INTRODUCTION Canada, federated country of North America, a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean; on the north-east by Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, which separate it from Greenland; on the east by the Atlantic Ocean; on the south by the United States; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean and the US state of Alaska. It was formerly known as the Dominion of Canada.
. The bay has large numbers of fish, especially plaice, cod, halibut, and salmon. Whales, dolphins, walruses, and seals also inhabit its waters, and caribou are found on its shores. Numerous types of birds, such as ducks, geese, loons, gulls, and ptarmigan, live on the rocky coasts and islands of the bay. . HUDSON BAY
Basic Facts Official name Canada Capital Ottawa Area 9,970,610 sq km 3,849,674 sq mi Administrative divisions (population) Alberta 2,997,236 (2000) British Columbia 4,063,760 (2000) Manitoba 1,147,880 (2000) New Brunswick 756,598 (2000) Newfoundland 538,823 (2000) Northwest Territories 39,672 (1996) Nova Scotia 940,996 (2000) Nunavut 27,692 (2000) Ontario 11,669,344 (2000) Prince Edward Island 138,928 (2000) Quebec 7,372,448 (2000) Saskatchewan 1,023,636 (2000) Male 76.2 years (2001 estimate) Infant mortality rate 5 deaths per 1,000 live births (2001 estimate) Literacy rate Total 96.6 per cent (1995) Female Not available Male Not available Ethnic divisions British Isles origin 35.0 per cent French origin 25.0 per cent Other European origin 20.0 per cent Indigenous peoples (designated in the census as "Aboriginal") 3.0 per cent Other or none 17.0 per cent Languages English (official), French (official), German, Italian, Ukranian, Chinese, Spanish, indigenous languages Religions* Roman Catholic 45.2 per cent United Church 11.5 per cent Anglican 8.1 per cent Other Protestant 7.9 per cent Other or non-religious 27.3 per cent . Montreal is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec. is also a major centre for commerce, manufacturing, transport, and finance. Most of the people of Montreal speak French as their first language. MONTREAL , QUEBEC
CALGARY, ALBERTA Calgary, the largest city in the province of Alberta, Canada, is a centre for manufacturing and transport. This view of the city skyline shows the Calgary Tower, a landmark, on the left and the Rocky Mountains in the background.Encarta Encyclopedia Calgary Convey.
COLUMBIA RIVER , WASHINGTON STATE Shown here is a view of the Columbia River in Washington, as seen from Echo Point. The Columbia River flows for about 2,005 km (1,245 mi) through western North America and is the largest river in the western United States
HOPEDALE Hopedale is about 236 km from Goose-Bay and about 1060 km from St. John's, with a population of 620 and still growing. This community is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, continuous settlements on the coast of Northern Labrador
RIVER VALLEY In the case of the Mississagi River Valley, the geology of the area has influenced land use: pockets of the region are suitable for agriculture. Many other places are too rocky and remote for this. The many forests in the area have made it an important lumber region. The abundance of wildlife means that the Mississagi River Valley can support a healthy tourist trade.
ANNUAL AVERAGE OF CANADA Snowfall Wet days Total precipitation places ANNUAL AVERAGE cm mm number St. John's 322.1 1,482 217 Charlottetown 338.7 1,201 177 Halifax 261.4 1,474 170 Fredericton 294.5 1,131 156 Québec City 337.0 1,208 178 Montréal 214.2 940 162 Ottawa 221.5 911 159 Toronto 135.0 819 139 Winnipeg 114.8 504 119 Regina 107.4 364 109 Edmonton 129.6 461 123 Calgary 135.4 399 111