Among fungal enzymes, pectinases are associated with development, fruit ripening and degradation of the pectic substances in the vegetal cell wall.
This degradative process plays an important role in food technology, due to reduction in time of filtration and to the volume increase, and juice clarification, This process leads to a more stable andconcentrated product
This method is based upon determination of reducing sugars using a neocuprine hydrochloride color reagent assay.
When used with Worthington purified cellulase, purified pectinase has been found to be useful for generating good yields of viable protoplast in several plant systems, e.g., corn, soybean, red beet, sunflower, tomato and citrus.
In general, a concentration range of 0.1% to 0.5% pectinase (with accompanying 0.5% to 1.5% cellulase) used at 24°C to 37°C for periods of 1 to 16 hours will yield good results.
Different types of pectic enzymes vary in how they degrade pectin — a long polysaccharide of sugars that forms a gel. Pectin forms the center of the plant cell wall. Other molecules, like cellulose, are embedded in it. When pectin is degraded by pectinase, the cell walls become weaker. For instance, during fruit ripening, the enzyme polygalacturonase helps certain fruit, such as tomatoes, become soft and edible
Commercially, pectinase is added to livestock feed to help the animals better digest the food. This improves the health of their digestive systems and helps them to better digest nutrients .
It also allows them to be fed food that has not been processed too much, and costs less. Supplements containing enzymes that degrade plant materials, including pectinase, are sold to help aid human digestion. Such supplements are not regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ), so their efficacy is unclear.
As they are enzymes , pectinases have an optimum temperature and pH at which they are most active. For example, a commercial pectinase might typically be activated at 45 to 55 °C and work well at a pH of 4.5 to 5.5.
Pektinases primarily are obtained through fermentation with fungal cultures ( Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma types).
· Several enzymes from the group of pectinases (for example, polygalacturonase and pektinlyase) are obtained with the aid of genetically modified moulds. Pectatlyase can be obtained with genetically modified bacteria ( Bacillus ), however is utilised only for technical industrial purposes.
· A variety of ·· ··pektinesterases (enzymes that modify pectin) are produced with the aid of genetically modified moulds Aspergillus, Penicillium) . These may be found in various pectinase preparations.
Often in combination with other enzymes, pectinases are used:
foremost in the preparation of ·· ··fruit juices and vegetable juices in order to increase the juice yield. Particularly in the case of berries, pectinases improve the extraction of colourings and aromas. In some cases, they clarify naturally cloudy juices. In the preparation of juices from berries, tropical fruits, apples and pears, the use of pectinase additives is common
in the manufacture of concentrates made from fruit or vegetables (a carefully warmed mass made from uncooked plants or plant parts), such as in the case of tomatoes, onions, carrots, paprika and celery as well as plums, buckthorn and rosehips
in the extraction of pigments and food colourings from plant-based raw materials
in the extraction of highly concentrated citrus aromas from the zests of citrus fruits