Caroline Newnationstudyguide2
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  • 1. Extra Credit By Caroline Hill
  • 2. Why was the Constitution written? How was it gong to help the U.S.. in its early years?
  • 3.
    • The Constitution was written because it said our how government should be organized. It helped the U.S. because they were a new country and they needed a guide to how the country should be run since they didn’t know how to.
  • 4. What is the Executive branch? Who is in it?
  • 5.
    • The executive branch carries out the laws and runs the government on a day to day basis. It is run by the president and his (or her) cabinet. A cabinet is the group that is selected by the president to give advice on different issues. Each person is the head of a different department.
  • 6. What is the Judicial branch? Who is in it?
  • 7.
    • The Judicial branch interprets the laws and decide if they constitutional. The Judicial branch is made up of the supreme court and lower courts. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the Judicial branch. Today there are 9 justices (judges), but back 1790 there were 6. John Jay was the first Chief Justice.
  • 8. How big was the country? Where did people live?
  • 9.
    • The country was 864,746 square miles. It stretched from the Atlantic ocean to the Mississippi River, from the south of Georgia and south or Canada. 95% people lived on on a farm and 5% lived in the city.
  • 10. What were peoples jobs, education and clothing like?
  • 11.
    • Men wore wigs, buckle shoes, tights, breeches, waistcoats.
    • Women wore high skirts and corsets.
    • School was a one-room schoolhouse and it was usually only boys.
    • Some jobs were Weaver, Shoemaker, Coach maker, blacksmith, and there was so many more.
  • 12. What was the population of the U.S. in 1790? What was the white people population? Black people?
  • 13.
    • Total population: 3,737,000
    • White population: 2,968,000
    • Black population: 742,000
    • Many more people in the south had slaves because slavery was banned in the north in the early 1800’s
  • 14. How did the geography help the U.S.?
  • 15.
    • The geography helped the U.S. because they had the Appalachian mountains running along the west coast of the country to protect from the Indians invading. There is also the Atlantic Ocean along the east coast, the gulf of Mexico to the south, and lakes and rivers to the north to also protect from Spain and Britain also invading.
  • 16. How did the geography affect the U.S.?
  • 17.
    • The geography affected the U.S. because it could make it hard for them to trade with other countries like Spain and Britain. Also it could be hard for us to expand to the west because of the mountains, people would have to travel over them to live there.
  • 18. Why did Hamilton want a national bank? Why didn’t Jefferson?
  • 19.
    • Hamilton wanted a national bank because it would be a place for them to keep tax money. Jefferson didn’t want a national bank because Hamilton did and because it wasn't clearly stated in the Constitution and he was a strict construction follower.
  • 20. Who was in Washington’s Cabinet? What were their jobs? What is a Cabinet?
  • 21.
    • A cabinet is a group of official advisors to the president; head of government departments.
    • George Washington’s cabinet included:Thomas Jefferson who was the Secretary of State, Alexander Hamilton who was the Secretary of the Treasury, and General Henry Knox who was the Secretary of War.
  • 22. What was Hamilton and Jefferson’s compromise to deal with the debt?
  • 23.
    • Hamilton and Jefferson’s compromise was that Hamilton would convince the North to move the permanent capital closer to the south. Jefferson would convince the Southern leaders to support Hamilton’s plan and pay off the Northern state’s debts.
  • 24. How did the U.S. become in a major debt? Who helped them fix it?
  • 25.
    • The U.S. became in a major debt because of the Revolutionary war against Britain. France helped them repay their debt. Individual citizens helped by buying bonds.
  • 26. Why didn’t the U.S. have enough money to start a new nation?
  • 27.
    • The U.S. didn’t have enough money to start a new nation because they weren’t stable and didn’t know how to make money besides taxing and but the people they were taking didn’t have a lot of money. There was also inflation which was when each state had different currencies and in some states it was worthless
  • 28. What is loose construction? Why did people believe in it ?
  • 29.
    • Loose Construction is when you believe in the Constitution in a more flexible way. Some people believed in this because they thought that the writers of the Constitution meant that Congress could interpret the laws and give them power over new things in society.
  • 30. What is strict construction? Why didn’t they like loose construction?
  • 31.
    • Strict Construction is when you look at exactly what the Constitution says and following it. Some people liked this better than loose construction because they thought that the Federal government had to much power and that what ever the Constitution doesn’t give to the federal government, that it should got to the states.
  • 32. Why was a national bank created? Who helped create it and why?
  • 33.
    • The national bank was created because it could be a safe place to put tax money and help businesses by loaning them money when they needed it.
    • Hamilton thought of the idea because he thought it would help the country grow stronger. He then suggested that after 20 years Congress would have to vote for it to continue, so the bank wouldn’t get to much power.
  • 34. What was the problem with Hamilton plan to create a national bank? How did he fix it?
  • 35.
    • The problem with Hamilton’s plan was that the Constitution never stated that the federal government could create banks.
    • He read Article 1, section 8 of the Constitution and it stated that Congress could pass any law that was “necessary and proper” so Hamilton thought creating a national bank was “necessary and proper”
  • 36. What is the “Elastic Clause” of the Constitution?
  • 37.
    • The “Elastic Clause” of the Constitution is when Congress “stretches” it’s power to take powers away from the states and give more to the federal government.
  • 38. What is foreign policy? Why is it so important?
  • 39.
    • Foreign policy is a nation’s views and actions towards other nations. It is so important because you can help other countries when they are need and when we are in need they will help you in return. Like a natural disaster or not enough food/ freedom or if there is a war.
  • 40. What are the best polices for the U.S. to use towards other countries?
  • 41.
    • Answers may vary, but I think the best policies are:
    • Help our friends when we can, but focus on ourselves first
    • Help nations in need even if they aren’t close friends
    • Stay out of other nations arguments as much as we can (neutral)
    • Defeat nations that we oppose at all costs of they threaten us but only if they attack us first
  • 42. What was the neutrality proclamation?
  • 43.
    • The Neutrality Proclamation was when George Washington stated that the United States would remain neutral towards all nations at war in Europe. Washington thought this was the best plan because the national government split into 2 groups; pro-French and pro-British
  • 44. What are the 3 things the Constitution says about slavery?
  • 45.
    • The 3 things the Constitution says about slavery are: that in 20 years (1808) slave trade could be banned. The 3/5 compromise which was that a slave would be counted as 3/5 a person when counting the population for representatives for the House of Representatives. The last was the fugitive slave act, a law that said if a slave ran away from another state it must be returned to their slaveholder, and it was illegal to help runaway slaves.
  • 46. Should Washington be allowed to own slaves and make slave laws?
  • 47.
    • Washington should be allowed to own slaves because everyone else did and treated them much better than other people did. He should be allowed to make slave laws because he is part of the national government and he was against slavery but he needed slaves to do work for him and his family.
  • 48. What do you think Washington wrote about in his Farewell Address?
  • 49.
    • Washington hopes:
    • -he set good precedents
    • -we look at all the options before taking a side in an international war/conflict
    • - the country will get bigger and stronger
    • Washington worries:
      • -country will go to war and be in a bigger debt
      • -states may divided over power
  • 50. What did Washington actually say in his Farewell Address?
  • 51.
    • Washington’s Farewell Address is really long, but the highlights include the following ideas:
    • - he tried his hardest but made mistakes
    • - he is worried political parties will form based on location and people will be forced into believing things they don’t
    • - you shouldn’t break up peace and should to avoid debt