Policies for Developing Film Industry Clusters in the “pre-cluster” stage in Baltic states


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Presented at "Creative Industries and Creative Communities Conference" on
11 November 2009 at Staffordshire University, UK

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Policies for Developing Film Industry Clusters in the “pre-cluster” stage in Baltic states

  1. 1. Policies for Developing Film Industry Clusters in the “pre-cluster” stage in Baltic states The Creative Industries and Creative Communities Conference 11 November 2009, Staffordshire University Prof. Dr. Tatjana Volkova Department of Management, BA School of Business and Finance (Riga, Latvia) [email_address] Kaspars Steinbergs PhD student, Ventspils University College (Ventspils, Latvia) [email_address]
  2. 2. Some facts... <ul><li>Queen's favorite “The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson” with Vasily Livanov was shot partially in Old Riga (221B Baker Street etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Riga Motion Pictures Studio has the most larger sound stage (by area) in the Baltics and Scandinavia </li></ul><ul><li>For the Oscar nominee &quot;Belleville Rendez-Vous&quot; worked also animators from &quot;Rija Films&quot; - one of the most successful animation studio in the Baltics </li></ul>
  3. 3. AGENDA <ul><li>CLUSTER LIFE CYCLE </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSIONS and FUTHER RESEARCH AGENDA </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is a cluster?! <ul><li>M. Porter: A geographically proximate group of interconnected companies and associated institutions in a particular field, linked by commonalities and complementarities </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster development is a typical example of &quot; bottom-up &quot; approach with the important role of &quot; top-down &quot; governmental policy </li></ul><ul><li>Both &quot;bottom-up&quot; and &quot;top-down&quot; activities should be appropriate in each stage of the cluster life cycle </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cluster life cycle Pre-Cluster (no cluster) : Characterized by slow to negative growth and an employment concentration that is not significantly different to the national employment level in that industry.
  6. 6. Creative industries role in economy Source: KEA: The Economy of Culture in Europe, 2006 Value added to national GDP - 2003 Cultural & cultural tourism employment (% of total employment) - 2004 Estonia 2,4 % 3,6 % Latvia 1,8 % 3,2 % Lithuania 1,7 % 2,3 % UK 3,0 % 3,8 %
  7. 7. Situation in film industry <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Economic Research: Survey and Mapping of the Creative Industries in Estonia, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>BICEPS: Radošās industrijas Latvijā, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>DCMS: Creative Industries Economic Estimates Statistical Bulletin, 2009 </li></ul>* Gross Value Added Years Number of employees Total turnover mil. ₤ Estonia 2003 650 ↑ 61.5 % 14.4 ↑ 175 % 2007 1050 39.6 Latvia 2002 430 ↑ 27.0 % 6.4 2005 546 13.7 ↑ 114 % Lithuania - - - - N/A N/A N/A N/A UK 2002 68,900 ↓ 5 % 2,100 * ↑ 81 % 2006 65,400 3,800 *
  8. 8. Research question and methods <ul><li>Are both &quot;bottom-up&quot; and &quot;top-down&quot; activities in the right place at the right time to develop the film industry cluster in the Baltics? </li></ul><ul><li>Survey and interviews with the film industry entrepreneurs, policy planners, NGO's leaders, personnel of educational institutions and experts in Latvia </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of planning documents in all Baltic states </li></ul>
  9. 9. Is there any cooperation ?
  10. 10. Cooperation in the Baltic region
  11. 11. Who should carry out the cluster initiative? <ul><li>trade associations, unions etc: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 % of answers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>industry enterprises: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 % of answers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>governmental institution: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>educational institution: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0 % </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Most important factor for the development of the cluster <ul><li>initiative of the industry enterprises: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 % of answers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>training of the industry staff : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25% of answers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>governmental cluster development program: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 % of answers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>other answers </li></ul>
  13. 13. Planed development of creative industries <ul><li>In Estonia : </li></ul><ul><li>Employment in the creative industries sector (share of total employment): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3% (2003) ↑ 4,2 % (2015) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Number of financed projects promoting creative industries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 (2006) ↑ 10 (2015) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of digital post-production cluster and music industry cluster </li></ul><ul><li>Development of educational programmes </li></ul>
  14. 14. Planed development of creative industries <ul><li>In Latvia : </li></ul><ul><li>Governmental support of two creative industries sectors: design and audiovisual media </li></ul><ul><li>Development of creative industries incubator in Riga </li></ul><ul><li>Development of educational programmes </li></ul>
  15. 15. Planed development of creative industries <ul><li>In Lithuania : </li></ul><ul><li>Development of creative industries incubator in Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipėda and Šiauliai </li></ul><ul><li>Development of educational programmes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conclusions <ul><li>Growth of turnover and employment level are bad indicators for a “pre-cluster” stage in a situation of the rapid economical growth </li></ul><ul><li>Most important factor is a cooperation inside and outside the industry </li></ul><ul><li>Governmental activities on the development of the creative industry clusters are step before the industry initiatives </li></ul>
  17. 17. Continuing research agenda <ul><li>Survey and interview in all Baltic states and nearest region (Scandinavia, Nord-west Russia) </li></ul><ul><li>Both “top down” and “bottom up” policies proposals preparation for the film industry cluster initiative </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>Porter, M.E., (2008) Clusters, Innovation, and Competitiveness: New Findings and Implications for Policy. Presented at European Presidency Conference on Innovation and Clusters </li></ul><ul><li>16-97 Economic Alliance (2007) Industry Cluster Identification & Prioritization Project. Industry Cluster Report’s Executive Summary </li></ul>
  19. 19. Useful websites <ul><li>Creative industries in Latvia: http://www.km.gov.lv/en/cross_sector/creative.html </li></ul><ul><li>Creative industries in Estonia: http://www.eas.ee/index.php/for-the-entrepreneur/development-of-the-company/development-of-creative-industry </li></ul><ul><li>My blog: www.creativekaspars.blogspot.com </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thank you for your attention ! <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>