Toxic and Hazardous Waste: Love Canal Disaster Kate Mason Geol 108 Nicholas Klein
What is Toxic Waste? <ul><li>As defined in  Environmental Science: A Global Concern,  “A hazardous waste is any discarded ...
Catch 22 <ul><li>Toxic waste is almost always a byproduct of some extremely useful production process </li></ul><ul><li>Fo...
Image source: http://www.mpu.agric.za/SOER/Mpumalanga%20Publikit%20Web%20Version%20SoER%20%282003%29/Graphics/mpumalanga/G...
What happens when hazardous waste enters a community? <ul><li>Is it visible? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it smell? </li></ul><u...
Love Canal neighborhood Niagara Falls, New York <ul><li>1890s </li></ul><ul><li>William T. Love </li></ul><ul><li>Canal to...
Model Community > Dump Site <ul><li>1942- Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation (later, Occidental Chemical Corporation...
10 years later…. <ul><li>Hooker Chemical Company covered the canal with dirt and sold it to the city for </li></ul><ul><li...
What happened next: <ul><li>In the 1970s heavy rainfall caused groundwater, mixed with chemical waste, to rise and flood t...
Image and description source: http://abcnews.go.com/US/popup?id=5548326&contentIndex=1&start=false&page=12 “ Mark Zanatian...
Image source: http://documentaryworks.org/punctum/images/LoveCanal.jpg
Community Activism! <ul><li>Lois Gibbs, started the Love Canal Homeowner’s Association and fought to bring attention to th...
Emergency <ul><li>A ten month long investigation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led President Carter to decl...
<ul><li>The U.S. government declared emergency evacuations of the area in 1978 and 1980, relocating more than 900 families...
Consequences of exposure to hazardous chemicals: <ul><li>Birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Miscarriages </li></ul><ul><li>Ot...
Federal Superfund Act-1980 <ul><li>According to  Environmental Science: A Global Concern,  the Superfund is “a revolving p...
Renewing the law… <ul><li>Obama Campaign Promise No. 318 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Will restore the strength of the Superfun...
Love Canal Timeline 1942  -- Hooker Chemical Company begins dumping of chemical wastes at Love Canal 1952  -- City of Niag...
<ul><ul><li>Works Cited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beck, Eckardt C. &quot;The Love Canal Tragedy.&quot;  Environmental Pro...
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Mason love canal

  1. 1. Toxic and Hazardous Waste: Love Canal Disaster Kate Mason Geol 108 Nicholas Klein
  2. 2. What is Toxic Waste? <ul><li>As defined in Environmental Science: A Global Concern, “A hazardous waste is any discarded material, liquid or solid, that contains substances known to be (1) fatal to humans or laboratory animals in low doses, (2) toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic to humans or other life forms, (3) ignitable with a flash point less than 60 degrees Celsius, (4) corrosive, or (5) explosive or highly reactive.” </li></ul>Image source: http://defenseoftherepublic.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/toxic-waste.jpg
  3. 3. Catch 22 <ul><li>Toxic waste is almost always a byproduct of some extremely useful production process </li></ul><ul><li>For example, plastic production, dry cleaners, automobile repair shops, hospitals, exterminators, and photo processing centers all generate hazardous waste. </li></ul>Image source: www.faeriecara.com/.../1224107614Plastics.jpg
  4. 4. Image source: http://www.mpu.agric.za/SOER/Mpumalanga%20Publikit%20Web%20Version%20SoER%20%282003%29/Graphics/mpumalanga/GraphsAndStats/total_volume_and_type_of_hazardous_waste_%28dwaf__1998%29.jpg
  5. 5. What happens when hazardous waste enters a community? <ul><li>Is it visible? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it smell? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it damage structures? </li></ul><ul><li>Can it be harmful to residents? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s take a look at what happened at Love Canal… </li></ul>
  6. 6. Love Canal neighborhood Niagara Falls, New York <ul><li>1890s </li></ul><ul><li>William T. Love </li></ul><ul><li>Canal to provide cheap power to dream community </li></ul><ul><li>1910 Tesla foils plans </li></ul>Image source: NY Times PDF http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9D04E6DA1031E033A25752C3A9639C94629ED7CF
  7. 7. Model Community > Dump Site <ul><li>1942- Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation (later, Occidental Chemical Corporation) dumped over 21,000 tons of chemical waste into Love Canal. </li></ul>Image source: http://www.pacificspirit.org/news/uploaded_images/ave_of_barrels-732435.jpg
  8. 8. 10 years later…. <ul><li>Hooker Chemical Company covered the canal with dirt and sold it to the city for </li></ul><ul><li>$1 !!!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>After this, homes and schools were built </li></ul>Image source: http://www.istl.org/00-spring/article2.html
  9. 9. What happened next: <ul><li>In the 1970s heavy rainfall caused groundwater, mixed with chemical waste, to rise and flood the basements of many residential homes </li></ul>Image source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20090418/climate-legislation/images/fabcd954-515d-4620-bd93-c41211831fee.jpg
  10. 10. Image and description source: http://abcnews.go.com/US/popup?id=5548326&contentIndex=1&start=false&page=12 “ Mark Zanatian, one of the children endangered by the Love Canal chemical spill waves a banner in protest during a neighborhood protest meeting on Aug. 5, 1978.”
  11. 11. Image source: http://documentaryworks.org/punctum/images/LoveCanal.jpg
  12. 12. Community Activism! <ul><li>Lois Gibbs, started the Love Canal Homeowner’s Association and fought to bring attention to the issue of chemical leakages in the residential community </li></ul>Image source: http://a.abcnews.com/images/US/nm_gibbs_080809_ssv.jpg
  13. 13. Emergency <ul><li>A ten month long investigation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led President Carter to declare the Love Canal site to be in a state of emergency </li></ul>Image source: http://www.enterstageright.com/archive/articles/0105/011005lovecanal.jpg
  14. 14. <ul><li>The U.S. government declared emergency evacuations of the area in 1978 and 1980, relocating more than 900 families </li></ul>Image source: http://eightiesclub.tripod.com/11df98fa0.jpg
  15. 15. Consequences of exposure to hazardous chemicals: <ul><li>Birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Miscarriages </li></ul><ul><li>Other health issues </li></ul>http://www.health.state.ny.us/environmental/investigations/love_canal/images/birth_defects_408x234.gif
  16. 16. Federal Superfund Act-1980 <ul><li>According to Environmental Science: A Global Concern, the Superfund is “a revolving pool designed to (1) provide an immediate response to emergency situations that pose imminent hazards, and (2) to clean up or remediate abandoned or inactive sites.” </li></ul><ul><li>While the fund was once financed by taxes put on producers of chemical waste, this “polluter pays” tax expired in 1995 and it has yet to be reauthorized. </li></ul><ul><li>Public funds now cover clean up </li></ul>Image source: http://library.thinkquest.org/07aug/00524/images/epacleanup.png
  17. 17. Renewing the law… <ul><li>Obama Campaign Promise No. 318 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Will restore the strength of the Superfund program by requiring polluters to pay for the cleanup of contaminated sites they created.&quot; </li></ul>Image source: http://blog.silive.com/latest_news/2009/08/medium_obama0801.jpg
  18. 18. Love Canal Timeline 1942 -- Hooker Chemical Company begins dumping of chemical wastes at Love Canal 1952 -- City of Niagara Falls disposes of municipal wastes at the site 1953 -- Hooker Corporation fills the canal and sells the land to Niagara Falls Board of Education 1955 -- Elementary school (99th Street) opens 1959 -- Chemical seepage into basement is reported 1974 -- Surface of dump begins to collapse and barrels of chemicals are exposed 1976 -- NYDEC documents widespread contamination of sewers and sumps in the neighborhood 1977 -- Local reporter begins investigating possible links of contamination to illness City's consultant reports contamination 1978 -- New York legislature authorizes health studies Love Canal Homeowners Association (LCHA) is formed President Carter declares a &quot;state of emergency&quot; and approves emergency financial aid 1979 -- USEPA contracts for a pilot study of chromosomal damage Love Canal Inter-Agency Task Force is dissolved U.S. Justice Department files a lawsuit against Hooker Chemical Corporation 1980 -- New York State Attorney files a lawsuit against Hooker Corporation and Occidental Petroleum President Carter declares a second federal emergency in the Love Canal area CERCLA (Superfund) is enacted 1981 -- Federal government closes its on-site office in Niagara Falls 1983 -- Former residents and Occidental settle lawsuits 1984 -- New clay cap is installed over canal 1985 -- Some former residents receive compensation from settled lawsuits 1987 -- USEPA decides to burn soil contaminated with dioxin 1988 -- Occidental Petroleum Company is found liable for cleanup costs 1989 -- Consent agreement is reached between the U.S. government and Occidental Adapted from: Timeline of Events at Love Canal http://onlineethics.org/cms/16415.aspx Author(s): Zaremba, Mark
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Works Cited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beck, Eckardt C. &quot;The Love Canal Tragedy.&quot; Environmental Protection Agency (1979). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cunningham, William P., and Mary Anne Cunningham. &quot;Additional Case Studies: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voyage of the Khian Sea.&quot; Principles of Environmental Science . 9 Dec. 2007 <http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/0072919833/student_view0/chapter13/additional_case_studies.html#khian>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cunningham, William P., Mary Ann Cunningham, and Barbara W. Saigo. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Science . 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;EPA, New York State Announce Temporary Relocation of Love Canal Residents.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Protection Agency (1980). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitchcock, Liz. &quot;Bush Administration Obscures Truth About Toxic Cleanups.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. PIRG . 26 Feb. 2004. 9 Dec. 2007 <http://www.uspirg.org/news-releases/healthy-communities/healthy-communities/bush-administration-obscures-truth-about-toxic-cleanups>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Love Canal: the Start of a Movement.&quot; Center for Health, Environment, and Justice . 9 Dec. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2007 <http://www.chej.org/>. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strickler, Annie E. &quot;Superfund Accomplishments.” Sierra Club . 4 Nov. 2003. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 Dec. 2007 <http://www.sierraclub.org/pressroom/releases/pr2003-11-04.asp>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Superfund National Accomplishments.&quot; Environmental Protection Agency . 16 Nov. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2007. 9 Dec. 2007 <http://www.epa.gov/superfund/accomp/numbers07.htm>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ U.S. Sues Hooker Chemical At Niagara Falls, New York.&quot; Environmental Protection Agency (1979). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weintraub, M. &quot;Racism and Lead Poisoning.&quot; American Journal of Public Health (1997). </li></ul></ul>
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