Adaptation 30. sept.2013
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  • Physiologic Hyperplasia Physiologic hyperplasia can be divided into: (1) hormonal hyperplasia, which increases the functional capacity of a tissue when needed, and (2) compensatory hyperplasia, which increases tissue mass after damage or partial resection
  • Physiologic Hyperplasia Physiologic hyperplasia can be divided into: (1) hormonal hyperplasia, which increases the functional capacity of a tissue when needed, and (2) compensatory hyperplasia, which increases tissue mass after damage or partial resection
  • Physiologic Hyperplasia Physiologic hyperplasia can be divided into: (1) hormonal hyperplasia, which increases the functional capacity of a tissue when needed, and (2) compensatory hyperplasia, which increases tissue mass after damage or partial resection

Transcript

  • 1. Cell Adaptation 30. Sept. 2013
  • 2. Adaptations • Adaptations; are functional and structural responses to more severe physiologic or pathologic stimuli, give new, altered steady states, allow cells to survive & function • The adaptive response may consist of (hypertrophy), (hyperplasia), (atrophy), or (metaplasia). • Reversible changes.
  • 3. Stages of cellular response to stress & injurious stimuli.
  • 4. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy
  • 5. Hypertrophy; the muscle cells synthesize more proteins and the number of myofilaments increases
  • 6. Cardiac hypertrop hy involv left vent.
  • 7. HYPER-TROPHY IN-CREASE IN SIZE OF CELLS
  • 8. Physiologic hypertrophy of the uterus during pregnancy. A, Gross appearance of a normal uterus (right) and a gravid uterus (left). B, Small spindle-shaped uterine smooth muscle cells from a normal uterus (left) compared with large plump cells in gravid uterus (right).
  • 9. HYPER-PLASIA IN-CREASE IN NUMBER OF CELLS
  • 10. Physiologic Hyperplasia; hormonal hyperplasia a. Adult breast tissue. B. lactating breast
  • 11. Bone Marrow hyperplasia in anemia
  • 12. Physiologic Hyperplasia; compensatory hyperplasia
  • 13. Endometrial hyperplasi (physiological & pathological)
  • 14. Pathologic Hyperplasia Nodular prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH. The normal prostate is 3 to 4 cm in
  • 15. Nodular prostatic hyperplasia
  • 16. Physiologic Hyperplasia; hormonal hyperplasia a. Adult breast tissue. B. lactating breast
  • 17. Hyperplasia is also an important response of connective tissue cells in wound healing
  • 18. ATROPHY? DE-CREASE IN SIZE OF CELLS IN CELL SIZE DUE TO LOSS OF CELL SUBSTANCE SHRINKAGE
  • 19. ATROPHY • • • • • • DECREASED WORKLOAD DENERVATION DECREASED BLOOD FLOW DECREASED NUTRITION AGING (involution) PRESSURE
  • 20. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy
  • 21. This is cerebral atrophy in a patient with Alzheimer disease. The gyri are narrowed and the intervening sulci widened, particularly pronounced toward the frontal lobe region
  • 22. Right testicular atrophy.
  • 23. METAPLASIA • A SUBSTITUTION of one NORMAL CELL or TISSUE type, for ANOTHER – COLUMNAR SQUAMOUS (Cervix) – SQUAMOUS COLUMNAR (Glandular) (Stomach) – FIBROUS BONE –WHY?
  • 24. Metaplasia. A, Schematic diagram of columnar to squamous metaplasia. B, Metaplastic transformation of esophageal stratified squamous epithelium (left) to mature columnar epithelium (so-called Barrett metaplasia).
  • 25. Metaplasia of the normal esophageal Squamous mucosa, with the appearance of gastric columnar mucosa
  • 26. Metaplasia of laryngeal respiratory epithelium in a smoker.