Day 3 hazara basin
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Day 3 hazara basin Day 3 hazara basin Document Transcript

  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 1 Stratigraphic Sequence of Hazara area Age Formation Description Early Miocene Middle Eocene Early to Middle Eocene Early Eocene Late Paleocene Middle Paleocene Early Paleocene Murree Formation Kuldana Formation Chorgali Formation Margala Hill Formation Patala Formation Lockhart Formation Hangu Formation Grey and reddish sandstone and shales Maroon to varicolored shales and marl Thinly bedded limestone and marl Nodular foraminifera grey limestone Greenish grey/Khaki shales with limestone Nodular foraminifera grey limestone Sandstone, claystone, Laterite DISCONFORMITY Late Cretaceous Early Cretaceous Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation Lumshiwal Formation Chichali Formation Fine grained light grey limestone Grey to brownish coarse sandstone Dark grey shales with sandstone beds DISCONFORMITY Middle Jurassic Early Jurassic Samanasuk Formation Datta Formation Limestone with dolomite patches &oolites Sandstone, quartzite, micro conglomerates DISCONFORMITY Early Cambrian Cambrian Hazira Formation Abbottabad Formation Calcareous siltstone and shales/quartzites Dolomite with sandstone, shale in lower part and boulder beds at base UNCONFORMITY Late Precambrian Late Precambrian Hazara Formation Tanawal Formation Slates, pelites sandstones and quartzites with a horizon of gypsum & two limestone beds Quartzite and quartz mica schists with a 500 Ma intruded granite
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 2 List of Observed Formations in Hazara Area The following formations were observed in Hazara range.  Hazara formation  Tanawal formation  Samanasuk formation  chichali formation  Lumshiwal formation  Kawagarh formation  Hangu limestone  Lockhart Limestone  Patala formation  Margala hill formation  Murree formation Hazara Formation Lithology: The Formation consists of slate, phyllite and shale with minor occurrences of limestone and graphite layers. Slate and phyllite are green to dark green and black in color.Limestone beds with maximum thickness of 150 m and calcareous phyllite gypsum from 30 to 120m thick are found in southern most hazara. Marks and Ali (1961) regarded the formation as a deep water turbidity current deposit. Calkins (1969) contended that the beds limestone, graphite and gypsum are unlikely to occur in a turbidity sequence and regarded the formation as a shallow water argillaceous sequence.Slates of greenish colour with interbeds of sandstone and have balls of clay on upper part.Ball and pillow structure Samanasuk Formation Synonymy Baroch Lime Stone by Gee(1945),Kioto Lime Stone by Cotter(1933),Kioto Lime Stone by Middlemiss(1896),Sikhar Lime Stone by Latief(1970)
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 3 Type locality: Samanasuk peak in samanarange . Lithology In Hazara area the limestone of the Formation is thin to thick-bedded and includes some dolomitic, ferruginous, sandy and oolitic beds. The thickness of the Formation is 366 m in Bagnotar section of Hazara area. The lower contact is transitional with Shinawari Formation and upper contact is disconformable with Chichali formation.Light grayish to bluish gray limestone with yellow patches of dolomitization(S:33 P:45), oolitic limestone and sandy limestone. Contacts Formation has lower conformable contact with Datta Formation while theUpper contact is unconformable with Hangu formation Fossils Gastropods, Brachiopods, Bivalves are reported Age The fauna indicates that age in all areas is essentially Middle Jurassic. Chichali Formation Synonymy Middle miss (1896) called the rocks of Chichali formation as ''Spiti Shale'' in hazara. Type locality Chichali pass Lithology Blackish gray splintery shales have rare interbeds of ferrigeneoussandstone.Have khaki weathered color. Belemnities are also observed.In southern hazara the formation is divided into three folds with almost type section. In the lower part it consists of glauconitic sandstone with nodular silty, calcareous, phosphatic base. In the middle part it consists of glauconitic, sandy shale and dark pyritic unfossiliferous shale in the upper part. In northern hazara the
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 4 formation shows a facies change consisting of dark silty shale with some ferruginous calcareous and phosphatic nodules and is similar to ''Spiti Shale'' of Himalayas. Contacts Lower contact with Samanasuk Formation is disconformable while the Upper contact is gradational with Lumshiwal Formation Fossils Ammonites and belemnites of late Jurassic age have been recorded from Chichali formation in hazara area. Age The above mentioned fauna indicates Pre Kathonian possibly Late Oxfordian age of this Formation. Lumshiwal Formation Synonymy The name Giumal sandstone" was given to the rocks of Lumshiwal formation in Hazara area by Middlemiss (1896). Cotter (1933) used the name "Main sandstone series" for the same rocks. Type locality Wuchkhwar section in Nizampur area and Jhamiri village on Haripurjabrian Road in Hazara are the reference sections of Lumshiwal formation. Lithology In Hazara area the formation is mostly of marine origin consisting of quartose, ferruginous sandstone and dark rusty brown sandy limestone. In southern hazara its thickness is 50m in northern hazara its thickness varies from 20m to 10m. The lower contact with Chichali formation is transitional and upper contact with Kawagarh formation of upper cretaceous is disconformable.Lower part have have glauconitic shales and middle part have glauconitic sandstone and upper part have ferragineous sandstone and oyster bearing sandstone. Contacts
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 5 The lower contact with Chichali formation is transitionaupper contact with Kawagarh formation of upper cretaceous is disconformable. Fossils The uppermost part of formation in northern Hazara has abundant fossil casts of brachiopods, gastropods and Ammonites. Age The age of the formation in Hazara area is lower cretaceous. Kawagarh Formation Synonymy Sublithographic Limestone by Davies(1930).Darsamand Limestone by Fatmi and Khan(1966).Durban Limestone bu S.N. Khan and W Ahmad(1968).Chanali Limestone by Latief(1970) Lithology Regional lithology It is composed of micritic limestone have equi-beds. Limestone is very fine grained and have light grey to light dark grey in color Field lithology The Nara sandstone member in the upper part is grey, brownish grey to dark grey, thick bedded, calcareous sandstone with some limestone interbeds. In northern hazara Nara member was not developed and Kawagarh formation consists of grey, olive grey, light grey sublithlogic limestone with subordinate marl and Calcareous shale. Contacts Upper disconformable with Hangu Formation. Fossils Latif (1970) has reported following foraminifers from southern Hazara: Globotruncanalapparenti, G.fornicata, G. concavatacarinata.etc.
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 6 Age On the basis of the fossils, the age of the Formation is considered to be Upper Cretaceous. Associated structure Equal bedding,Conchoidalfracture;and Calcite vein. Hangu Formation Synonymy “HanguShales” and “Hangu Sandstone” by Davies (1930) and “Hangu Formation” by Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan (1973) Type locality The type section of the formation is near fort Lockhart Lithology The formation consists of variegated sandstone, shale, carbonaceous shale and some nodular, argillaceous limestone in the salt range. A 2 m to 3 m thick bed of ferruginous, pisolitic Sandstone occurs at the base of unit Lithology can be divided into two parts. Lower part composed of iron bearing clay, concentration of iron is very low. Upper part consists of quartose sandstone. Sandstone is fine grained and whitish in color. Contacts lower disconformable with Kawagarh Formation. Upper conformable contact with Lockhart Limestone Fossils Foraminifers with some Corals, gastropods and bivalves have been reported by lqbal (1972).Haque (1956) recorded abundant Epistominelladubia from Nammal gorge. Age On thee basis of fossils Formation has assigned Early Paleocene age. Lockhart Limestone
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 7 InHazara area the limestone is dark grey and black in colour and contain intercalations of marl and shale. The limestone is generally bituminous and gives off fetish odour on fresh surface. It is 90 to 242 m in Hazara. Nummulities also found in Lockhart limestone in Hazara. Patala Formation Synonymy Patala Shales” by Davies (1937), “TarkhobiShales” by Eames (1952), “Hill Limestone” by Wynne (1873). The present name was given by Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. Type locality: The section exposed in Patala nala is designated as type section in Salt range Lithology It is mainly composed of splintery shale with interbedded limestone having weathered colour yellow to rusty brown. Contacts Lower conformable with Lockhart Formation. upper conformable with margala hill limestone. Fossils Larger Foraminifers including Lockarciatipprie, Lockarciacondety, Ascilinadandotica, Ascilinadelcina.Miscilina masala and uppercilina are reported. Age The Formation on the basis of above mentioned Foraminifers is assigned Upper Paleocene age.
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 8 Observed Structures and Formations Slates of Hazara Formation
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 9 Plumohos Structure Assymetrical Fold in Hazara Slate
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 10 HearyboneSructure in Hazara Slate Quartz viens in Hazara Slate
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 11 Slum Structure(Polished Surface) Contact b/w Chichali Shale and Samana Suk Fm.
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 12 Kawagarh Fm.
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 13 Algal Limestone Cleavage in Hazara Formation
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 14 Isocline overturned or Z-Shaped Fold in Lumshiwal Fm. Hazara Thrust
  • Hazara Basin Day 3 Page 15 Nathia Gali Thrust(NGT) Hungu Sandstone