Cyber Space

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Cyberspace is a domain characterized by the use of electronics and the electromagnetic spectrum to store, modify, and exchange data via networked systems and associated physical infrastructures.

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Cyber Space

  1. 1. Cyber Space • Cyberspace is a domain characterized by the use of electronics and the electromagnetic spectrum to store, modify, and exchange data via networked systems and associated physical infrastructures. • In effect, cyberspace can be thought of as the interconnection of human beings through computers and telecommunication, without regard to physical geography.
  2. 2. Threats in Cyberspace 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hacktivism Cybercrime Cyberespionage Cyberwar Cyberterrorism
  3. 3. 1. Hacktivism
  4. 4. Hacktivism • Hacktivism is the use of computers and computer networks to promote political ends, chiefly free speech, human rights, and information ethics. It is carried out under the premise that proper use of technology can produce results similar to those of conventional acts of protest, activism, and civil disobedience
  5. 5. Defacing Web Pages • Defacing Web Pages: Between 1995 and 1999 Attrition.org reported 5,000 website defacements. In such a scenario, the hacktivist will significantly alter the front page of a company's or governmental agency's website.
  6. 6. Web Sit-ins • In this form of hacktivism, hackers attempt to send so much traffic to the site that the overwhelmed site becomes inaccessible to other users in a variation on a denial of service.
  7. 7. E-mail Bombing • E-mail Bombing: Hacktivists send scores of emails with large file attachments to their target's e-mail address.
  8. 8. Website Mirroring • It is used as a circumvention tool to bypass censorship blocks on websites. It is a technique that copies the content of a censored website and posts it to other domains and subdomains that are not censored.
  9. 9. Geo-bombing • Geo-bombing: a technique in which netizens add a geo-tag while editing YouTube videos so that the location of the video can be displayed in Google Earth.
  10. 10. Anonymous blogging • Anonymous blogging: a method of speaking out to a wide audience about human rights issues, government oppression, etc. that utilizes various web tools such as free email accounts, IP masking, and blogging software to preserve a high level of anonymity.
  11. 11. Doxing • Doxing is the practice of outing of private information about individuals, but the term is sometimes used more broadly to refer to exposing embarrassing information about organizations
  12. 12. Swatting • Swatting is the act of triggering a police raid, usually that of an anti-terrorist team SWAT in the United States, typically for retaliation or harassment and based on providing false information to law enforcement.
  13. 13. Cyber crime
  14. 14. Cyber crime Computer crime Computer crime refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target Net crime Net crime refers to criminal exploitation of the Internet.
  15. 15. Cybercrimes • Halder and Jaishankar (2011) defines Cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)". • Such crimes may threaten a nation’s security and financial health.
  16. 16. Cybercrimes • Issues surrounding this type of crime have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding cracking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted, lawfully or otherwise.
  17. 17. Categories of Cybercrimes Cyber crime encompasses a broad range of activities. Generally, however, it may be divided into two categories: (1) crimes that target computers directly (2) crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices, the primary target of which is independent of network or device.
  18. 18. Categories of Cybercrimes 1.Crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices include: 1. Computer viruses 2. Denial-of-service attacks 3. Malware (malicious code) 2.Crimes that use computer networks or devices to advance other ends include: 1. Cyber stalking 2. Fraud and identity theft 3. Information warfare 4. Phishing scams
  19. 19. computer virus • A computer virus is a computer program that can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another. The term "virus" is also commonly, but erroneously, used to refer to other types of malware, including but not limited to adware and spyware programs that do not have a reproductive ability.
  20. 20. denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) is an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users. Although the means to carry out, motives for, and targets of a DoS attack may vary, it generally consists of the efforts of one or more people to temporarily or indefinitely interrupt or suspend services of a host connected to the Internet.
  21. 21. Malware • Malware, short for malicious (or malevolent) software, is software used or programmed by attackers to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems. It can appear in the form of code, scripts, active content, and other software. Malware' is a general term used to refer to a variety of forms of hostile or intrusive software
  22. 22. Cyberstalking • Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, a group of individuals, or an organization. It may include the making of false accusations or statements of fact (, monitoring, making threats, identity theft, damage to data or equipment, the solicitation of minors for sex, or gathering information that may be used to harass. The definition of "harassment" must meet the criterion that a reasonable person, in possession of the same information, would regard it as sufficient to cause another reasonable person distress
  23. 23. Fraud Fraud is intentional deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual. Fraud is a crime and a civil law violation, though the specific criminal law definition varies by legal jurisdiction. Defrauding people or entities of money or valuables is a common purpose of fraud.
  24. 24. Identity theft • Identity theft is a form of stealing someone's identity in which someone pretends to be someone else by assuming that person's identity, typically in order to access resources or obtain credit and other benefits in that person's name. • The victim of identity theft (here meaning the person whose identity has been assumed by the identity thief) can suffer adverse consequences if they are held accountable for the perpetrator's actions. • Identity theft occurs when someone uses another's personally identifying information, like their name, identifying number, or credit card number, without their permission, to commit fraud or other crimes.
  25. 25. Information Warfare • Information Warfare (IW) is primarily an American concept involving the use and management of information technology in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. • Information warfare may involve collection of tactical information, assurance that one's own information is valid, spreading of propaganda or disinformation to demoralize or manipulate the enemy and the public, undermining the quality of opposing force information and denial of information-collection opportunities to opposing forces. Information warfare is closely linked to psychological warfare.
  26. 26. Phishing • Phishing is the act of attempting to acquire information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. • Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites, auction sites, online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to lure the unsuspecting public. Phishing emails may contain links to websites that are infected with malware
  27. 27. Cyber terrorism
  28. 28. Cyber terrorism Cyber terrorism is the use of Internet based attacks in terrorist activities, including acts of deliberate, large-scale disruption of computer networks, especially of personal computers attached to the Internet, by the means of tools such as computer viruses.
  29. 29. Types of cyber terrorism Simple-Unstructured The capability to conduct basic hacks against individual systems using tools created by someone else. The organization possesses little target analysis, command and control, or learning capability.
  30. 30. Types of cyber terrorism Advanced-Structured The capability to conduct more sophisticated attacks against multiple systems or networks and possibly, to modify or create basic hacking tools. The organization possesses an elementary target analysis, command and control, and learning capability.
  31. 31. Types of cyber terrorism Complex-Coordinated: The capability for a coordinated attacks capable of causing mass-disruption against integrated, heterogeneous defenses (including cryptography). Ability to create sophisticated hacking tools. Highly capable target analysis, command and control, and organization learning capability
  32. 32. Cyber crime Halder and Jaishankar (2011) defines Cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)".
  33. 33. Cyber crime • Such crimes may threaten a nation’s security and financial health. • Issues surrounding this type of crime have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding cracking, copyright, child pornography, and child grooming. • There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted, lawfully or otherwise.
  34. 34. The Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) • The Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) is responsible for implementing the Department's national strategies in combating computer and intellectual property crimes worldwide. • CCIPS prevents, investigates, and prosecutes computer crimes by working with other government agencies, the private sector, academic institutions, and foreign counterparts. • Section attorneys work to improve the domestic and international infrastructure-legal, technological, and operational-to pursue network criminals most effectively. The Section's enforcement responsibilities against intellectual property crimes are similarly multi-faceted.
  35. 35. The Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) • Intellectual Property (IP) has become one of the principal U.S. economic engines, and the nation is a target of choice for thieves of material protected by copyright, trademark, or trade-secret designation. In pursuing all these goals, CCIPS attorneys regularly run complex investigations, resolve unique legal and investigative issues raised by emerging computer and telecommunications technologies; litigate cases; provide litigation support to other prosecutors; train federal, state, and local law enforcement personnel; comment on and propose legislation; and initiate and participate in international efforts to combat computer and intellectual property crime.

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