Martin Seligman's Theories


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Martin Seligman's Theories

  1. 1. Positive Thinking Martin Seligman’s Theory of Learned Helplessness & Learned Optimisim  
  2. 2. Team Members <ul><li>Gaurav Jain (8051) </li></ul><ul><li>Wasim (8157) </li></ul><ul><li>Anish Jojan (8053) </li></ul><ul><li>Jaya Pandey (8146) </li></ul><ul><li>Kashmira Jain (8052) </li></ul><ul><li>Rahul Ramteke (8155) </li></ul><ul><li>Rahul Kashyap (8154) </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  3. 3. WHAT IS POSITIVE THINKING? Positive Thinking
  4. 4. <ul><li>Positive thinking is “ the practice or result of concentrating one ’ s mind affirmatively on what is constructive and good, thereby eliminating from it negative or destructive thoughts and emotions ” </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  5. 5. <ul><li>Positive thinking is internally driven by one ’ s purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive thinking is based in a faith that everything in life happens for a reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive thinking is aided by religious faith. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive thinking is aided by one ’ s relationship with oneself, one ’ s God, and one ’ s ohana </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  6. 6. Positive Thinking
  7. 7. A Starting Pace <ul><li>Born: August 12, 1942, in Albany, New York </li></ul><ul><li>Career: Assistant Professor, </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Clinical Training Program, President of APA, Master of Applied Positive Psychology Program (MAPP) </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  8. 8. Nikki and the weeds <ul><li>Seligman ’ s inspiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding garden. </li></ul><ul><li>5-year old daughter throwing weeds. </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman irritated, yelled at Nikki. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Daddy. From when I was 3 until I was 5, I was a whiner. I whined every day. On my 5 th birthday, I decided I wasn ’ t going to whine anymore. That was the hardest thing I ’ ve ever done. If I can stop whining, you can stop being such a grouch. ” </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  9. 9. Founder of Positive Psychology <ul><li>Seligman has written about positive psychology topic such as </li></ul><ul><li>Learned helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Pessimistic to optimistic </li></ul><ul><li>Learned optimism </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  10. 10. Seligman Experiment: part 1 Positive Thinking
  11. 11. Seligman Experiment: part 2 <ul><li>All groups received the shock. </li></ul><ul><li>Put in shuttle box. </li></ul><ul><li>Light dimmed. </li></ul><ul><li>10 second later got shock unless they jumped to safe side. </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  12. 12. Shuttle box behavior Positive Thinking
  13. 13. Parallels with Reactive Depression <ul><li>Triggered by traumatic life event (ex. death of loved one). </li></ul><ul><li>Passivity </li></ul><ul><li>Physical symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress related disorders . </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  14. 14. Parallels to Treating People <ul><li>Encourage depressed people to get back into life. Ex: not willing to leave home. </li></ul><ul><li>Small steps. (Go out to movie, then mall.) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>Show them they do have control over their lives. </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  15. 15. Prevention of Helplessness Positive Thinking
  16. 16. Positive subjective states <ul><li>Positive emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction with life. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of energy and confidence. </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  17. 17. Explanatory Style <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  18. 18. Attribution Theory Positive Thinking
  19. 19. HOW DO PEOPLE MAKE ATTRIBUTIONS? <ul><li>Kelley said people consider 3 factors </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNAL : personal </li></ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL : situational </li></ul><ul><li>STABLE : same outcome </li></ul><ul><li>UNSTABLE : different outcome </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROLLABLE : can be altered easily </li></ul><ul><li>eg : efforts </li></ul><ul><li>UNCONTROLLABLE : cannot be altered easily </li></ul><ul><li>eg : intelligence </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  20. 20. ATTRIBUTION IN ACTION Positive Thinking EG - LITTERING
  21. 21. ATTRIBUTION IN HEALTH <ul><li>EG : MAMMOGRAPHY </li></ul><ul><li>WOMEN IN TWO GROUPS WERE SHOWN TWO VIDEOS </li></ul><ul><li>ONE EMPHASISING ON </li></ul><ul><li>“ YOU” </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER EMPHASISING ON </li></ul><ul><li>“ YOUR DOCTOR” </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  22. 22. Attribution In Education Motivation <ul><li>LUCK - external unstable </li></ul><ul><li>ABILITY - internal stable </li></ul><ul><li>TASK DIFFICULTY - external stable </li></ul><ul><li>EFFORT - internal unstable </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  24. 24. Pessimistic Explanatory Style <ul><li>When a bad event happens to a person he believes that nothing ever goes right for him </li></ul><ul><li>Eg : I can’t draw animal I can’t draw anything (pessimistic) </li></ul><ul><li>This results in feeling helpless and that you are unable to influence the event </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  25. 25. Optimistic Explanatory Style <ul><li>When a bad event happens to a person he believes that the bad event was temporary and that it has no influence on future event </li></ul><ul><li>Eg : I am not good in drawing horse but I am good in drawing people (optimistic) </li></ul><ul><li>This results in feeling hope and you are able to influence the event </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  26. 26. Positive Thinking
  27. 28. <ul><li>Explaining Misfortune  </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate Pessimism  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>How You Think </li></ul><ul><li>How You Feel !  </li></ul>
  28. 29. The Realms of Life   <ul><li>SUCCESS AT WORK    </li></ul><ul><li>APTITUDE </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIMISM </li></ul><ul><li>The Value of Pessimism    </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  29. 30. Children and Parents: the Origins of Optimism <ul><li>Mother's Explanatory Style </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Criticism : Teachers and Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Children ’ s Life Crisis </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  30. 31. <ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><li> Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  31. 32. Positive Thinking
  32. 33. Changing: from Pessimism to Optimism <ul><li>“ ABCDE ” Theory </li></ul><ul><li>A = Adverse event or situation </li></ul><ul><li>B = Beliefs about that event </li></ul><ul><li>C = Consequences of those beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>D = Disputation and Distraction </li></ul><ul><li>E = Energization </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  33. 34. <ul><li>Flexible optimism is tendency to face reality with a positive outlook without dwelling unduly on the negatives. It involves anticipating the best possible outcome in any situation. </li></ul>Flexible Optimism Positive Thinking
  34. 35. BENEFITS OF FLEXIBLE OPTIMISM <ul><li>Sense of control </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic goals </li></ul><ul><li>Level of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Positive relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Positive anticipation </li></ul><ul><li>Patience </li></ul><ul><li>Self esteem </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  35. 36. <ul><li>Sir Winston Churchill “ A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity an optimist sees the opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty ” </li></ul>Positive Thinking
  36. 37. ANY QUERIES
  37. 38. <ul><li>People deal too much with the negative, with what is wrong...Why not try and see positive things, to just touch those things and make them bloom? ” </li></ul><ul><li>----Thich Nhat Hanh (Vietnamese Monk) </li></ul>Positive Thinking