JOURNEY OF MICROPROCESSORS (FROM 1971 TO CONTINUE….)
Introduction: <ul><li>The computer you are using to read this page uses a microprocessor to do its work. </li></ul><ul><li>The microprocessor is the heart of any normal computer . </li></ul><ul><li>The microprocessor you are using might be a Pentium, AMD , a PowerPC, a Sun-SPARC or any of the many other brands and types of microprocessors. </li></ul>
Microprocessor History <ul><li>A microprocessor -- also known as a CPU or central processing unit . It is a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip . </li></ul><ul><li>Intel coined the term ‘MICROPROCESSOR’ and in 1971 released the first 4-bit microprocessor as the 4004 having 2300 transistors,640 bytes of memory addressing capacity and a 108 kHz clock speed. </li></ul><ul><li>The 4004 was not very powerful -- all it could do was add and subtract, and it could only do that 4 bits at a time . The 4004 powered one of the first portable electronic calculators. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Gorden moore, cofounder of Intel Corporation predicted that “The number of transistors per integrated circuit would double every 18 months.” This came to known as ‘MOORE’s LAW’…. </li></ul><ul><li>Just 25 years since the invention of the 4004 ,we have processors that are designed with 15 million transistors, that can address 1 TB ( 1 × 10^12 ) of memory, and can operate at 400 MHz to 1.5 GHz frequency. </li></ul><ul><li>The Intel 4004 was quickly replaced by the 8-bit microprocessor (Intel 8008). In the mid 1970’s,the Intel 8080 was widely used in control applications & small computers also were designed using 8080 as CPU-also known as ‘Microcomputers’. </li></ul><ul><li>most microcomputers are now built with 32 & 64-bit microprocessor. The 8-bit microprocessors are being used as programmable logic devices in control applications & more powerfull µ-processors are being used for mathematical computing & in data processing. </li></ul>
Intel 4004 The Intel 4004 was a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. It was the first complete CPU on one chip, and also the first commercially available microprocessor. the 4001 was a ROM (read-only memory) with four lines of output the 4002 was a RAM (random access memory) with four lines of input/output the 4003 was a static shift register to be used for expanding the I/O lines, for example, for keyboard scanning or for controlling a printer. The 4004 included control functions for memory and I/O, which are not normally handled by the microprocessor.
Intel 8080 <ul><li>The first microprocessor to make it into a home computer was the Intel 8080 </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1974 ,it was a complete 8-bit computer on one chip. </li></ul><ul><li>It was an extended and enhanced variant of the earlier 8008 design, although without binary compatibility. The initial specified clock freqency limit was 2 MHz and with common instructions having execution times of 4,5,7,10 or 11 cycles this meant a few hundred thousand instructions per second. The 8080 has sometimes been labeled "the first truly usable microprocessor", </li></ul>
Intel 8085 <ul><li>The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in 1977. It was binary-compatible with the more-famous Intel 8080 but required less supporting hardware, thus allowing simpler and less expensive microcomputer systems to be built. </li></ul><ul><li>The 8085 had a long life as a controller. The processor has seven 8-bit registers named A, B, C, D, E, H, and L, where A is the 8-bit accumulator and the other six can be used as independent byte-registers or as three 16-bit register pairs, BC, DE, and HL. </li></ul><ul><li>n many engineering schools the 8085 processor is used in introductory microprocessor courses. </li></ul>
Pentium <ul><li>Pentium is a registered trademark that is included in the brand names of many of Intel's x86-compatible microprocessors, The name Pentium was derived from the Greek pente (πέντε), meaning 'five‘. </li></ul><ul><li>Intel's fifth-generation microarchitecture, the P5, was first released under the Pentium brand on March 22, 1993. The Pentium 4 brand refers to Intel's line of single-core desktop and laptop central processing units (CPUs) introduced on November 20, 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>the initial 32-bit x86 instruction set of the Pentium 4 microprocessors was extended by the 64-bit x86-64 set & were clocked from from 1.3 GHz to 2 GHz . </li></ul>
Latest µ-processors by Intel <ul><li>on June 3, 2007, Intel released the desktop Pentium Dual-Core branded processors known as the Pentium E2140 and E2160. An E2180 model was released later in September 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Core 2 is a brand encompassing a range of Intel's consumer 64-bit x86-64 single-, dual-, and quad-core microprocessors based on the Core microarchitecture. The single- and dual-core models are single-die, whereas the quad-core models comprise two dies, each containing two cores, packaged in a multi-chip module. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Core 2 brand was introduced on July 27, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Pentium D CPU comprises of two dies, each containing a single core residing next to each other on a multi-chip module package. The Pentium D consumes a relatively high power. It runs very hot and is not a good OverClocker.Intel Dual Core is the first dual-core CPU from Intel. The Dual core makes use of two cores on a single die i.e it has two chips in one package. It solves the problem of overheating of Intel Pentium D without compromising on the performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Core 2 Duo processors are the next gen processors from Intel. It is developed with a new Architecture called Core. The new architecture of Intel core2 duo makes it a lot better processor that runs cool. Most importantly the Intel core2 duo is a super over clocker. </li></ul><ul><li>recently Intel has launched the latest Microprocessor named </li></ul><ul><li>Intel® Core™2 Quad Processor Q6600 </li></ul><ul><li>(8M Cache, 2.40 GHz, 1066 MHz FSB). </li></ul>
Analog and Digital Signals <ul><li>Chemical signals are of two types, digital and analog. </li></ul><ul><li>An example of a digital, or discrete, chemical signal is the radiant energy produced by the decay of a radioactive species. </li></ul><ul><li>The signal consists of a series of pulses of energy produced as individuals atoms decay. </li></ul><ul><li>These pulses can be converted to electrical pulses and counted. </li></ul><ul><li>The form that the signal takes depends on how one looks at the signal. </li></ul><ul><li>A properly designed detector can respond to the individual photons, producing a signal that consists of a series of pulses that can be measured. </li></ul>
Microprocessor <ul><li>The following diagram shows an extremely simple microprocessor capable of doing things: </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Microprocessor is a clock-driven, semiconductor device consisting of electronic logic circuits manufactured by using either a LSI (Large scale integration) or VLSI (Very large scale integration). </li></ul><ul><li>µ-processor can be divided into 3 segments for the sake of the clarity: ALU, Register array, & Control unit. </li></ul><ul><li>ALU (Arithmetic/Logic Unit): </li></ul><ul><li>This unit performs such arithmetic operations as Addition, Substraction and such logic operations as AND,OR & exclusive OR. </li></ul><ul><li>Register Array: This area of the µ-processor consists of various registers identified by letters such as B,C,D,E,H,L and Accumulator. </li></ul><ul><li>Control Unit: It controls the Flow of data between the µ-processor and memory & peripherals. </li></ul><ul><li>µ-PROCESSOR also consists : </li></ul><ul><li>An address bus (that may be 8, 16 or 32 bits wide) that sends an address to memory. </li></ul><ul><li>A data bus (that may be 8, 16 or 32 bits wide) that can send data to memory or receive data from memory. An RD (read) and WR (write) line to tell the memory whether it wants to set or get the addressed location. A clock line that lets a clock pulse sequence the processor </li></ul><ul><li>A reset line that resets the program counter to zero (or whatever) and restarts execution </li></ul>
<ul><li>The system bus is a communication Path between the Microprocessor & peripherals; it is nothing but a group of wires to carry bits. </li></ul><ul><li>I/O devices are also known as peripherals. i.e., keyboard, switches, & Analog-to-digital converter are input devices. Such as LEDs, printer, X-Y plotter, Digital-to-analog converter,Video screen are various Output devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory stores such Binary information as instructions & data,and provides that information to the µ-processor whenever necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>It has mainly two parts: 1) ROM (read only memory) </li></ul><ul><li>2) RAM (random access memory) </li></ul><ul><li>Programs stored in ROM can only be read, they can’t be altered. </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas in RAM you can easily read & altered the stored information. </li></ul>
<ul><li>MICROPROCESSOR Based System with Bus Architecture </li></ul>
Microprocessors and Microcomputers <ul><li>A microprocessor is a large-scale integrated circuit made up of tens and even hundreds of thousands of transistors, resistors, switches, and other circuit elements miniaturized to fit on a single silicon chip. </li></ul><ul><li>Microcomputers are finding an ever-increasing use in controlling analytical instruments and in processing, storing, and displaying the data derived from them. </li></ul><ul><li>Automation leads to more rapid data acquisition, which shortens the time required for analysis or increases precision by providing time for additional replicate measurements to be made. </li></ul>
How Does the µ-processor work? <ul><li>The microprocessor works according to the pattern: “READ, INTERPRET & PERFORM” or you can say “FETCH,DECODE & EXECUTE”. </li></ul><ul><li>The instructions are stored sequentially in the memory. then µ-processor fetches the data/instruction from its memory sheet, decodes it, and executes that instruction. This process is continued untill the µ-processor comes across an instruction to STOP. During this entire process µ-processor uses the system bus to fetch the binary instructions and data from the memory. It uses registers from the register section to store data temporarily, and it performs the computing function in the ALU section. Finally it sends out the result in binary, using the same bus-lines to output ports. </li></ul>
REFERENCES: <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.google.co.in/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor,Architecture, programming and applications with the 8085 </li></ul><ul><li>by, RAMESH GAONKAR </li></ul>
FOR WATCHING <ul><li>Presented by, </li></ul><ul><li>SHAH KASHYAP B. (090300111022) </li></ul><ul><li>TRIVEDI HARSH J. (090300111063) </li></ul>
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