A. Necessity of the Study<br />Education for citizenship<br />Essential part of liberal education<br />Knowledge and understanding of government<br />
Concept of State and Government<br />State – a community of persons more or less numerous permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having a government of its own to which the great body of inhabitants renders obedience, and and enjoying freedom from external control<br />
Elements of the State<br />People – mass of population living within the state<br />Territory – fixed portion of the surface of the earth inhabited by the people of the state<br />Government – agency through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and carried out<br />Sovereignty – the supreme power of the state to command and enforce obedience<br />
Origin of the State<br />Divine Right Theory – holds that the state is of divine creation and the ruler is ordained by God to govern the people<br />Necessity or force theory – maintains that states must have been created through force<br />Paternalistic theory – attributes the origin of states to the enlargement of the family<br />Social Contract theory – asserts that the early states must have been formed by deliberate and voluntary compact among people to form a government of their own<br />
Forms of Government<br />As to the number of the persons exercising sovereign power:<br /> a. Monarchy – the supreme and final authority is in the hands of a single person. It is further classified into: absolute monarchy and limited monarchy.<br /> b. Aristocracy – the political power is exercised by the few priviledged class<br /> c. Democracy – the political power is exercised by the majority of people. It is futher classified into two: direct or pure democracy and indirect or representative democracy<br />
As to extent of powers exercised by the central or national government<br /> a. Unitary Government – the control of national and local affairs is exercised by the central or national government<br /> b. Federal Government – the powers of government are divided between two sets of organs, one for national affairs and the other for local affairs<br />
As to the relationship between the executive and the legislative branches of government<br /> a. Parliamentary – the state confers upon the legislature the power to terminate the tenure of office of the real executive<br /> b. Presidential – the state makes the executive constituionally independent of the legislative<br />
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