community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes)in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system
● all living things are engrained into them The importance of ecosystems ● lies with the benefits it brings to the environment and the people. ● living things and non living things are engrained into them
Types of Ecosystem: There are basically two types of ecosystems;Terrestrial and Aquatic. All other sub-ecosystems fall under these two.
I. Terrestrial ecosystems Terrestrial ecosystems are found everywhere apartfrom water bodies. They are broadly classified into:
Taiga: Situated just south of thearctic regions, Taiga is distinguished by evergreen conifers. While the temperature is subzero for almost six months, the rest of the year it is buzzing with insects and migratory birds.
The Forest Ecosystemabundance of flora (plants) is seen and they have a largenumber of organisms living in relatively small areas. They are again divided into few types:
● tropical evergreen forest: Tropical forests which receive an average rainfall of 80 to 400 inches in a year. These forests are marked by dense vegetation comprising of talltrees with different levels. Each level gives shelter to different kinds of animals.
Tropical deciduous forest: Dense bushes and shrubs rule here along with broad levels of trees.This type of forests is found in many parts of the world and large variety of flora and fauna are found here.
Temperate evergreen forest: These have very few number of trees but ferns and mosses make up fro them.Trees have spiked leaves to minimize transpiration.
Temperate deciduous forest: This forest is found in the moist temperate regions with sufficientrainfall. Winters and summers are well defined and with trees shedding their leaves during winter
The Desert Ecosystemfound in regions receiving an annual rainfall of less than 25cm
The Grassland Ecosystem found in both temperate and tropicalregions of the world but the ecosystems are slightly varying 2 types: 1. Savanna: seasonally dry with fewindividual trees; support large number of grazers and predators 2. Prairies: completely devoid of trees and large shrubs; categorized as tall grass, mixed grass and short grass prairie
The Mountain Ecosystem: provides a scattered but diverse array of habitats in which alarge range of plants and animals are found;at higher altitudes harsh environmental conditions generally prevail, and only treeless alpine vegetation is found
II. Aquatic ecosystem located in a body of water,comprises aquatic fauna, floraand the properties of water too
The Marine Ecosystem:● Oceanic: The relatively shallow part of the ocean that lies over the continental shelf. ● Profundal: Bottom or deep water. ● Benthic Bottom substrates.● Inter-tidal:area between high and low tides ● Estuaries ● Salt marshes ● Coral reefs ● Hydrothermal vents- chemosynthetic bacteria ● form the food base
The Freshwater Ecosystem:●Lentic: Still or slow-moving water like pools, ponds, and lakes. ● Lotic: Fast-moving water like streams and rivers. ● Wetlands: Places where the soil issaturated or inundated for at least some time.
Presented by:Apresto, Kassandra Gavril Vincent Elizabeth B.