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Step 1 create a problem Find a real life situation Multiple solutions Organize students in to teams Must raise students interest
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Step 2 problem analysis Students list known facts Lists unknown facts Research unknowns
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Step 3 test theories Students must model the situations to test their theories Students generate possible solutions
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Step 4 presenting Students select the solution that fits best Students present their solutions and methods
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Types of problem Well structured Ill structured problem
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Well-structured problem Easy to define All information provided A single answer Lack of motivation Not like a real life problem More like the train A and the train B kind of a problem
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Thinking frame Read the problem Record important information Use pictures and diagrams if need Decide on the pictures Solve Check your answer THE PROBLEM WITH THIS PROBLEM IS THAT DOES NOT MATCH REAL LIFE
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ILL-structured problem Like real life Not all information provided Must be often redefined Many solutions Must be define and re-defined often
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Teaching is problem solving How can I teach this skill or concept? How can I make this more interesting or student-centered? How can I best assess learning? How can I incorporate this new strategy into my classroom? How can I create a solution where students want to learn
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Real problems in curriculum Social studies Science Math Language & arts Health Physical education the
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PBL Subject Based Learning Vs Learn it Apply it Give a problem to illustrate how to use it Identify what we need to know START START Learn it Problem posed Told what we need to learn
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Redefining problems how can we get tough on criminals and reduce crime?
What types of personal grow and empowerment programs, as well as education, employment and economic opportunities can we develop so people are less inclined to commit crime?
Redefining problems How can I get students in my class to be quiet and behave?
How can I do to create a curriculum that is interesting and relevant so students will want to be engaged and participate?
Examples Ill-structured of How can we become less independent on foreign oil?
How can we create cheaper energy sources?
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How can we create less expensive and more-green cars?
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How can we stop global warming?
PBL Hands on and students centered
Promotes teamwork
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Promotes individualization
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Motivates students to learn
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Works on real life problems
Problem solving strategies Algorithm Specific steps to come up with one correct answer
Heuristic
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General problem solving strategy
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There are two types
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Create Problem Solving (CPS)
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Means End Analysis
CPS thinking frame Define problem
Generate as many solutions as possible
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Choose a solution that seems the best
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Elaborate and refine
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Implement the solution
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Review, evaluate and refine as necessary
MEA thinking frame Describe the current state
Describe the desired state
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Generate a list of necessary steps to do
Brainstorming All ideas must be accepted
The goal is quantity
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Freewheeling is celebrated
Decision making Evaluate decisions
Take into account all factors
Inspired on Dr. Andrew Minnesota state university, Mankato