The Basic Elements of a Story Ms. Martin/Mr. Doran/Mrs.Sepp Mastery English 8
Setting <ul><li>Setting is the place and time in which the story takes place. There may be multiple settings in a story, especially in novels. </li></ul>18th Century London Theater
Imagery <ul><li>Consists of words and phrases that appeal to readers’ senses. Writers use sensory details to help readers imagine how things look, feel, smell, sound, and taste. </li></ul><ul><li>“ With wonder, she ran her fingers over the beautiful marble horses that stood along the edge of the pool and gazed down at the water with opaque eyes” (Hosseini 28). </li></ul>
Plot <ul><li>The series of events that make up a story. </li></ul>
The Parts of a Plot-Freytag’s Pyramid <ul><li>Exposition- This is the opening of a story where the setting, main characters and the conflict is introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Rising action- This is the part of the story where the character(s) struggles with a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Climax - This is the height of the action where the conflict is resolved. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution - This is where the loose ends of the story are tied up. </li></ul>Climax Exposition Resolution Rising Action Falling action
Narrator-the teller of the story <ul><li>▪ Point of View: the perspective from which the story is told </li></ul><ul><li>• First-person - the narrator is a character in the story and uses first-person pronouns, such as I , me, we, and us. </li></ul><ul><li>• Third-person - the narrator is not a character; he or she uses third-person pronouns, such as he, she, it, they, them. </li></ul>
Characterization <ul><li>• Characterization : Characterization includes all the techniques writers use to create and develop characters. There are four basic methods of developing a character. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Presenting the character’s words and actions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Presenting the character’s thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>3. Describing the character’s appearance </li></ul><ul><li>4. Showing what others think about the character </li></ul>
Static/Dynamic Characters <ul><li>• Static characters [flat]: characters who change little, if at all, throughout the literary work. </li></ul><ul><li>• Dynamic characters [round] : characters who change significantly throughout the work. </li></ul>
Conflict <ul><li>Conflict: is the struggle between two opposing forces </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Conflict- Man vs. self </li></ul><ul><li>External conflict - Man vs. Man </li></ul><ul><li>Man vs. Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Man vs. society </li></ul>
Theme <ul><li>A theme is a message, moral or idea that the author wants to impart to the audience through the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Themes can be complex or they can be as simple as the story of “The Tortoise and the Hare” theme, slow and steady winds the race. </li></ul>
Symbolism <ul><li>Symbol: A symbol is a person, a place, an object, or an action that stands for something beyond itself. For example, the bald eagle is a symbol of the United States. </li></ul>
Finally, <ul><li>Figurative Language : Authors use figurative language to create fresh and original descriptions. Figurative expressions, while not literally true, help readers picture ordinary things in new ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Simile : comparison between two unlike things using like or as </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor- This is a stated or implied comparison between two relatively unlike things using a form of “to be.” The comparison is not always announced by “like or as.” Example: “Juliet is the sun.” </li></ul>
Figurative Language <ul><li>Personification -A figure of speech which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea. It is a comparison which the author uses to show something in an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to control the way a reader perceives it. Example: The moon winked. The trees waved to us. The rock told a story. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperbole An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point. Example: She told me a million times. </li></ul>
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