Report in organization maed em managing change.


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Report in organization maed em managing change.

  1. 1. MANAGING CHANGE<br /> Tom Peters<br /> - “To up the odds of survival, leaders at all <br /> levels must become obsessive about change”<br />- “Change must become the norm, not cause <br /> for alarm.”<br /> Jack Welch<br />- “When the rate of change on the outside <br /> exceeds the rate of change on the inside, the <br /> end is in sight”<br />
  2. 2. Essential skills that the manager must master if the organization is to compete globally<br /><ul><li>Managing change
  3. 3. Dealing with its impact on the corporate </li></ul> culture<br />>>>Organizations today are beset by <br /> change<br />>>>Others have trouble transferring their <br />skills to a new assignment in different <br />industry.<br />
  4. 4. To be successful, managers must be able to adapt the following changes: <br /><ul><li>a growing organizations
  5. 5. new assignment
  6. 6. changing customer needs
  7. 7. changing employee </li></ul> expectations<br /><ul><li> changing competition</li></li></ul><li>Change as a global issue<br />>>One of the driving pressures for change is the desire to compete globally.<br />America’s Global Trading Partners:<br />Japan<br />China<br />Europe<br />
  8. 8. <ul><li>Erick A. Cronson</li></ul><<“Change has to be radical – if you stay in your comfort zone, you will not be internationally competitive.”<br /><ul><li>Joseph V.Marulli</li></ul><<Transformation has to be in the <br />leader‘s heart, in your heart, and in the hearts of all the senior people<br />
  9. 9. Types of change<br />1.Technological Changes<br />2. Environmental Changes<br />3. Internal Changes<br />
  10. 10. Types of changes affecting organizations<br />Technological<br />Machines <br />Equipment<br />Processes<br />Automation<br />Computers<br />New raw materials<br />Robots<br />Environmental<br />Laws<br />Taxes<br />Social trends<br />Fashion trends<br />Political trends<br />Economic trends<br />Interest rates<br />Consumer trends<br />Competition<br />Suppliers<br />population trends<br />Internal<br />Policies<br />Procedures<br />New Methods<br />Rules<br />Reorganization<br />Budget adjustment<br />Restructuring of jobs<br />Personnel<br />Management<br />Ownership<br />Products/services sold<br />
  11. 11. The change process<br />Kurt Lewin— Change is a function of the forces that support or promote the change and those forces that oppose or resist the change<br />Lewin’s Three –Step Model for Change<br />Unfreezing-deals with breaking down the forces supporting or maintaining the old behavior<br />Presenting a new alternative-involvesoffering a clear and attractive option representing new patterns of behavior<br />Refreezing-requires that the change behavior be reinforced by the formal or informal reward systems and by the work group.<br />
  12. 12. Reasons for resisting change<br />Fear of the unknown<br />Economics<br />Fear that skills and expertise will lose value<br />Threats to power<br />Additional work and inconvenience<br />Threats to interpersonal relations<br />
  13. 13. Four Basic Situations Usually Occur:<br />If employees cannot foresee how the change will affect them, they will resist the change or be neutral at best.<br />If employees perceive that the change does not fit their needs and hopes, they will resist the change.<br />If employees see that the change is inevitable, they may first resist and then resign themselves to the change.<br />
  14. 14. If employees view the change as being in their best interests, they will be motivated to make the change work.<br />STEPS ARE RECOMMENDED BEFORE ISSUING A CHANGE DIRECTIVE<br />Determine the response needed from the employee to accomplish the task effectively.<br />Estimate the expected response if the directive is simply published or orally passed to the employee (as many are)<br />
  15. 15. 3. If a discrepancy exists between the needed response and the estimated response, determine how the two responses can be reconciled(opposition is never an acceptable response)<br />
  16. 16. Employee response model<br />Very negative 1. Opposition<br />Neutral 2. Acceptance<br />Very Positive 3. Commitment<br />
  17. 17. SEVERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR REDUCING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE<br />Build Trust<br />Discuss Upcoming Changes<br />Involve the Employees<br />Make Sure the Changes Are Reasonable<br />Avoid Threats<br />Follow a Sensible Time Schedule<br />Leading Change<br />Establish a Sense of Urgency<br />Create a Guiding Coalition<br />
  18. 18. Model for leading change<br />
  19. 19. Model for leading change<br />
  20. 20. SEVERAL SUGGESTIONS FOR REDUCING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE<br />10. Develop a vision and strategy<br />11. Communicate the Change Vision<br />12. Empower Broad-Based Action<br />Generate Short-Term Wins<br />Consolidate Gains and Produce More Change<br />Anchor New Approaches in the Culture <br />
  21. 21. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT<br />--is an organizationwide, planned effort managed from the top, with a goal of increasing organizational performance through planned interventions in the organization<br />Ultimate goal---to structure the organizational environment so that managers and employees can use their skills and abilities to the fullest <br />
  22. 22. MOST ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING PHASES<br />Diagnosis—in this stage one should collect data for a reason<br />Most frequently used methods for doing diagnosis<br />Review available records.<br />Survey questionnaires.<br />Personal interviews.<br />Direct observations.<br />
  23. 23. MOST ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING PHASES<br />Change planning-the data collected in the diagnosis stage must be carefully interpreted to determine the best plan for organizational improvement<br />--the key to interpreting data is to look for trends and areas of general agreement<br />--the end result of the change planning process is to identify specific problem areas and outline steps for resolving the problems<br />Intervention/education—its purpose is to share the information obtained in the diagnostic phase with the affected employees and help them realize the need for change<br />
  24. 24. Most frequently used intervention/education methods<br /><ul><li>Direct Feedback
  25. 25. Team Building</li></ul>SOME OF THE SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES USED:<br />Clarifying employee roles<br />Reducing conflict<br />Improving interpersonal relations<br />Improving problem-solving skills<br />
  26. 26. Most frequently used intervention/education methods<br />Sensitivity Training—designed to make one or more aware of oneself and one’s impact to others<br />---involves a group, usually called a training group or T-group, that meets and has no agenda or particular focus<br />EVALUATION---the most difficult phase in OD process the basic question to be answered is, Did the OD process produce the desired results?<br />
  27. 27. Managing innovations<br />INNOVATIONS—is an organization’s best sustainable source of growth, competitive advantage , and new wealth.<br />Four Principles According to Robert Tucker<br />An organization’s approach to innovation must be comprehensive.<br />Innovation must include systematic, organized and continual search for new opportunities<br />
  28. 28. Four Principles According to Robert Tucker<br />3. Organizations must involve everyone in the innovation process.<br />4. An organization must work constantly on improving its climate for innovation.<br />
  29. 29. The Learning Organization<br />>>has been defined as an organization skilled at creating , acquiring and transferring knowledge , and in modifying behavior to reflect the new knowledge <br />
  30. 30. Five Principles for Creating a Learning Organization---Peter Senge<br />Systems Thinking—managers must learn to see the big picture and not concentrate only on their part; they must learn to recognize the effects of one level of learning on another<br />Personal mastery--Individual managers and employees must be empowered to experiment, innovate and explore<br />Mental models—Managers and employees should be encouraged to develop mental models as ways of stretching their minds to find new and better ways of doing things<br />
  31. 31. 4. Shared vision—Managers should develop and communicate a shared vision that can be used as a framework fro addressing problems and opportunities.<br />5.Team building—Team learning is the process of aligning a team so as to avoid wasted energy and to get the desired results.<br />HONDA, CORNING & GENERAL ELECTRIC>>>examples of companies that have become good learning organizations<br />
  32. 32. Thank you..& Godbless us!!!<br />By: MARJORIE R. VILLAFUERTE<br />(MAED-EM)<br />March 19,2011<br />