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New Nation Study Guide by Bella

New Nation Study Guide by Bella

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  • 1. Study Guide for the New Nation Test!!!!! By: Ysabella Ruiz
  • 2. Vocabulary
    • What is a Cabinet and who was in George Washington’s cabinet?
    • What are precedents and what significant precedents were made in 1790 that we look to today?
    • What is the electoral college and why is it important?
  • 3. Answers to “Vocabulary”
    • A cabinet is a group of people who officially advice the president. George Washington’s cabinet included Thomas Jefferson (secretary of state), Alexander Hamilton (secretary of treasury), General Henry Knox (secretary of war), and Edmund Randolph (attorney general).
    • Precedents are actions/decisions that later serve as an example. Since, this was the first time that our country was becoming organized into a government, we basically look back at all the things they did as a reference. If something didn’t work back then, we would try a different tactic.
    • The electoral college is a group selected by state legislatures to represent the popular vote in a Presidential Election. This group of people is very important, because they are to determine the next president. Although it says they should represent the popular vote for their state, the key thing is they don’t have to.
  • 4. Life in 1790
    • How much power were women given?
    • What were the children’s main priority?
    • What were some signs of wealth in 1790?
  • 5. Answers to “Life in 1790”
    • Women were limited and could not do many things. Their main job was to be housewives and good mothers. Some women were allowed to have a basic education, but even less could be teachers. They also could not have their own property, when married all their property were given to their husband.
    • Children in 1790 were put to work. The boys would help their fathers in the fields and girls would cook and clean. Their main priority was to basically work. Very few children had toys and playing with friends was a privilege. (A lot different from today!)
    • The rich often showed their wealth by wearing gold or very fine clothing. They also showed off by hiring people to paint pictures of them. They could read and write which showed they had a good education.
  • 6. Geography of 1790
    • What countries surrounded our nation and why was it important that we as a nation had a good relationship with these other countries?
    • What were the two biggest cities in 1790?
    • Did more people live on the farm or in the city? Why?
  • 7. Answers to “Geography in 1790”
    • Above the U.S. were the British and to the west was Spain. Basically if we weren’t on their good side then they could easily attack us. As we learned when George Washington made the Neutrality Proclamation both of these countries fought against us and we had to make treaties with them. These countries were also some of our biggest trade partners.
    • The two biggest cities in 1790 were Philadelphia and New York. Although not many people lived in the city, Philadelphia had 42,000 people and New York had 33,000 people.
    • About 95% of the people lived on a farm while 5% lived in the city. Most people lived in the rural parts, because that is where most people worked. They had to plant crops and maintain all the crops. Working in the fields was very common in 1790.
  • 8. Important People
    • Which two cabinet members were absolute rivals and what were some of their main arguments with each other?
    • Who did Washington and Hamilton send to Britain and why did they send him?
    • Who was Thomas Pinckney and what did he do for our country?
  • 9. Answers to “Important People”
    • The two rivalries in George Washington’s cabinet were Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. Some main problems they had were their different views on a national bank, power for the federal government, and how the Constitution should be viewed. They often argued and were two complete opposites.
    • Washington and Hamilton send John Jay to negotiate a treaty with Britain. After Washington signed the treaty the British didn’t like that the U.S. were taking a side. George Washington was angry with the, because they were disturbing the peace he was trying to keep.
    • Thomas Pinckney was sent to Spain to make treaty that would open back up the port in New Orleans with a right of deposit. We needed this because that was the only way the western part of our nation could trade.
  • 10. $$ Money Issues $$
    • How did the U.S. pay for the Revolutionary war and who was in charge of paying back all this debt?
    • What were some of the problems Hamilton faced and what were some of his ideas?
    • What was Hamilton planning to put taxes on?
  • 11. Answers to “Money Issues”
    • The federal government payed for the Revolutionary war by borrowing from other countries, U.S. citizens, and the states borrowed $21 million from the federal government. Since the states were borrowing from the federal government, they were basically borrowing from the citizens and other countries.
    • Hamilton had to figure out a way to pay back everyone we borrowed from. He thought that taxation was the only way the U.S. could pay back. He also had to think about who he would pay back first, many thought that the other countries should be payed back, because we didn’t want to get in another war. Then we had France who backed us up. Hamilton had many things to think about.
    • Hamilton thought it would be a good idea to tax on Whisky, but then that brought out the Whisky Rebellion and he had even more problems to handle.
  • 12. Loose vs. Strict Interpretation
    • What does it mean to read the Constitution with a loose or strict interpretation?
    • Who supported each interpretation and how did it affect their relationship?
  • 13. Answers to “Loose vs. Strict”
    • When someone looks at the Constitution with a loose interpretation they are looking at it in depth or in a flexible way so that something could be looked at the way they wanted it to. When the Constitution is looked at strictly they are only looking at the fine print and reading exactly what it says.
    • Alexander Hamilton viewed the Constitution loosely while Thomas Jefferson viewed it strictly. This was a minor argument compared to the many other problems they faced. They were complete opposites which made it very hard for them to be in George Washington’s cabinet together.
  • 14. National Bank
    • What would the National Bank let the government do?
    • How did Hamilton use his loose interpretation of the Constitution to convince the Congress that we needed a National Bank?
  • 15. Answers to “National Bank”
    • The National Bank was going to let the federal government store tax money, loan money issues, and establish single currency for the nation. Although we don’t have a National Bank today it was the start of keeping our money organized and overall was very helpful as a reference.
    • Hamilton said that according to the last line of Article 1, Section 8 gives Congress the power to pass any laws IF they are “necessary and proper.” He believed the National Bank was necessary since the government needed a place to store taxes and Congress already had lots of power with money.
  • 16. Foreign Policy
    • President Washington had a tough choice on his hands about the war between England and France, what are some main arguments about each view towards this war?
    • What are some ways that Britain broke their peace treaty with our nation?
  • 17. Answers to “Foreign Policy”
    • Many people who were pro-France believed that we should keep the trust we had in France and back them up since they backed us up in the Revolutionary War. Other who were pro-Britain thought that since Britain is so close to our country and they were one of our major trade partners, we couldn’t afford to get in a war against them again. A few people thought we should stay neutral and not take anyone’s side.
    • First of all Britain still had forts and bases in places we called our land. Also the British were helping the Native-Americans to defend themselves from the U.S. Many people thought we should’ve just pay ed them back from the Revolutionary War and get it over with!
  • 18. Neutrality Proclamation
    • Many people thought Washington made a bad choice by not taking sides, do you think that Washington took the easy way out by not fighting for what he believed in?
  • 19. Answers to “Neutrality Proclamation”
    • I think that he did take the easy way out. It’s harder for someone to actually stand up for what you believe in then just backing down. Throughout his presidency many people thought that he took the easy way out way too many times and this was just too much. Many people protested against his decision and gathered people across our nation to join them. (Answers may vary.)
  • 20. Slavery in 1790
    • What three ways did the Constitution talk about slavery?
    • What kind of trend is there in the population of slaves as you go south through the country?
  • 21. Answers to “Slavery in 1790”
    • The Constitution referred to slavery first by saying that it could be banned in 20 years. (Key word COULD!) Also that slavery counted as 3/5 of a person. Lastly the talked about them in the Fugitive Act.
    • The northeastern states such as Massachusetts or Vermont had the least amount of slaves. As you go South the population definitely increases, but Virginia has the most amount of slaves. This is strange, because you would think that the biggest population would be on the outer parts of the country.
  • 22. Washington’s Farewell Address
    • What does Washington mean when he says in his farewell address, “I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the state…”?
  • 23. Answers to Washington’s Farewell
    • Washington means that that political parties, developed during his presidency, were dangerous because they threatened to split up the country. They highlighted the differences people had, especially based on where they lived, and he thought the political parties emphasized the differences rather than the similiarities.