presentation on lathe machine

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presentation on lathe machine

  1. 1. PRINCIPLE OF LATHE MACHINE THE LATHE IS A MACHINE TOOL WHICH HOLDS THE W/P B/W TWO RIGID & STRONG SUPPORTS CALLED CENTRES OR IN A CHUCK OR IN FACE PLATE WHICH REVOLVES. THE CUTTING TOOL IS HELD AND FED AGAINST THE REVOLVING WORK.CUTTING TOOL FED EITHER PARALLEL OR AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE AXIS OF W/P. OR MAY ALSO AT AN ANGLE
  2. 2. LATHE SPECIFICATION • • • • A-SWING B-DISTANCE B/W CENTERS C-LENGTH OF BED D-RADIUS(ONE HALF OF SWING
  3. 3. PRINCIPLE PARTS OF LATHE
  4. 4. PRINCIPLE PARTS OF LATHE 1-BED AND WAYS BED IS THE MAIN BODY OF THE LATHE MADE FROM STURDY CAST IRON. THE WAYS ARE GROUND SURFACES ON THE TOP SIDE OF BED ON WHICH THE CARRIAGE AND TAILSTOCK RIDE
  5. 5. HEADSTOCK & SPINDLE • • • THE HEADSTOCK COMPRISES THE RECTANGULAR METAL CASTING AT THE LEFT END OF THE LATHE . IT CONTAINS THE SPINDLE SHAFT AND IT SUPPORTS BEARINGS AND HIGH/LOW SPEED SHIFT LEVER AND GEARS. SPINDLE IS THE MAIN ROTATING SHAFT ON WHICH THE CHUCK IS MOUNTED IT SUPPORTED BY PRECISION THRUST BEARINGS.
  6. 6. CARRIAGE AND SADDLE • • • • • THE CARRIAGE SUPPORTS THE CROSS-SLIDE, COMPOUND AND TOOL POST. MOVES ALONG THE WAYS UNDER MANUAL OR POWER FEED. SADDLE RIDES ACROSS THE TOP OF THE WAYS AND THE APRON SADDLE SUPPORTS THE CARRIAGE HAND WHEEL CARRIAGE HAND WHEEL MOVES THE CARRIAGE ALONG THE WAYS BY MEANS OF A RACK AND PINION DRIVE .
  7. 7. CROSS-SLIDE AND COMPOUND • • THE CROSS SLIDE IS A DOVETAILED SLIDE THAT MOVES AT A RIGHT ANGLE TO THE WAYS. THE COMPOUND SITS ON THE TOP OF THE CROSS SLIDE AND CAN BE ROTATED TO SET THE TOOL TO ADVANCE AT AN ANGLE TO THE W/P.
  8. 8. TOOLPOST AND TOOLS • • • THE TOOLPOST CAN HOLD UP TO 4TOOLS AT ONCE ,EACH LOCKED IN PLACE BY HEXAGONAL HEAD CAP SCREWS. THE TOOLPOST ROTATE ALONG A LARGE BOLT ON THE TOP OF THE COMPOUND SLIDEAND IS LOCKED IN PLACE BY CLAMPING LEVER. TOOL CAN BE READYMADE CARBIDE TIP TOOLS.
  9. 9. TYPES OF LATHE • Engine lathe – Not production lathe, found in school shops, toolrooms, and job shops – Primarily for single piece or short runs – Manually operated
  10. 10. Special Types of Lathes Turret lathe – Used when many duplicate parts required – Equipped with multisided toolpost (turret) to which several different cutting tools mounted • Employed in given sequence
  11. 11. Special Types of Lathes • Single- and multiple-spindle automatic lathes – Six or eight different operations may be performed on many parts at the same time – Will produce parts for as long as required • Tracer lathes – Used where a few duplicate parts required – Hydraulically operated cross-slide controlled by stylus bearing against round or flat template
  12. 12. Special Types of Lathes • • Conventional/programmable lathe – Operated as standard lathe or programmable lathe to automatically repeat machining operations – 2-axis (DRO) so can see exact location of cutting tool and workpiece in X and Z axes Computerized numerically controlled lathes – Cutting-tool movements controlled by computer-controlled program to perform sequence of operations automatically
  13. 13. Work Holding Devices THREE JAWS CHUCK - For holding cylindrical stock centered. - For facing/center drilling the end of your aluminum stock FOUR JAWS CHUCK - This is independent chuck generally has four jaws , which are adjusted individually on the chuck face by means of adjusting screws
  14. 14. Collet Chuck Collet chuck is used to hold small workpieces • Thin jobs can be held by means of magnetic chucks. Magnetic Chuck Thin jobs can be held by means of magnetic chucks.
  15. 15. Lathe Centers  Work to be turned between centers must have center hole drilled in each end Provides bearing surface    Support during cutting Most common have solid Morse taper shank 60º centers, steel with carbide tips Care to adjust and lubricate occasionally
  16. 16. LATHE DOGS • LATHE DOGS ARE CAST METAL DEVICES USED TO PROVIE A FIRM CONNECTION BETWEEN THE HEADSTOCK SPINDLE AND THE W/P MOUNTED BETWEEN CENTRES. T ail T ail
  17. 17. MANDRELS • MANDRELS IS USED TO HELD THE HOLLOW/DRILLED W/P. • W orkpiece M andrel
  18. 18. RESTS • LONG W/P NEED EXTRA SUPPORT THAT TEND TO SPRING AWAY FROM THE TOOL BIT. WE USE THE REST FOR PROVIDE SUPPORT. Jaw s W o rk W o rk H in ge C arriage L athe b ed g uidew ays Jaw s
  19. 19. FACE PLATES W orkpiece • A LATHE FACE PLATE IS A FLAT ROUND PLATE THAT THREADS TO THE HEADSTOCK SPINDLE TO THE LATHE. • THE FACEPLATE IS USED FOR IRREGULARLY SHAPED W/P THAT CANNOT SUCCESFULLY HELD BY CHUCKS.
  20. 20. Lathe Operations • Turning: produce straight, conical, curved, or grooved workpieces • Facing: to produce a flat surface at the end of the part or for making face grooves. • • Boring: to enlarge a hole or cylindrical cavity made by a previous process or to produce circular internal grooves. • • Drilling: to produce a hole by fixing a drill in the tailstock • • Threading: to produce external or internal threads • • Knurling: to produce a regularly shaped roughness on cylindrical surfaces
  21. 21. Lathe Operations
  22. 22. CUTTING PARAMETERS IN LATHE CUTTING SPEED V=ΠDN/1000 • Where D= diameter of w/p in mm N= r.p.m. MACHINING TIME T= l/Fn • Where l=length of w/p f=feed in mm/rev. N=r.p.m. DEPTH OF CUT t= (D-d)/2, where d=diameter of w/p after machining METAL REMOVAL RATE(MRR) = ΠDtfN
  23. 23. REFERENCES • Book • Manufacturing Science-II BY- K.M. MOEED • Website • www. engbasics.com • www. efunda.com

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