Bluetooth Technology Kashyap Shah, Samip Patel Electronics and Communication Department, LDRP-ITR Sector-15, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.orgAbstract— Bluetooth is a radio frequency specification for peer network, that is, once connected, each deviceshort range, point to point and point to multi point voice has equal access to the others.and data transfer. Bluetooth technology provides a lowcost, low power and low complexity solution for ad-hoc 2) Scatternet: Several piconets may form a largerwireless connectivity. The technology is capable of scatternet, with each piconet maintainingconnecting a wide variety of devices like Personal Digital independence.Assistants (PDA), mobile and cordless phones, headsets,desktops and notebook PCs, digital cameras, home 3) Master unit: The master in a piconet whose clockappliances etc. Bluetooth technology represents an and hopping sequence synchronizes the other devices.opportunity for the industry to deliver wireless solutionsthat are ubiquitous across a broad range of devices. 4) Slave unit: Devices in a piconet that are not the master.Keywords—SIG = Special Interest Group 5) MAC address: Three bit address that distinguishesISM = Industrial, Scientific, Medical Radio bands each unit in a piconet.L2CAP = Logical link control and adaptation protocolLMP = Link Manager Protocol 6) Parked units: Piconet devices that are synchronizedSDP = Service discovery protocol but dont have MAC addressesOBEX = Object exchange protocolDSSS = Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. 7) Sniff and hold mode: Power-saving mode of aFHSS = Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum piconet device. I. INTRODUCTION Bluetooth was named for the 10th Century Viking king, Such Definitions being available in Bluetooth technologyHarald Blatand A.K.A., Bluetooth) who peacefully united all will provide highly efficient performance standards.the tiny island kingdoms of Denmark, southern Sweden, andsouthern Norway into one country. In keeping with its III-HOW BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY WORKSnamesake, Bluetooth, the new low-cost radio technology, isdesigned to unite or connect all different types of devices to The technology of Bluetooth centres around 9mm xeffectively work as one. 9mm microchip, which functions as a low cost and short range Bluetooth Support point-to-point connections It operates radio link. Bluetooth Technology provides a 10 meterin the 2.4 GHz ISM band and is based on a low-cost, short- personal bubble that support simultaneous transmission ofrange radio link that facilitates ad-hoc connections for both voice and data for multiple devices. Up to 7 devices canstationary and mobile communication environments. There be connected in a piconet, and up to 10 piconets can existhas been much interest in the Bluetooth technology since it within the 10 meter bubble. In Bluetooth the transceivercould enable users to connect to a wide range of computing transmits and receives in a previously unused frequency bandand telecommunications devices without the need to buy, of 2.45 GHz that is available globally. Each device has acarry, or connect cables. unique 48-bit address from the IEEE 802 standard. Connections can be point-to-point or multipoint. The II- BLUETOOTH DEFINITIONS maximum range is 10-100 meters. Data can be exchanged at a rate of 1 megabit per second. 1) Piconet: Devices connected in an ad hoc fashion, IV-BLUETOOTH NETWORK ARRANGEMENT that is, not requiring predefinition and planning, as with a standard network It is a Bluetooth network arrangements (topology) can be either point-to-point or point-to-multipoint. Any unit in a piconet
can establish a connection to another piconet to form a Both synchronous and asynchronous applications arescatternet. supported, making it easy to implement on a variety of devices and for a variety of services, such as voice and Internet. Governments worldwide regulate it, so it is possible to utilize the same standard wherever one travels. VII-APPLICATIONS 1) Hands free devices, music players, car-driving system to ensure safety. 2) In Gaming consoles. i.e. PSPs. 3) Wireless connection of input/output devices like key- See the figure, In which scatternet is shown having board, Monitor, mouse, Printer etc with PC.piconet A, (consists of four units), and connected to piconet B,(consisting of two units). Note that the master unit of A is 4) Wireless internet access using Bluetooth Dongle.1,whereas 2,3,4 will acts as slaves. But, In unit B master/slavecan be either 1 / 2. 5) Smart sensor devices, In medical, sports field. V-BLUETOOTH SECURITY 6) Latest version used In Apple iPad, iPhone 4S. By default, most Bluetooth devices operate inunprotected "non-secure" mode. Security is provided in threeways: through pseudo-random frequency band hops, VIII-ADVANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGYauthentication, and encryption. When link security is enabled, Bluetooth devices must 1) No line of site restrictions for signal transmitting.complete an initial "bonding" exchange to derive pair wiselink authentication and encryption keys. The user must give 2) Interoperability.both devices the same PIN code, which is then mixed with afactory-defined unit key. But this pairing process can be 3) Mass Production at Low Costcompromised by use of weak or predictable PIN codes. Toreduce risk, devices should be paired in a private location, 4) Ease of Useusing a long, random PIN code. Avoid default PIN codes,easily guessed PIN codes ("0000") and devices that do not 5) End User Experiencesupport configurable PIN codes. After bonding, pairedBluetooth devices associate to each other whenever they want 6) Less power consumption makes its usage in batteryto exchange data. powered devices very practical. VI-BLUETOOTH CHARACTERISTICS 7) 2.4 GHz radio frequency ensures worldwide operability. It separates the frequency band into hops. This spread spectrum is used to hop from one channel to another, which adds a strong layer of security. IX-BLUETOOTH IN FUTURE Seven to eight devices can be networked in a piconet. Bluetooth is a continually expanding technology. There are plans to add many new application profiles. Signals can be transmitted even through walls and With over 15000 companies working on Bluetooth,briefcases, thus eliminating the need for line-of-sight. the future is very bright. With a strong special interest group behind Bluetooth, the standardization Devices do not need to be pointed at each other, as of the application profiles is almost assured. But, to signals are Omni-directional. sustain Bluetooth should keep on adding consumer
needed applications. Because in the era of Android, people prefer applications rather than technology. REFERENCE 1) The official Bluetooth site: ACKNOWLEDGMENT http://www.bluetooth.com I wish to express sincere thanks to my EC department for 2) http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetootharranging such a nice event. So that I researched all this aboutBluetooth. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my colleagues,family members and well-wishers.