Successful strategies for social studies teaching and learning
SUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES FOR SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHING AND LEARNING
FIVE PRINCIPLES OFTEACHING OF EFFECTIVETEACHING AND LEARNING
Education for Learners with Special Needs- Means the special educational arrangements which are inplace for people with disabilities. All children includingchildren with disabilities and children with special needs.
Foundations for Effective Instruction- Treat students with the same respect you expect from them, keepconfidences.- Get to know your students. Learn their names quickly and recognizehis or her individual qualities..- Be fair, positive, and consistent. Be the kind of person young peoplecan like and trust – firm, fair, friendly, courteous, enthusiastic, andconfident. Admit your mistakes and keep your sense of humor..
- Let the students know you care. Determine jointly with theclass what is and isn’t acceptable in terms of behavior andachievement.- Begin class on time and in a businesslike manner. Haveroutines to follow each day as students enter and leave yourroom.
Strategies for Collaboration- There are three essential strategies for collaboration. They are: focuson results, shape relationships, and structure for resilience. Use ofthese key strategies will enable your collaboration to move quickly andrespond effectively to changing environments. Next, the module will helpyou examine how to apply these key strategies to help your collaborationmake decisions, accomplish tasks, and work through problems.
Results - Many grant programs focus on the results that projects will havespecific to their target population. In AFL grantee’s case those populations areadolescents and their families, which is undoubtedly very important. However,if you do not have specific objectives you want to accomplish to help thesystem improve, then all you have achieved could be forgotten. Keeping thelarger picture in mind is vital. As you and your partners come together todiscuss desired outcomes, it will become clearer how your collaborative canactually accomplish your goal. Following are some key components fordetermining your desired results and moving your partnership forward.
Relationships - Entering into collaboration also means you are enteringinto a relationship with another agency. Some of the ways you can go aboutstrengthening your relationship is to build trust. To build trust, each agencywill need to discuss their self-interest. What do they want to get out of thecollaboration and what will make the collaboration a success for allinvolved? Defining and clarifying roles within the collaboration and buildinga communication plan are also important elements to building therelationship between agencies.
Resilience - Resilience is the capacity to keep on doingthe work throughout the life of the program. Somepeople use the word “sustainability”
Written LanguageWill be concerned with linguistic, psycholinguistic, educational andsociolinguistic accounts of the structure and functions of writtenlanguage, the processes and acquisition of reading and writing, and theuse and development of literacy in different social and cultural settings.The journal focuses on scientific reports in areas such as theoreticallinguistics and cognitive models of written language processes, readingand writing in educational contexts and in literacy campaigns, literacy andtechnology, and literacy as a marker relating to gender, ethnicity, and class.
Study Skillsstudy skills must be practiced in order for you to improve. It is notenough to simply "think about" studying; you have to actually do it, and inthe process use information from what you do to get better. This is thecentral idea of this page. All that follows depends on this single concept.There is a saying that goes like this: "Practice doesnt make perfect;perfect practice makes perfect." If you want to be an achiever, take thissaying to heart.
Instructional Principle: When teachers explain exactlywhat students are expected to learn, and demonstrate the stepsneeded to accomplish a particular academic task, studentslearn more.
Direct instruction rejects (or at least sets aside) the assumptionthat students will spontaneously develop insights on their own.Rather, direct instruction takes learners through the steps of learningsystematically, helping them see both the purpose and the result ofeach step. The basic components of direct instruction are:
1. Setting clear goals for students andmaking sure they understand thesegoals.2. Presenting a sequence of well-organized assignments.3. Giving students clear, conciseexplanations and illustrations of thesubject matter.
4. Asking frequent questions to seeif the students understand thework.5. Giving students frequentopportunities to practice what theyhave learned.
Direct Instruction- best to use when teaching knowledge acquisition involving facts, rules, and actionsequences- teacher-centered (teacher provides information, facts, rules, action sequences)- teacher is lecturer (most often)- common form: lecture-recitation with explanations, examples, and opportunitiesfor practice and feedback- instructional methods: lecture, collaboration- uses the first three of Bloom’s taxonomy: Knowledge, Comprehension, andApplication
- largely verbal, lecture and teacher-student question/answer practice forunderstanding- steps: present objectives and goals (may use a set induction), present contentsequentially in small steps (may use a graphic organizer), model skills orprocesses with specific and concrete methods (use an advanced organizer toaccess prior knowledge), check for understanding before moving from onepoint to the next (with corrective feedback), ask students questions and havethem summarize in their own words or re-teach a partner (give period practiceand feedback)
- full-class instruction- organize learning around questions you pose- provide detailed and redundant practice- present material sequentially so students can master a new fact orrule before moving on- classroom is formally arranged to facilitate recitation and assessmentduring practice
When to use: If there is a workbook and textbookthat help student practice, you would more likelyuse direct instruction if the material withinrequired much breaking down or subdividing thematerial. Another reason is to spark student’sinterest (ie if they think the textbook looks boring):make it relevant to real-life or explain any questionsor misunderstandings they have. In order forstudents to master learning they need additionalinstruction from the teacher to give clarity to theinformation and to ensure their comprehension ofit.
Indirect Instruction- Indirect means that the learner acquires a behaviorindirectly by transforming, or constructing, the stimulusmaterial into meaningful response or behavior thatdiffers from both (1) the content being used to presentthe learning and (2) any previous response given by thestudent- best to use when teaching concepts, abstractions, orpatterns- best to use when the learning process is inquiry-based,the result is discovery, and the learning context is aproblem- student-centered (student is an interactive participant)- teacher is facilitator
- small group instruction- instructional methods: discovery learning, cooperative learning, allstudent-guided- uses all parts of Bloom’s taxonomy including Analysis, Synthesis,and Evaluation- Indirect instruction involves: organizing content, inductive anddeductive reasoning, examples and non-examples, studentexperiences, questions, student’s self-evaluation, and group discussion
When not to use: When objectives other than learning facts, rules,or behavior sequences are desired, direct instruction would be lessefficient than inquiry or problem-solving strategies. Direct instructionrelates more to lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. Do not use ifstudents already have a grasp of lower-level learning concepts of thetopic.
Inductive Instructional Approaches: 1.Inductive Instructional Approaches theinductive instructional approaches can beused to help students inductively processinformation. Specific strategies for inductiveapproaches include: Concept attainmentInquiry lessons: project or problem Projects,reports
Concept Attainment: Concept Attainment Conceptattainment is a process where students are given positiveand negative examples of an issue. Based on the examples,the students form a hypothesis that names the issue. Moreexamples of positive and negative are given. Studentseliminate some hypotheses that are not appropriate.
Inquiry Lessons (problem orproject based learning): InquiryLessons (problem or project basedlearning) Students are given a questionor problem to solve. Based on theirprior knowledge and guidance from theteacher, they form a hypothesis.Students gather data to prove ordisprove their hypotheses. The data isanalyzed to form a strategy or answer.
Projects, reports: Projects, reports Provide these guidelines to ensurestudent success in giving oral reports: Select a topic Research the topic at thelibrary and on the internet Decide on a thesis and find evidence to back upyour thesis statement Create a written outline on paper Write notes to yourselfon paper or on index cards on the main points of the report Practice speakingthe report to yourself Practice the oral report in front of a mirror Practice theoral report in front of a friend or family member Select the appropriate attirefor giving the oral report Give the oral report with your notes in hand.
Social Instructional Approaches: 2. Social InstructionalApproaches These approaches are interpersonal. They includestrategies such as: Discussions Cooperative Learning Panelsand Debates Role playing Simulations & Games
Roles within the group help keep students accountableand on task. : Roles within the group help keep studentsaccountable and on task. Some roles or jobs can include:Group facilitator Materials manager Recorder ReporterThinking monitor
Group rules might include: Group rules might include:You are responsible for your own behavior and your ownwork. You must be willing to help any group member whoasks. You may only ask the teacher for help when everyoneelse in your group has the same question. (This one helpsstudents resolve problems and not come to the teacher forevery issue)
Successful groups include the followingelements: Successful groups include the following elements:Group goals: the success of the group depends on the efforts ofall the members: promotes a caring environment where studentshelp another learn. Individual accountability: students areindividually responsible for learning material Equal opportunity:interpersonal and communication skills that promote successfulgroup interaction.
Dryad (paired learning) is a form of cooperative grouplearning. : Dryad (paired learning) is a form of cooperativegroup learning. Peer tutoring – one classmate tutors anotherCross-age coaching – one student coached by another from ahigher grade level Think-pair-share – two students examine anew concept about to be studied Team learning –studentsstudy and learn in teams of two
Flexible Grouping for the delivery of instruction is thecornerstone of appropriate differentiation for the gifted studentas well as all students. The use of Flexible Grouping assuresSuccess for Every Student. : Flexible Grouping for the delivery ofinstruction is the cornerstone of appropriate differentiation for thegifted student as well as all students. The use of Flexible Groupingassures Success for Every Student.
Panels and Debates: Panels and Debates Panels: In a paneldiscussion, a small group acts as experts to answer the questions ofthe people in the larger group. In a classroom setting, students areselected to become experts on a topic and are given at least a day toprepare for the discussion. Panel discussions can also be held usingoutside experts. Debates are arguments carried out according to agreeupon rules and used in the classroom to engage students and helpthem make connections to the curriculum. Great Debates
Role Playing: Role Playing Helps explore and increaseunderstanding of feelings and/or actions Teacher providesbackground information that explains the situation to be roleplayed, identifies and describes the roles that are needed, andsets the stage for the role play Set up area and do the role playTeacher then leads the reflection of the role play
SIMULATIONS & GAMESSimulations & Games Promote problem solving and decision making in a seemingly real-life situation Provide the opportunity for students to experience consequences of their choices Can be purchased: example: www.interact- simulations.com
Independent Instructional Approaches: 3. Learningcenters and stations Contracts and independent work,Independent Instructional Approaches
Learning centers & stations: Learning centers & stationsCenters can be an excellent method for teaching studentseffectively. They: Enhance student response. Provide a lessintimidating environment Allow teacher s to focus on specificareas of study. Allow students to work independently on aspecific skill can reinforce, a skill introduce new concepts, orprovide motivation. Can be used in any area of study.