such as he, she, it, they, them.
• Characterization : Characterization includes all the techniques writers use to create and develop characters. There are four basic methods of developing a character.
1. Presenting the character’s words and actions
2. Presenting the character’s thoughts
3. Describing the character’s appearance
4. Showing what others think about the character
• Static characters [flat]: characters who change little, if at all, throughout the literary work.
• Dynamic characters [round] : characters who change significantly throughout the work.
Conflict: is the struggle between two opposing forces
Internal Conflict- Man vs. self
External conflict - Man vs. Man
Man vs. Nature
Man vs. society
A theme is a message, moral or idea that the author wants to impart to the audience through the story.
Themes can be complex or they can be as simple as the story of “The Tortoise and the Hare” theme, slow and steady winds the race.
Symbol: A symbol is a person, a place, an object, or an action that stands for something beyond itself. For example, the bald eagle is a symbol of the United States.
Figurative Language : Authors use figurative language to create fresh and original descriptions. Figurative expressions, while not literally true, help readers picture ordinary things in new ways.
Simile : comparison between two unlike things using like or as
Metaphor- This is a stated or implied comparison between two relatively unlike things using a form of “to be.” The comparison is not always announced by “like or as.” Example: “Juliet is the sun.”
Personification -A figure of speech which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea. It is a comparison which the author uses to show something in an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to control the way a reader perceives it. Example: The moon winked. The trees waved to us. The rock told a story.
Hyperbole An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point. Example: She told me a million times.