Understanding Formative Assessment active learning not mechanistic strategies Shirley Clarke MEd, Hon DEd Associate, Institute of Education University of London
The research indicates that improving learning throughassessment depends on five, deceptively simple, factors: the provision of effective feedback to pupils; the active involvement of pupils in their own learning; adjusting teaching to take account of the results of assessment; a recognition of the profound influence assessment has on the motivation and self-esteem of pupils, both of which are crucial influences on learning; the need for pupils to be able to assess themselves and understand how to improve.
This was further broken down to include: sharing learning goals with pupils; involving pupils in self-assessment; providing feedback which leads to pupils recognising their next steps and how to take them; underpinned by confidence that every student can improve.
Order these famous people from least clever to most clever J. K. Rowling Albert Einstein Miley Cyrus David Beckham David Cameron
Fixed Mindset Growth Mindset Intelligence is Intelligence is static. expandable. I must look I want to learn clever! more! Avoids challenges Embraces challenges Gives up easily Persists in the face of setbacks Sees effort as pointless Sees effort as the way Ignores useful criticism Learns from criticismLikely to plateau earlyand Reaches ever higherachieve less than full levels of achievementpotential Carol Dweck
Praise achievement not abilityOur language tells children what we believe and what we value Well done - you’re learning to... Good - it’s making you think - that’s how your brain is growing! Every time you practise, you’re making connections in your brain stronger. You’re good at things you like because you work at them.
Praise achievement not abilityOur language tells children what we believe and what we value Let’s look at what you’ve achieved. If you could already do it, you wouldn’t be learning anything. Your skills have really improved. You can use this mistake. Think about why it didn’t work and learn from it.
We are learning Learning muscle We are stretchingHow magnets work our Questioning muscle
We are learning Learning muscle To solve We are stretchingmathematical problems our perseverence muscle
Breaking down the learning Habits of mind (Arthur Costa) Claxton’s Learning ‘muscles’“One of the core functions of twenty-first century education is learning tolearn in preparation for a lifetime ofchange.” David Miliband 2003
Habits of Mind (dispositions which lead to learning )Resistance Being clearTaking your time Using all your sensesListening sensitively Being creativeThinking flexibly Being amazedThinking about thinking Having a goTrying to get it right Seeing the funny sideBeing curious Learning with othersTransferring skills & Always learningknowledge Costa and Kallick
The Four Rs of Learning PowerResilience Resourcefulness Absorption Questioning Managing distractions Making links Noticing Imagining Perserverance Reasoning CapitalisingReflectiveness Reciprocity Planning Interdependence Revising Collaboration Distilling Empathy and listening Meta-learning Imitation Claxton 2002
Enrichment or interruption ? Talk partners Children on task Time to move on ....Q. What stops you learning ?A. You do! When you interrupt us. (Y2 class)
Stages in pupil involvement in planning1. What they already know/can do2. What they want to know/find out/be able to do3. Activity and outcome planning - link withsubject and transferrable skills
1.Prior knowledge break down the theme explore materials present the problem show progression of LOs pictures and questions concept mapping start with application
2/3. Planning the learning andoutcomesimmersion firstideas follow on from PK activityinclude skills - subject specific - other subjectsinclude outcomes/products
Formative Assessment Effective Self-peer-teacherquestioning feedback and Talk Capturing interest Learning objectivesPlanning Success criteria Excellence A Learning culture self-belief meta-cognition
Effective startsL.O.discussed in pairs Role playA good question or Video clip to discussstatementFeatures of a product Box of artefactsCompare products Evidence pack with cluesPlay first PhotographGame SurpriseChange the setting
Capturing children’s interest firstEffective starts provide: summative assessment sometimes instant rethink! instant engagement immersion in the subject matter a natural path to the learning objective and success criteria
Compulsory and optional success criteriaL.O. Construct a line graph L.O. Effective characterisation Remember: Choose: title hobbies and interests label x & y axes likes and dislikes equal intervals examples of personality key attitude to self connect points attitude to others etc.
Pupil generated success criteria Doing it wrong Presenting something ‘wrong’ or ‘incomplete’ An excellent product Comparing products (for closed literacy L.O.s) Sloppy success criteria Uplevelling Demonstrate/visualiser Retrospective generation
‘It’s bright” ‘The Christmas trees are nice’‘The letters are a bit funny sometimes’
‘The reindeer is nice.’‘Yellow drawings don’t stand out.’
‘This is the easiest to read.’
Success Criteriamake all your letters the same sizeuse dark coloursdon’t use yellowput pictures round the edge, not in the middlecheck that you have copied all words & numbers
Analyse selected extractsCinderella picked the Cinderella found a nicemost beautiful pumpkin big pumpkin.that she could find.Cinderella obeyed and, Cinderella waved her wandwith a wave of her and every mouse becamewand, each mouse a horsethat scurried wastransformed intoa dappled grey horse.
Impact Cognitive progress Social development Pupil voice “Talk partners have widened children’s social understanding and increased their tolerance of other people.”“One autistic boy has gone from being barely able totolerate one person to really enjoying being included inchanging partners and meeting his social targets.”
“One child with special needssaid she’d learned so much withher partners and in previousyears had been with otherchildren who didn’t know whatto do and couldn’t help her.” Referring to Y6 child
So far . . .1. Range of answers2. Statement “Answering3. Right and wrong these types4. Starting from the end of questions makes me5. Opposing standpoints confident and6. Odd one out more independent.”7. True or false8. Always, sometime, never9. Silly questions
Statement1. There is a relationship between the circumference of a circle and its diameter.2. It is not possible to think without words.3. Exercise leads to a healthy lifestyle.4. Little Red Riding Hood was innocent!5. The wolf was innocent! “We had 3 different statements6. Girls are cleverer than boys! and our teacher let us independently find out the result. I like this way of learning.”
Start from the end1. Bricks are the best material for building a house. Why?3. 1066 was a very turbulent year. Why?5. The Romans invaded Britain. Why?7. Water, glass, the moon and shiny material can all do this. What might the question have been?9. Here is a finished puppet. How was it made? “These questions make you think more.”
Which is the ODD ONE OUT and why? The triangle because The square because it has 3 sides and 3 it’s the only one corners. All the with equal sides. others have 4 of each. The triangle The parallelogram doesn’t have because it is the only opposite one with no right parallel sides. angles.
True or False - prove it! To move these thingsyou will need a heavy force. True or False?All odd numbers are prime. True or False? “It’s good because you have to come up with a theory and then find a way to prove it.”
Always, sometimes, never - say whyA car will travel the same distance on anysurface if the starting force is the same.Always, sometimes, never ?A good friend listens to you.Always, sometimes, never ?