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Comparação de Modelo de Valoração Monetária de Danos Ambientais
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Comparação de Modelo de Valoração Monetária de Danos Ambientais

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Trabalho apresentado para MP de MG

Trabalho apresentado para MP de MG

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  • 1. DESEMPENHO DE MODELOS DE VALORAÇÃO ECONÔMICA DE DANOS AMBIENTAIS DECORRENTES DA CONTAMINAÇÃO DO SOLO: CATES, VCP, HEA, DEPRN 'U *HRUJHV .DVNDQW]LV 1HWR 1. Introdução A YDORUDomR PRQHWiULD GRV UHFXUVRV H GDQRV DPELHQWDLV p XPD DWLYLGDGH FRPSOH[D TXH HQYROYH FRQKHFLPHQWRV multidisciplinares, e requer a SDUWLFLSDomR GH HTXLSHV GH SURÀVVLRQDLV HVSHFLDOL]DGRV $ YDORUDomR PRQHWiULD GH UHFXUVRV naturais e impactos pode ser usada nos processos de OLFHQFLDPHQWR DPELHQWDO QD SHUtFLD MXGLFLDO H QD DYDOLDomR LPRELOLiULD YLVDQGR j GHWHUPLQDomR GR YDORU GRV GDQRV TXH SRVVDP DGYLU GDV DWLYLGDGHV GRV HPSUHHQGLPHQWRV RX GRV HYHQWXDLV DFLGHQWDLV DPELHQWDLV (P JHUDO RV PpWRGRV GH YDORUDomR DPELHQWDO VmR XWLOL]DGRV YLVDQGR j HVWLPDWLYD GR YDORU TXH RV LQGLYtGXRV DWULEXHP aos recursos naturais, com base em suas preferências LQGLYLGXDLV 0277$ 
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  • 8. ,QVSHFLRQDQGR D HTXDomR 
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  • 10.   0HWRGRORJLD $ YDORUDomR GD 3UDLD GR &DVVLQR ORFDOL]DGD QR 5LR *UDQGH GR 6XO GHVFULWD SRU )LQFR 
  • 11. p RXWUR FDVR LQWHUHVVDQWH 1HVVD SHVTXLVD IRUDP HQWUHYLVWDGRV  LQGLYtGXRV H FRQIRUPH FLWDGR SHOR DXWRU  GRV HQWUHYLVWDGRV DSUHVHQWDUDP UHVSRVWD QHJDWLYD TXDQWR j GLVSRVLomR GH SDJDU SHOD FRQVHUYDomR GD SUDLD GR &DVVLQR VLWXDGD QR PXQLFtSLR GH 5LR *UDQGH 56 $SHVDU GR XVR FDGD YH] PDLRU GDV WpFQLFDV GH YDORUDomR ambiental, os modelos matemáticos que se encontram GLVSRQtYHLV QD OLWHUDWXUD VmR OLPLWDGRV 2V PpWRGRV GH YDORUDomR DPELHQWDO WUDGLFLRQDLV VmR FODVVLÀFDGRV FRPR GLUHWRV H LQGLUHWRV 2V PpWRGRV GLUHWRV VmR RV PDLV HPSUHJDGRV PDV IRUQHFHP VRPHQWH XPD SDUWH GR YDORU HFRQ{PLFR GR UHFXUVR RX OHVmR DPELHQWDO HP JHUDO DTXHOD SDUFHOD UHODWLYD j UHFXSHUDomR GR GDQR 2V PpWRGRV LQGLUHWRV GH YDORUDomR QD VXD JUDQGH PDLRULD UHTXHUHP D FROHWD GH GDGRV QR FDPSR YLVDQGR j GHWHUPLQDomR GRV SDUkPHWURV GDV HTXDo}HV HFRQRPpWULFDV 0277$ 
  • 12.  1R kPELWR GD DFDGHPLD R PpWRGR 9(5$ FXPSUH D ÀQDOLGDGH SDUD D TXDO IRL HODERUDGR PDV QD HVIHUD MXUtGLFD RV UHFXUVRV PRQHWiULRV H SUD]RV GLVSRQtYHLV SDUD UHDOL]DU D YDORUDomR VmR OLPLWDGRV R TXH MXVWLÀFD R PDLRU XVR GRV PpWRGRV GLUHWRV 3DUD FRQWRUQDU D EDUUHLUD RV WpFQLFRV GRV yUJmRV GH FRQWUROH DPELHQWDO H GRV &HQWURV GH $SRLR jV 3URPRWRULDV 3~EOLFDV WrP SURSRVWR PpWRGRV GH YDORUDomR DPELHQWDO SDUD DWHQGHU VXDV QHFHVVLGDGHV ,%$0$  *$//,  &$2 
  • 13.  (P JHUDO RV PpWRGRV VmR HODERUDGRV FRP EDVH QD H[SHULrQFLD SURÀVVLRQDO GRV WpFQLFRV H GLUHFLRQDGRV D FDVRV HVSHFtÀFRV R TXH VLJQLÀFD TXH QD VXD JUDQGH PDLRULD HVVHV PRGHORV QmR SRGHP VHU HPSUHJDGRV GH PDQHLUD JHQHUDOL]DGD 9LVDQGR FRQWULEXLU SDUD R GHVHQYROYLPHQWR H D GLIXVmR GRV FRQKHFLPHQWRV GD iUHD GD HFRQ{PLFD DPELHQWDO HODERURX VH HVVH HVWXGR 2 REMHWLYR p FRPSDUDU RV UHVXOWDGRV IRUQHFLGRV SRU TXDWUR PRGHORV GH YDORUDomR DPELHQWDO 32 ‡ MPMG Jurídico Especial $ PHWRGRORJLD DGRWDGD LQFOXL WUrV HWDSDV 1D SULPHLUD GHWHUPLQDVH R YDORU ÀQDQFHLUR GRV GDQRV SURYHQLHQWHV GD FRQWDPLQDomR GR WHUUHQR SRU VXEVWkQFLDV Wy[LFDV DSOLFDQGR DV PHWRGRORJLDV VHSDUDGDPHQWH 1D VHJXQGD HWDSD RV YDORUHV PRQHWiULRV GRV GDQRV FDOFXODGRV QD HWDSD DQWHULRU VmR VXEPHWLGRV j DQiOLVH HVWDWtVWLFD YLVDQGR j GHWHUPLQDomR GD PpGLD GR GHVYLR SDGUmR H GDV HVWDWtVWLFDV GH LQWHUHVVH 1D WHUFHLUD HWDSD RV UHVXOWDGRV IRUQHFLGRV SHORV PRGHORV VmR FRPSDUDGRV FRP D PpGLD GR FRQMXQWR GH WRGRV RV UHVXOWDGRV REWLGRV QR HVWXGR $ SDUWLU GD FRPSDUDomR GHWHUPLQDVH D PHWRGRORJLD DGHTXDGD DR FDVR 5(&2%(0 $V PHWRGRORJLDV GH YDORUDomR PRQHWiULD GH GDQRV DPELHQWDLV FRQVLGHUDGDV VmR &$7(6 ² &XVWRV $PELHQWDLV 7RWDLV (VSHUDGRV 5,%$6 
  • 14.  9&3 ² 9DORU GD &RPSHQVDomR $PELHQWDO ,%$0$ 
  • 15.  $+( ² $QiOLVH GR +DELWDW (TXLYDOHQWH 12$$ 
  • 16.  H '(351 ² 0RGHOR GR 'HSDUWDPHQWR (VWDGXDO GH 5HFXUVRV 1DWXUDLV GR (VWDGR GH 6mR 3DXOR *$//, 
  • 17.  2 LQWHUYDOR GH WHPSR DGRWDGR SDUD DQiOLVH GR YDORU SHFXQLiULR GRV GDQRV p GH GH] DQRV D WD[D GH GHVFRQWR GRV YDORUHV GR GDQR XWLOL]DGD p GH  DD WD[D GH PHUFDGR
  • 18.  SRGHQGR WDPEpP VHU XWLOL]DGD GHSHQGHQGR GR FDVR D WD[D GH ULVFR GH  DD  2VFXVWRVGDUHFXSHUDomRGRVRORFRQWDPLQDGRIRUDPGHÀQLGRV D SDUWLU GD UHDOL]DomR GD SHVTXLVD GH SUHoRV GRV VHUYLoRV GH HQJHQKDULD PmR GH REUD H GRV PDWHULDLV QHFHVViULRV SDUD H[HFXWDU R VHUYLoR 2 YDORU JOREDO GD UHFXSHUDomR GR GDQR VRPD 5  'HVWH WRWDO 5  VmR UHIHUHQWHV DR FXVWR GR WUDQVSRUWH GR VROR FRQWDPLQDGR 5  representam os custos para destinação do solo contaminado DR DWHUUR LQGXVWULDO 5  FRUUHVSRQGHP DR YDORU GD WHUUD GH UHSRVLomR H 5  VmR UHIHUHQWHV j PmR GH REUD 2 QtYHO GD GHVFRQWDPLQDomR GR VROR IRL GHÀQLGR FRP EDVH QRV YDORUHV GH UHIHUrQFLD TXH VH HQFRQWUDP GHVFULWRV QD 5HVROXomR &21$0$ Qž  GH  GH GH]HPEUR GH  %5$6,/ 
  • 19.  $ SURSULHGDGH GD LQYHVWLJDGD 5(&2%(0 VLWXDVH QR EDLUUR %DUUR 3UHWR QR PXQLFtSLR GH 6mR -RVp GRV 3LQKDLV 35 FRP XPD iUHD GH P2 H DSUHVHQWD XP YDORU DWXDO QR PHUFDGR VHP D SUHVHQoD GD FRQWDPLQDomR TXH YDULD GH 5  D 5  2 YDORU GH PHUFDGR GR LPyYHO GR %DUUR 3UHWR IRL GHÀQLGR SHVTXLVDQGRVH RV YDORUHV GH VHLV SURSULHGDGHV LQGXVWULDLV VHPHOKDQWHV j FRQWDPLQDGD DSOLFDQGR R PpWRGR FRPSDUDWLYR GLUHWR GHVFULWR QD 1%5  $662&,$d®2 %5$6,/(,5$ '( 1250$6 7e&1,&$6 
  • 20.  2 YDORU GH PHUFDGR GR
  • 21. VtWLR GR %DUUR 3UHWR FRP SUHVHQoD GD FRQWDPLQDomR IRL HVWLPDGR HP UHODomR DR PRGHOR SURSRVWR SRU 0D apud +(5%(57 
  • 22.  1HVWH HVWXGR D SHUGD GRV VHUYLoRV DPELHQWDLV FRQWDELOL]DVH GHVGH R DQR GH  DWp R DQR GH  TXDQGR R QtYHO GRV VHUYLoRV DWLQJH  GR Pi[LPR 2 QtYHO GRV VHUYLoRV DQWHULRU DR GDQR IRL GHÀQLGR FRPR  GR Pi[LPR SRU VHU D iUHD LQGXVWULDO H Mi VH HQFRQWUDU GHVFDUDFWHUL]DGD $GRWRXVH WDPEpP TXH D YDORUDomR GR GDQR IRL VROLFLWDGD HP  H TXH RV SURMHWRV GH descontaminação da propriedade e compensação do dano RULJLQDGR WLYHUDP LQtFLR HP  H ÀQDOL]DomR QR DQR GH   &DVR LQYHVWLJDGR $ FRPSDUDomR GR GHVHPSHQKR GRV PRGHORV GH YDORUDomR GH GDQRV DPELHQWDLV IRL UHDOL]DGD FRP D LQYHVWLJDomR GD FRQWDPLQDomR GR VROR SRU VXEVWkQFLDV Wy[LFDV GH XPD GDV WUrV SURSULHGDGHV GD HPSUHVD 5(&2%(0 &RQIRUPH GHVFULWR QRV DXWRV GD $omR &LYLO Qž  03 GD  9DUD &tYHO GD &RPDUFD GH 6mR -RVp GRV 3LQKDLV QR GLD  GH PDUoR GR DQR GH  QD SUHVHQoD GR SURPRWRU GH -XVWLoD H GR 'HOHJDGR GH 3URWHomR GR 0HLR $PELHQWH FRQÀUPRX VH D GHQ~QFLD GRV PRUDGRUHV YL]LQKRV GR HQWRUQR GD IiEULFD GR %DUUR 3UHWR D UHVSHLWR GD H[LVWrQFLD GH UHVtGXRV Wy[LFRV HQWHUUDGRV QD SURSULHGDGH 1D $omR &LYLO 3~EOLFD GR 0LQLVWpULR 3~EOLFR IRUDP UHVSRQVDELOL]DGDV as empresas que destinaram resíduos para tratamento na 5(&2%(0 Os resíduos na forma líquida, pastosa e sólida foram HQFRQWUDGRV GHQWUR GH WDPERUHV H D JUDQHO D FpX DEHUWR H QD VXD JUDQGH PDLRULD VmR ERUUDV GH WLQWDV FDWDOLVDGRUHV ORGR SURYHQLHQWH GH HVWDo}HV GH WUDWDPHQWR GH HÁXHQWHV GHVFDUWHV GH ODERUDWyULR H RXWURV 2V FRPSRVWRV LGHQWLÀFDGRV QDV DPRVWUDV GR VROR DQDOLVDGDV QR ODERUDWyULR VmR PHWDLV &U 3E &X &R =Q 1L
  • 23.  %7(; EHQ]HQR WROXHQR HWLOEHQ]HQR H [LOHQR
  • 24.  7+3 WHWUDLGURSLSHULQD
  • 25.  +3$ KLGURFDUERQHWRV SROLFtFOLFRV DURPiWLFRV
  • 26.  FRPSRVWRV RUJDQRFORUDGRV HWF  0HWRGRORJLDV GH YDORUDomR DPELHQWDO $ YDORUDomR PRQHWiULD GRV GDQRV RULJLQDGRV SHOD FRQWDPLQDomR GR VROR GR VtWLR GR %DUUR 3UHWR IRL UHDOL]DGD XWLOL]DQGR RV PpWRGRV FLWDGRV 1D VHTXrQFLD FDGD XP GRV PpWRGRV VHUi GHVFULWR FRP GHWDOKHV H DSOLFDGR QD YDORUDomR PRQHWiULD GRV GDQRV RULXQGRV GD FRQWDPLQDomR GR VtWLR LQYHVWLJDGR 4.1. Método dos Custos Ambientais Totais Esperados 2 PpWRGR GRV &XVWRV $PELHQWDLV 7RWDLV (VSHUDGRV &$7(6
  • 27. IRL SURSRVWR SRU 5LEDV 
  • 28. SDUD VLVWHPDV ÁRUHVWDV 2 FRQFHLWR GR &$7(6 HVWi DVVRFLDGR j UHQGD SHUSpWXD TXH D VRFLHGDGH HVWDULD GLVSRVWD D UHFHEHU FRPR LQGHQL]DomR SHFXQLiULD RX QmR
  • 29. SHOR GDQR DPELHQWDO (VVH modelo considera dois casos: os custos totais esperados FRP GDQR LQWHUPLWHQWH H RV FXVWRV WRWDLV HVSHUDGRV FRP GDQR LUUHYHUVtYHO (VVH PRGHOR WDPEpP UHODFLRQD RV GDQRV LQGLUHWRV FRP RV GLUHWRV DWUDYpV GH XP IDWRU Fi/d com escala QXPpULFD GH  D  $ HTXDomR GR &$7(6 WHP D IRUPD &$7( 9c  &d ‡ FLG
  • 30.   M
  • 31. n 
  • 32.   M
  • 33. n  onde CATE representa os custos ambientais totais HVSHUDGRV Vc p R YDORU GD SURSULHGDGH Cd são os custos da UHFXSHUDomR GD FRQWDPLQDomR Fi/d p R IDWRU TXH UHODFLRQD RV GDQRV GLUHWRV H LQGLUHWRV j p D WD[D GH MXURV H n p R SHUtRGR GH GXUDomR GRV HIHLWRV GRV LPSDFWRV DGYHUVRV 2V SDUkPHWURV GH HQWUDGD GR &$7(6 QR FDVR GD contaminação do solo são: Vc 5  Cd 5  Fi/d  R GDQR DR VROR DFDUUHWRX D SROXLomR GR OHQoRO IUHiWLFR
  • 34.  j  DD H n  DQRV 6XEVWLWXLQGR HVWHV YDORUHV HP 
  • 35.  REWpPVH &$7(    * 
  • 36.   
  • 37.  5    
  • 38.    0pWRGR $PELHQWDO GR 9DORU GD &RPSHQVDomR 2 PpWRGR 9DORU GD &RPSHQVDomR $PELHQWDO 9&3
  • 39. IRL HODERUDGR QR DQR GH  SHOR ,QVWLWXWR %UDVLOHLUR GR 0HLR $PELHQWH H GRV 5HFXUVRV 1DWXUDLV 5HQRYiYHLV ,%$0$
  • 40.  YLVDQGR j FRPSHQVDomR GH LPSDFWRV QHJDWLYRV DGYLQGRV GDV LQVWDODo}HV GH UDGLRGLIXVmR HP 8QLGDGHV GH &RQVHUYDomR $ HTXDomR GR PpWRGR 9&3 p FRQVWLWXtGD por cinco termos: 9&3 S1  S2 S3  S  ,(
  • 41. 
  • 42. onde no presente estudo a soma dos primeiros quatro termos do lado direito da equação representam os custos de recuperação do solo afetado e IE p R LPSDFWR VREUH RV VHUYLoRV HFRVVLVWrPLFRV (QWmR p1 p R FXVWR GH WUDQVSRUWH GR VROR FRQWDPLQDGR p2 p R FXVWR GD GLVSRVLomR GR VROR HP DWHUUR FODVVH ,, p3 p R FXVWR GD WHUUD GH UHFRPSRVLomR p4 p R FXVWR GD PmR GH REUD UHTXHULGD SDUD H[HFXWDU RV VHUYLoRV 2 YDORU PRQHWiULR GRV VHUYLoRV HFRVVLVWrPLFRV IRL GHÀQLGR D SDUWLU GRV YDORUHV UHFRPHQGDGRV SRU &RQVWDQ]D 
  • 43.  1HVWH FDVR IRUDP FRQVLGHUDGRV RV VHUYLoRV GH UHJXODomR KtGULFD SURWHomR j HURVmR H VXSULPHQWR GH iJXD VXEWHUUkQHD SDUD FRQVXPR WHQGR VLGR DGRWDGRV RV YDORUHV 5 P DQR 5 P DQR 5 P DQR UHVSHFWLYDPHQWH 6RPDQGRVH RV YDORUHV GRV VHUYLoRV DPELHQWDLV FKHJDVH D 5 Pano H PXOWLSOLFDQGR VH R UHVXOWDGR SHOR YDORU GR WHUUHQR H R LQWHUYDOR GH WHPSR GH  DQRV REWpPVH R YDORU IE 5  'HVVD IRUPD R YDORU PRQHWiULR VCP no ano em que IRL VROLFLWDGD D YDORUDomR GR GDQR p 5   5  5  &RQWXGR R GDQR DRV VHUYLoRV DPELHQWDLV WHYH LQtFLR HP  H DWp R DQR GH  WDLV VHUYLoRV DLQGD QmR HVWDYDP UHVWLWXtGRV SRUWDQWR GHYH VH FDOFXODU R YDORU SUHVHQWH GRV VHUYLoRV GHVGH R DQR GH  DWp R DQR GH  TXDQGR WHRULFDPHQWH RV VHUYLoRV HFRVVLVWrPLFRV GHYHUmR DWLQJLU  GR QtYHO Pi[LPR FRP D GHVFRQWDPLQDomR GR VROR $GRWDQGRVH D WD[D GH MXURV MPMG Jurídico Especial ‡ 33
  • 44. GH PHUFDGR DWXDO  DD
  • 45.  REWpPVH R IDWRU GH GHVFRQWR H R YDORU SUHVHQWH GRV VHUYLoRV DPELHQWDLV DR ORQJR GR SHUtRGR GH  D  'H PDQHLUD VHPHOKDQWH FDOFXOD VH R YDORU SUHVHQWH GRV FXVWRV GH UHFXSHUDomR GR VROR XWLOL]DQGR QHVVH FDVR VHLV SHUtRGRV RX VHMD D SDUWLU GR DQR GH  TXDQGR VH LQLFLD R SURMHWR DWp R DQR GH  TXDQGR VH ÀQDOL]D $ VRPD GRV YDORUHV GRV VHUYLoRV DPELHQWDLV H FXVWRV GH UHFXSHUDomR GHVFRQWDGRV VmR 5  H 5  UHVSHFWLYDPHQWH 3RUWDQWR R YDORU PRQHWiULR GR GDQR DPELHQWDO REWLGR FRP R 9&3 p 9&3 5   5  5   0pWRGR GD $QiOLVH GR +DELWDW (TXLYDOHQWH $ PHWRGRORJLD ´$QiOLVH GR +DELWDW (TXLYDOHQWHµ $+(
  • 46. IRL HODERUDGD SRU SHVTXLVDGRUHV GD 1$7,21$/ 2&($1,& $1' $70263+(5,& $'0,1,675$7,21 12$$ 
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