6.abo and rh blood typing.


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6.abo and rh blood typing.

  1. 1. ABO & Rh Blood Groups By: Kashif Nadeem Khokhar
  2. 2. History of ABO And Rh Groups  Austrian scholar Karl Landsteiner began to work on this topic since 1900.  he drew the conclusion: Human blood group is genetic.  Ludwik Hirszfeld and E. von Dungern discovered the heritability of ABO blood groups in 1910–11 , with Felix Bernstein demonstrating the correct blood group inheritance pattern of multiple alleles at one locus in 1924 .
  3. 3. What Is The Use of Blood Grouping?     Each person’s blood is different due to the presence of antigens (markers) on the surface of Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells). Before a person receives a blood transfusion, it is important to do blood typing. Doctor’s must be sure that the donated blood is compatible with the recipients blood. Mixing blood types can be very dangerous, even deadly in some cases.
  4. 4. The ABO System: How it Works  In the ABO blood system there are two possible red blood cell markers(Antigens) (A method by which cells identify themselves):  A &B – Ex: A person with an A marker is said to have type A blood, a person with a B marker will have type B blood.
  5. 5. Type A Blood  Type A blood produces anti-B antibodies that will attack type B blood.  A person with type A blood may only donate their blood to another person with type A blood or someone who has type AB blood.
  6. 6. Type B Blood  Type B blood has the presence of anti-A antibodies that will attack type A blood.  A person with type B blood can only donate blood to another person with type B blood or someone who has type AB blood.
  7. 7. Type AB Blood  Type AB blood has BOTH markers present, and does not contain ANY antibodies.  For this reason type AB blood is considered the Universal Recipient . – Since type AB blood has no antibodies against the other blood types, a person with type AB blood can receive any type of blood if needed, but may only donate blood to other type AB recipients.
  8. 8. Type O Blood    Type O blood has neither an A or a B marker and contains both anti-A AND anti-B antibodies. Because type O blood does not have either marker, it will not react with anti-A or anti-B antibodies, So, a person with type O blood may donate blood to any other blood types. For this reason type O blood is known as the Universal Donor. Type O will attack all other blood types (A,B, & AB) so a person with type O blood may only receive blood from another person with type O blood.
  9. 9. Diagram of how different blood types may donate:
  10. 10. The Rh Factor  A person with the Rh factor on his or her red blood cells is said to be Rh-positive (Rh+ ).  Since this person has the factor, he or she will not make anti-Rh antibodies.  A person without the Rh factor on their red blood cells is said to be Rh-Negative (Rh- ).  This person WILL produce anti-Rh antibodies.  Therefore, an Rh+ person may receive both an (Rh+) and an (Rh-) transfusion, but an (Rh-) person can only receive Rh- blood.
  11. 11. Rh Factor  The Rh factor was first identified in the blood of a rhesus monkey. Also called Rhesus factor .  If an Rh_ person receives Rh+ blood, hemolysis and anemia occur.  Rh factor is very important, specially in pregnancy.  If mother is Rh- and the fetus is Rh+, A condition called Erythroblastosis Fetalis occurs, which can cause fetal death.
  12. 12. Mother-Fetus Rh Response
  13. 13. PREVENTION  It is important to immunize Rh-negative mothers after their first pregnancy to guard against future Rh incompatibility reactions. Immediately after childbirth, anti-Rh antibody (RhoGAM) is injected into the mother. ( also known as Antibody D).  Immunization must be repeated after each pregnancy, including ectopic pregnancies and miscarriages.
  14. 14. Blood Donor & Recipient Compatibility D R E O N O R S O+ A+ B+ AB+ O- A- O+ ✔ C E P I A+ ✔ B+ ✔ AB+ ✔ OA- ✔ B- ✔ AB- ✔ AB- ✔ E N TS B- ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔