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Enterprise architectures for e government development
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Enterprise architectures for e government development

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There are two common strategies for the development of e-government projects. One approach is demand based e-government initiatives having no national level centralized Enterprise Architecture and the ...

There are two common strategies for the development of e-government projects. One approach is demand based e-government initiatives having no national level centralized Enterprise Architecture and the other approach is the development of projects under the shadow of a predefined set of guidelines following a given Enterprise Architecture at the national level. It is similar to developing a demand based unplanned city development verses a master plan based development. Complex electronic service deliveries need allied and synchronized output of all the projects. Architectural approach provides guidelines form project planning to technical development and operations. It aligns all the e-government projects with some standard principles. A National Enterprise Architecture based approach provides a number of benefits, including institutionalization of top level strategic planning, standardized development across all levels of e-government, sustainability of e-government projects when governments change, cost reduction by sharing resources and better return on investment. There are many enterprise architectures for e-government development. Different countries are experimenting with different enterprise architectures. In this chapter, e-government projects and their devolution is discussed using Zachman Framework, Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP), A Reference Model for Collaboration Networks (ARCON), The Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF), and Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF). It is recommended that architectural implementation should be aligned with governing structure of a country such as centralized, devolved and decentralized. However large governments may use a decentralized architecture and devolve it to its sub-nationals such as state/provincial level and city level as per their political, fiscal and administrative needs and capacity.

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Enterprise architectures for e government development Enterprise architectures for e government development Presentation Transcript

  • H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 11
  • H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 12
  • ABSTRACTTwo common Strategies for e-Government Development• Demand based• Architecture basedA National Enterprise Architectural (NEA) approach provides guidelines formproject planning to technical development and operations. It aligns all the e-government projects with some standard principles.In this Chapter following architectures and frameworks have discussedZachman FrameworkRM-ODP (Reference Model- Open Distributed Processing)ARCON (A Reference Model for Collaboration Network)TOGAF (The Open Group Architectural Framework)FEAF (Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework )H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 13
  • Similarity Between Town Planning & Enterprise ArchitectureLong-term plans such as roads,transportation and communicationnetworks, provision of utilities,health and housing facilities, etcLong-term plans such asintegrated databases, enterpriseapplications, e-services at masslevel, legal frameworks etcH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 14
  • provides guidelines at• the strategic level to design &implement ICT infrastructure• starting from the top-level applications tolowest level of physical IT facilities• while keeping manpower,security and governance in view.Similar to a town plannerH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 15
  • • I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n• S t a n d a r d i z e dD e v e l o p m e n t• S u s t a i n a b i l i t y• C o s t R e d u c t i o n T h r o u g hS h a r e d R e s o u r c e s• R e t u r n O n I n v e s t m e n t( R O I )H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 16
  • Pioneer in EAdevelopment & implementationGovernment Open SystemsInterconnection Profile (GOSIP) in 1980The law on public IT acquisitionssupported the EAFederal Chief Information Officer Council(CIOC) published the "Federal EnterpriseArchitecture Framework (FEAF) in 1999Based on Zachman & TOGAFH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 17
  • Standards and Architectures fore-Government Applications(SAGA) initiated by FederalAdministration (KBSt) as a NEAIt is based on Reference Model-Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP)It evolved and extended toe-Government 2.0 &Deutschland-Online programsH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 18
  • e-GovernmentInteroperabilityFramework (e-GIF)in 2001e-GIF is a popularframework and has beenadopted by some CommonwealthcountriesScotland is using the Open ScotlandInformation Age Framework (OSIAF)whichis extension of e-GIFNew Zealand also owns e-GIFUK Government has introduced a new cross-Government Enterprise Architecture (xGEA). Itsupports the better inter-working between agenciesthrough the agreement of shared standardsThe Reference Model of xGEA is xGEARM havingrepository of Architectures for administrative branchesand their agencies to develop departmental EAsH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 19
  • e G o v C H w a si n i t i a t e d i n 2 0 0 6a s N E A b a s e d o nT h e O p e n G r o u pA r c h i t e c t u r a l F r a m e w o r k( T O G A F ) a l s o a i m s t o p r o m o t eo p e n s o u r c e , v e n d o r - n e u t r a la n d f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e t o o l sT h e S w i s s I T C o u n c i l A p p r o v e dt h e O p e n S o u r c e S o f t w a r e ( O S S )a n d O p e n S t a n d a r d S t r a t e g y I n 2 0 0 4e G o v C H i s S e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d P a r a d i g m .I t a l s o t a k e s c a r e o f P o l i t i c a l a n d L e g a lC o n s t r a i n t sH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 110
  • A n E A t o o l k i t“ B u s i n e s s T r a n s f o r m a t i o nE n a b l e m e n t P r o g r a m ( B T E P )w a s i n t r o d u c e d f o r1 . T h e s t r a t e g i c r e f e r e n c e m o d e l so f C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t :i t s u g g e s t s a c o m m o n m o d e l i n gl a n g u a g e f o r f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a la n d m u n i c i p a l t o m a p t h e i r p r o c e s s e s2 . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y : i t i n v o l v e ss t e p - b y - s t e p p r o c e s s e s a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o np l a n sI n 2 0 0 4 , C h i e f I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e r b r a n c h o ft h e t r e a s u r y b o a r d o f C a n a d a s e c r e t a r i a td e v e l o p e d G o v e r n m e n t s o f C a n a d a S t r a t e g i cR e f e r e n c e M o d e l ( G S R M ) u n d e r t h e s h a d o w o fB T E PH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 111
  • N e t h e r l a n d so r D u t c h G o v e r n m e n tR e f e r e n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e ( N O R A )i s n o t a m a n d a t o r y m o d e l f o r a d o p t i o na c r o s s t h e g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s .O r g a n i z a t i o n s w o r k w i t h N O R A o n a v o l u n t a r yb a s i s . N O R A e n a b l e s b e t t e r c o h e s i o n a n dc o l l a b o r a t i o n a m o n g g o v e r n m e n t b o d i e sH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 112
  • G o v e r n m e n t i n i t i a t e dA u s t r a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t A r c h i t e c t u r eR e f e r e n c e M o d e l s ( A G A - R M ) w h i c hi s b a s e d t h e F E A FH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 113
  • Governmentstarted EA programin 2002In 2007, a set of referencemodels were introducedSingapore Government EnterpriseArchitecture (SGEA) including• Business Reference Model (SG-BRM);• Data Reference Model (SG-DRM);• Application Reference Model (SG-ARM);• Technology Reference Model (SG-TRM)A methodology was developed named asMethodology for AGency ENTerprise Architecture(MAGENTA)to enable agencies to align to and fully support thegovernment‟s transformation objectives and outcomes.The program is now called Whole-of-Government EnterpriseArchitecture (WOG EA) and aims for end to end servicedelivery with integration and shared approachH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 114
  • Denmarkis Europe‟s leaderin the use of NEA.NEA was initiated in awhite Paper in 2003NEA implementation approachis based on incentives andvoluntarism, i.e. there are no rules,regulations, governing standards andprinciples for NEA development in government.This highly decentralized governance modelprovides liberty to municipalities to adopt itindependently and get benefited from experience ofmature and large size municipalities.NEA was initiated by the Ministry of Science, Technologyand Innovation (MVTU) and is based on the Zachmanframework.H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 115
  • NorwegianGovernment developeda centralized architecture andtranslated into domain andorganizational architectures atthe local level.It is mandatory for national agenciesThere is a strong emphasis on openstandards and open software.The Norwegian NEA comprises technical,conceptual, organizational and proceduralstandards.It also includes a shared component libraryH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 116
  • Ministryof Financeinitiated NEA programin 1990s.Finnish Government has beena leader in introducing ICTbased reforms in publicadministration and services.Many countries learn from Finnish experiences.The framework consists of four common viewpoints:business, information, application and technology.The framework is based on several famous frameworkssuch as FEA and TOGAFH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 117
  • NEA IMPLEMENTATIONS• Strongly Federated: Countries having strong federated structure haveimplemented this type of centralized NEA. Usually, these are smallcountries needing no decentralization.• Weakly Federated: Countries who have decentralized their structure atdifferent sub-national levels implement a devolved NEA structure.Usually these countries are big in size and have large population. Theymay partially decentralize their NEA using devolved models.• Independent: Countries having nearly independent states/sub-nationals do not have a mandatory or controlled NEA structure. Theyhave very broad level guidelines and leave the actual implementation ofEA to the respective states/sub-nationals.H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 118
  • DEVOLUTION / DECENTRALIZATIONIn the second half of the century, many countries embraced decentralization in terms of• political,• fiscal and• administrative powers“Devolution to lower levels has to involve a meaningful transfer of authorityto be acceptable and to work effectively. It also has to maintain horizontalequity by ensuring a fair distribution of fiscal and other resources across theunits”The “Soufflé” theory of decentralization described role of political, fiscal, andadministrative decentralization. It proposed that only appropriate mixture of these typesof decentralizations can produce resultsH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 119
  • DEVOLUTION IN E-GOVERNMENTHeeks categorized eight main areas of decentralization i-e planning,organizational structures and staffing, data management, computing and datamanagement architecture, information systems development, informationtechnology acquisition, training, and technical supportA centralized approach requires very strong controls, whereas a partialdecentralized approach in which few modules are centralized while few aredecentralized can be cost effective and a better solution for both mature andundeveloped organizations.Richard Heeks recommended a „core-periphery approach to public information, asystem that combines both central and local action, and is therefore mosteffective. In the Core-Periphery solution is defined as:“… core-periphery approach that attempts to reconcile the push of thecentralized approach with the pull of the decentralized approach”(Heeks, 1999).H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 120
  • DEVOLUTION IN E-GOVERNMENT……Federal level may devolve many powers and service delivery operations to sub-nationals (local government and municipalities) while policy, enterpriseapplications and related databases may be kept centralized.In this way, integration, standardization, security, technical experience andinvestment can be utilized in optimum manner.As a result, multiple levels of government need to rearrange their roles andintergovernmental relationships. Devolution in e-governance facilitates thetransfer of few powers related to e-government activity from centralgovernment to sub-national level with respect to other devolutions such aspolitical, fiscal and administrative power.e-Devolution highly depends on the devolution of political representation, fiscalmanagement and administrative control of the e-government functions.H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 121
  • POLITICAL REPRESENTATION• In a democratic regime, public representation is essential at local level for electronicservice delivery to public and business sector.• Political ownership and “will” is also very important for the implementation set bycentral government.• Federal and state/provincial governments may select technocrats and politicalleaders for effective launching of e-services.• Local governments and municipalities may set targets for elected councilors for themobilization and education of the people for usage of online services.• Individual participation like polls for need of e-services, quality and reliability of e-services, and Owning of ruling party, audit by opposition, and mobilization throughnone governmental organizations (NGO) or civil society organizations (CSO).• Trust in e-government services can be improved through these political participations• Political value chain is as significant in e-government as value chain in industrialbusinessH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 122
  • FISCAL MANAGEMENTFiscal devolution supports the political as well as administrative devolution andhas major role in inter-governmental relations horizontally as well asvertically.Economists have believed that in fiscal autonomy can increase the efficiency andresponsibility of sub-national governments.Many countries have granted greater fiscal autonomy to their sub-nationals forbetter planning, budgeting and revenue collection as per their socio-economicconditions.Fiscal devolution can provide liberty for the development projects as compared tothe centralized fiscal regimes, however it poses considerable challenges formacroeconomic management.H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 123
  • ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLReference to the scale of country and traditional administrative devolution, e-government devolution also needs a complete administrative role in deliveringpublic services.Operations of e-services also need some degree of involvement of field staff,kiosks and back-offices.This requires administrative work-force at the local government level, hencerequiring devolution in the administrative access of e-government portals orapplications.High degree of collaboration is required between agencies at different levels, bothhorizontal as well as vertical to deliver e-services by using integratedinformationH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 124
  • ADOPTION OF DEVOLUTION APPROACHInternational experience may be summarized into threecategories:• Decentralized such as Taiwan• devolved• centralizedSingapore, the Netherlands, Korea,Switzerland and Japan have allboth centralized and decentralizedor devolved governance.H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 125
  • Decentralized Approach Devolved Approach Centralized ApproachSub-nationals or localgovernments may develop theirown software applications,databases, security models andprovide online services to theirrespective stakeholders.Sub-nationals or localgovernments may develop theirown software applications,databases, security models byconsidering the FederalInstructions and provide onlineservices to their respectivestakeholders.Sub-nationals or localgovernments may develop theirown software applications,databases, security models byusing shared resources andprovide online services to theirrespective stakeholders.One stop e-government havingall centralized G2C, G2B, G2Gand G2E servicesImplementation of few vitalshared resources such asdatabases and applicationsShared applications, databasesand servicesInstructions for interoperabilityand integration of differentindependent softwareapplications and databases oflocal governmentsInstructions for interoperabilityand integration of differentindependent softwareapplications and databases oflocal governmentsInstructions for the usage ofcentralized servicesSOPs for operationsLegislation related to completedecentralizationLocal government may establishe-governments of their ownchoiceLegislation related to partialdecentralizationLocal government may establishe-governments by adoptingmandatory conditionsLegislation related to partialdecentralizationLocal government may establishe-governments by adoptingmandatory conditionsLegislation related to centralizede-governmentLocal governments bound tofollow the SOPs defined byFederal governmentLocal governments may designand develop their own EAsLocal governments may designand develop their own EAsunder the Federal governmentinstructions or broader NEALocal governments may designand develop shadow EAs undera comprehensive NEAStrong and comprehensive NEAH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 126
  • E-GOVERNMENT ARCHITECTURAL FRAMEWORK• e-Government is a complex and multidimensional enterprise system, and needscomprehensive plan for development, implementation and operations.• A National Enterprise Architecture integrates all the related initiatives.• NEA can connect horizontal as well as vertical relationship among national and sub-national levels.• Enterprise Architecture is the basic instrument for transformation and reconstruction ofgovernment• There are many generic EAs available. Five different Enterprise Architectures areselected for discussion in the light of devolution in e-governmentZachman FrameworkRM-ODP (Reference Model- Open Distributed Processing)ARCON (A Reference Model for Collaboration Network)TOGAF (The Open Group Architectural Framework)FEAF (Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework )H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 127
  • • John Zachman introduced Zachman Enterprise ArchitectureFramework (ZF) in 1987• It is the most famous framework among public andprivate sectors.• Majority of the enterprise architectures have been derived fromJohn Zachman‟s original framework• Zachman organized different information in an enterprise matrix.• Each cell of this matrix represents the relation to certain viewpoint(data, function, network, people, time, and motivation) and of the perception(contextual, conceptual, logical, physical, and out of context).• Each column estimates one of the Aristotelian questions: what, how, where,who, when and why. Each row corresponds to one of the roles: the planner,the owner, the designer, the builder, and the subcontractor• This framework is initiated at the planning level and then it bridges with lowersections containing the technical architecture.• Overall this framework delivers comprehensive knowledge about the businessprocess and its technical development.ZACHMAN FRAMEWORKH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 128
  • H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 129
  • E-Devolution and ZachmanFramework• Zachman Framework (ZF) hascapability to facilitate thedevolution approach for acentralized e-government.• Devolution in e-governance maybe accommodated at fourthcolumn “who” which can addressorganization, people andstakeholders.H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 130
  • REFERENCE MODEL OFOPEN DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING (RM-ODP)• RM-ODP was introduced by International Organization for Standardization(ISO) and International Telecommunication Union (ITU)• German government implemented it as NEA with name known as SAGA(Standards and Architectures for e-Government Applications)• This EA has five viewpoints to explain a complex enterprise system.• Enterprise Viewpoint• Information Viewpoint• Computational Viewpoint• Engineering Viewpoint• Technology ViewpointH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 131
  • REFERENCE MODEL OFOPEN DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING (RM-ODP)H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 132
  • A REFERENCE MODEL FOR COLLABORATIONNETWORKS (ARCON)This consists of three perspectives(1) Life cycle perspective(2) Environment characteristics perspective(3) Model intents perspectiveThese dimensions may be incorporated to establish a virtual government bycollaborative prospective:“Virtual government – an alliance of governmental organizations (e.g. city hall, taxoffice, cadaster office, and civil infrastructures office) that combine theirservices through the use of computer networks to provide integrated servicesto the citizen through a common front-end”H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 133
  • A R C O NH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 134
  • DEVOLUTION ASPECT IN ARCONH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 135
  • THE OPEN GROUP ARCHITECTURE FRAMEWORK(TOGAF)• TOGAF initiated by the Architecture Forum of The Open Group andprogressing since the mid-1990s. TOGAF‟s objective is to facilitate a broadrange framework to develop architectures for enterprises and specifically fore-governments• A main area of TOGAF is Architecture Development Method (ADM) thatdescribes the comprehensive processes from scratch to certain mature level.• Enterprise Continuum (EC) is very useful feature of TOGAF. ADM and ECfacilitate the requirements of a large organization such as e-governmentwhere number of agencies and sub-national organizations are engaged.• ADM is based on feedback of experienced architectural practitioners. Itsuggests an approach for developing the enterprise architecture, andintegrates the components of TOGAF.• The Enterprise Continuum is an important component for the communicationand understanding. This is a "framework-within-a-framework".• e-Government requires enterprise continuum for its NEA implementation andalso needs to develop common understanding among all the stakeholders.H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 136
  • TOGAFTOGAF is based on the following four architecture domains with respect to e-devolution.• Business Architecture aims to address the strategy, policy, governance,organization, and business processes of the different government services.Reference to TOGAF as NEA, devolution architecture can also be easily explainedhere• Applications Architecture is the showcase for the technical specifications ofapplication systems to be deployed. Most important sub domain of this architectureis the integration specifications.• Data Architecture includes the data sources of organization. In case of NEA,centralized and local databases should be documented with the comprehensivepolicies regarding data usage, ownership, updating and integration.• Technical Architecture focuses the ICT infrastructure including hardware,software and bandwidth necessary for electronic services to all stakeholders of e-government.H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 137
  • TOGAF: DEVOLUTIONH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 138
  • FEDERAL ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREFRAMEWORK (FEAF)• United States is the pioneer in EA technologies that was triggered by theClinger-Cohen Act.• Federal CIO (Chief Information Officers) Council of USA introduced "FederalEnterprise Architecture Framework" (FEAF) Version 1.1 for developing EA forfederal agencies.• The FEAF aims to provide a standard for developing and documentingarchitecture explanations.• A few countries are in the process to following this framework as NEA such asAustralia.• It evolved from Zachman frameworkH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 139
  • Common between Zachman & FEAFZachman Columns What How WhereFEAF Columns Data Architecture Application ArchitectureTechnologyArchitecturePlanner Perspective List of Business ObjectsList of BusinessProcessesList of BusinessLocationsOwner Perspective Semantic Model Business Process ModelBusiness LogisticsSystemDesignerPerspectiveLogical Data Model Application ArchitectureSystem GeographicDeploymentArchitectureBuilder Perspective Physical Data Model Systems DesignTechnologyArchitectureSubcontractorPerspectiveData Dictionary Programs Network ArchitectureH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 140
  • REFERENCE MODELS OF FEAFFEAF architecture domains are business, data, applications, andtechnology. The Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework is builtusing following reference models• Performance Reference Model (PRM)• Business Reference Model (BRM)• Service Component Reference Model (SCRM)• Data Reference Model (DRM)• Technical Reference Model (TRM)H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 141
  • DEVOLUTION ASPECT IN FEAFH T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 142
  • EVALUATION OF NEAGovernments have to evaluate their investment and efforts spent for theimplementation of NEA . Evaluation model may aim to assess the followingobjectives1. reduced costs (no duplication of efforts, sharing of common resources)2. providing a complete status of the enterprise,3. assessment of business-IT alignment,4. improved change management,5. improved risk management,6. improved interoperability and integration, and7. shortened cycle timesAbove mentioned evaluation objectives are not limited. Reference to the“International Enterprise Architecture survey, 2006”, approximately 45% of thecountries are measuring EA performance including USA, Switzerland, Japan,Taiwan and Denmark.H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 143
  • SUMMARY• This chapter introduces the concept of National Enterprise Architecture (NEA) andemphasizes its importance. Adoption of NEA by different countries is also brieflydiscussed.• A review of e-government implementations of different countries indicates thatgovernments adopt either a centralized, decentralized or a devolved governingstructure based on their strongly federated, weakly federated or independentgovernance models• This chapter also discusses five different enterprise architecture frameworks in lightof devolved e-government.• Zachman architecture is the pioneer and is reflected in the implementation of majorityof the NEAs.• All of these frameworks can be implemented for three different governancestructures.• RM-ODP and TOGAF are also generic architectures and frameworks that may beimplemented on any governing structure.• However the Collaborative Network approach is more appropriate for countrieshaving decentralized or independent governing model.• The NEAs are approaching a maturity stage. It is now needed to evaluate these NEAinvestments and efforts and assess their maturity level.H T T P : / / W W W . I G I -G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E -A R C H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9 144