Agroforestry
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Agroforestry Presentation Transcript

  • 1. WELCOME
  • 2.  
  • 3. What Is Agro Forestry ?
    • Agro forestry is a collective name for land use system in which woody perennials are grown with herbaceous crops and or animals on the same land by spatial arrangement (or) temporal sequence.
    • (Lundgren and Raintree,1992)
  • 4. Objectives of agro forestry
    • To utilize the available farm resource properly.
    • To maximize per unit production of food, fodder, fuel.
    • To optimizing-biological and physiological resources
    • To maintain the ecological balance
    • To check soil erosion, conserve soil moisture and increase the soil fertility
  • 5. Structural classification of systems Classification of agroforestery based on components Agrisilviculture- crops (including shrubs / vines & tress Silvipastoral – pasture / animals & tree agro–silvipastoral – crops, pasture, animals & tree (Nair, 1999 )
  • 6.  
  • 7. Benefits of agro forestry
    • Control runoff and soil erosion
    • They can check the development of soil toxicities – both soil acidification of salinization
    • They can help to reduce insect pests & associated diseases
    • Moderates micro climate
    • N2 fixing tress & decomposition of the tree litter improve soil fertility
    • provide employment opportunities
    • Increase farm income
    • Utilize waste and degraded land, improve environment
  • 8. Other Agro Forestry Types
          • Riparian buffer strips
          • Contour strips
          • Fertility plantings
          • Field wind breaks
  • 9.  
  • 10. Nutrient cycling through agro forestry
    • To increase the gains from synthetic fixation, use of –NFTS
    • India is annually losing 6000 mill. tones of N,P& K 2 O
    • Uptake by tree root systems of associated mycorrhiza –recycling as litter
    • Provide balanced nutrient supply as organic residues- micro nutrients deficiencies
    • Tree fodder accumulate N ( Muller & Dompois et al., 1989)
    • Prosopis- annual turn over 88-132 kg N
            • 8-16 kg P
            • 60- 70 kg K2O ha-1 year –1
            • (SinghGurbachan&Singh.,1993 )
  • 11.  
  • 12. Table :1 Nutrient content (%) in foliage of important tree sp (Dhir et al ., 1995) 30.3 100-130 0.118 0.066 1.11 0.22 1.6 L.leucocephala 23.0 20 0.178 0.067 1.11 0.35 2.16 A. Nilotica 39.2 60-110 0.194 0.056 1.49 0.50 3.05 A. Indica 45.3 88-132 0.208 0.085 1.51 0.75 4.80 P. Juliflora N P Na k mg Ca Litter g m-2 nutrient Tree sp
  • 13. Table :2 Soil fertility improvement in teak based silvipastoral system (Browaldh, 1997) 40.0 145.6 6.00 448 1.29 0.75 Teak + fodder - 1.48 0.17 4.35 - 0.018 CD (0.05) - 202.0 11.2 420 1.28 0.74 Teak 26.2 156.8 8.96 336 0.40 0.23 Pure fodder grass - 134.4 3.92 252 0.20 0.11 Open land Fodder K P N O.M Org C Available nutrients (Kg/ha ) Treatments
  • 14. Agro Forestry Based Animal Production
    • Animal is a essential of agro forestry component
    • Benefits in 2 ways
      • Crop biomass
      • Manures
      • Top class feed - .>70 % crude protein
      • Leguminous trees contain- 20-30% crude protein - increase beef production
      • Important dietary component
      • Avg * 24 % - diet of sheep
      • * 30 % - diet of goat
      • * >60 % - lean period
      • P. Juliflora contain 12-14 % crude protein ( figueirdo 1990)
      • 20-30 % sucrose
      • 40- 55 % CHO
      • 0.11-1.54 % A.A
  • 15.  
  • 16. Role of N2 fixing trees in agro forestry
    • NFTS enhance soil fertility ,soil productivity & restore nutrient cycling
    • NFTS deep rooted leaf drop nourishes the soil
    • N2 is 10 nutrient; 80% N2 gas ; 6400 kg of N2 above land
    • Why choose NFTS ?
    • NFTS has the potential to fix huge quantity of N
    • Sustainable & eco- friendly viable alternative
    • Replenishing soil fertility ( nutrient pumping)
  • 17. Table3: Quantities of N2 fixed by different tree sp (Mac dicken, 1994) 224-274 L. leucocephala 88-132 P. Juliflora 40-60 C. equisetifolia 34 A. pennatula 200 A. mearnsii N2 fixed (Kg ha-1 yr-1) Species
  • 18.  
  • 19. Capturing benefits of NFT
    • Prosopis decrease soil pH, salinity & alkalinity
    • ( Mac dicken, Kenneth.g 1994)
    • P.juliflora+ D. fusca- reclaim sodic soil ( singh et al 1993)
    • Leg NFT + nodulated bacteria increase carbon compound
    • Commercial N2 fertilizers – expensive & environmental pollution
    • Leucaenea ,sesbania intercrop wiyh cereal – more viable
    • ( Avery & Rhodes,1990)
  • 20. Management of problem soil through agro forestry
    • Acid soils
    • Toxic level Al & Fe
    • Reclamation of problem soil through AF
    • G. sepicum – 38- 110 biomass ha-1
    • S. anceps -- 35 tones ha-1
    • P. maximum – 46.8 t ha –1 (Dager et al)
  • 21. Fresh yield of Gliricidia loppings of forages crops in inter spaces   Dagar(1990 ) Fodder crops Fresh forage yield Fresh lopped biomass or Gliricidia (t/ha) Without Gliricidia With Gliricidia Penisetum purpureum 73.3 36.8 53.4 Setaria anceps 48.9 35.0 109.6 Panicum maximum 54.1 46.8 69.6
  • 22. Effect of Prosopis – leptochloa on an abandoned alkali soil (Gurbachan Sing et al., (1997)       Soil property   Original soil Prosopis Prosopis juliflora + leptochloa P H soil depth   0-15cm 15-30cm 10.30   10.30 9.70   9.90 9.40   9.80 ECC(dsm -1 ) 0-15cm 15-30cm 2.20   1.50 0.66   0.78 0.42   0.63   Organic carbon(%)   0-15cm 15-30cm 0.18   0.13 0.30   0.19 0.43   0.21 Available ‘N’ 0 -15cm 15-30cm 79.00   73.00   100.00   84.00 139.0   104.0
  • 23. Salt Affected Soils
    • Out of total 7 million ha – salt affected soil.
    • 2-5m.ha – alkali soils
    • 2.4m.ha – Inland saline soil of arid & semiarid
    • 2.1m.ha – coastal saline soil. Semi arid (Yadau, 1989).
    • Performance of various MPTS & forage Spp for amelioration as salt affected soils.
    • NARP centre, Kanpur.
    • Studies conducted NARP Centre, Kanpur
    • Aim : Studies for the rehabiliation of degraded salt – affected soils.
  • 24. Wasteland development - Agroforestry
    • Wasteland – land which is presently degraded and if lying unutilized except current follows due to various constraints(NCA, 1981)
    • Two categories
        • Culturable
        • Unculturable
  • 25. Status of land degradation in india MOA, 1994 0.34 Mines, landslides 2.68 Ravines 24.90 Degraded forests 2.38 Shifting cultivation 9.52 Salt – affected and water logging 10.46 Wind erosion 57.16 Water erosion Area (m.ha) Type
  • 26. Agroforestry technology for wasteland development
        • Landproned to water erosion
        • Land degraded by wind erosion
        • Agrisilivicultural model for – alkali soils
        • Silivipastoral model for – salt affected soils
        • Reclamation of mine soils
        • Controlling seepage – canal and water bodies
  • 27. Agroforestry technology for wasteland development
    • Landproned to water erosion
    • Land degraded by wind erosion
    • Agrisilivicultural model for – alkali soils
    • Silivipastoral model for – salt affected soils
    • Reclamation of mine soils
    • Controlling seepage – canal and water bodies
  • 28. Water erosion –
    • Top soil 130.5 m. ha
    • Terrain - 16.4m.ha
    • Ravine - 3.7m.ha
    • In India – 8,000ha of land – ravines
    • Silivipastoral model – suited – minimum loss
  • 29. Soil and nutrient loss from different land use system Grewal, 1993 K% N% 5.00 1.10 0.55 3.00 0.52 0.90 51.30 23.0 5.65 Cultivated fallow 5.90 4.80 1.54 Poplar – Leucaena 2.08 3.30 0.43 Teak – Leucaena - Bhabar 42.50 20.50 2.69 Sesame – rape seed 6.97 2.00 0.24 A. Catechu – forage grass 0.46 0.05 0.07 Eucalyptus – Bhabar grass Nutrient loss Runoff % Soil loss(t/ha) Land use system
  • 30. Survival and growth characteristics of MPTS on salt affected soils;   IGFRI, Jhansi (1993)   Survival and growth characteristics of MPTS on salt affected soils   IGFRI, Jhansi (1993) MPTS March 1993 October 1993   Survival % Plant height Collar girth Survival % Plant height Collar girth Dalbergia sissoo 100 125 2.8 90 140 4.8 Eucalyptus hybrid 62 155 2.9 58 170 4.2 Albezia lebbek 68 60 2.3 65 90 4.0 Azadirachta indica 100 80 3.2 62 90 4.7 Prosopis juliflora 100 110 2.5 100 180 6.0 Leucaena leucocephala 82 140 4.2 78 190 5.6
  • 31. Relative efficiency of tree species – control of canal seepage
    • Seepage – unlined canals – logging and salinization
    • HAU – water table – 15.95m – 1.56m surface – Bhakra canal
    • IGNP(1972) – Districts of Bikaner and Jaisalmer
    • Trees, shrubs, perennial grasses – transmission capacity – dispersal of canal seepage
    • Eucalyptus tereticornis, Populus deltoides – utilize seepage water – biomass production
  • 32. Agro forestry Interaction – Effective insect pest
    • Due to temporal, spatial and genetic management diversity – interaction is important.
    • Interaction
    • Intercropping sugarcane with oake – reduce stem borer. Wang(1989)
    • Act as Mechanical Barrier
      • Orange Orchard surrounded by Pinus radiata – reduce thrips. (Grout & Richards 1990)
    • Chemical interactions:
      • Volatile chemicals produced by plant – Interfere the host.
    • Act as repellents.
    • Rape – leaf extract – Repellant – S. cane I.c with rape – escape of stem borer.
  • 33. Intercrop in Agroforestry
    • Agricultural crops with commercial trees.
    • Growing commercial trees – cash cropping – low time return
    • Trees – wide space – Agricultural crops in the fields.
    • Intercropping with poplars
      • Started in Terai – U.P
      • Populus deltoides – Pahari keepal.
      • Decidous nature – add more O.M – leaves
      • Suited mixed farming systems.
      • Adopt 3 – tire system
      • Sugar cane and paplar – Best intercrop
      • WIMCO – popular planting
      • Add income 45,000/ha/yr
      • Used for fodder – 10-14% cp
  • 34.  
  • 35. Income from various crops grown with poplars   Jagadish chandar (1998 )   Poplar with Yield kg/ha Duration Gross income Net income Onion 15,000 5 7,500 18,000 Ginger 11,000 8-9 11,000 3,400 Turmeric 4,000 8-9 14,500 3,900 Mustard 8,800 3-4 2,400 1,400 Berseem 50,000 5-6 5000 2,400
  • 36. Yield and return from different inter crops with coconut (Kannan and Nambiar.,1985) 455 150 965 60.5 Cocoa 715 1463 6250 58.8 colacasia 1503 544 15452 61.0 Taopica 885 1164 850 70.8 Rice Profit from intercrop (Rs/ha/yr) Additional rweturns from coconut (Rs/ha/yr) Yield of inter crop (Kg/ha/yr) Yield of coconut (nuts/palm/year) Inter crop
  • 37. Role of multipurpose trees and shrubs in Agroforestry systems
    • Multipurpose trees –
            • subsoil nutrients
            • Provide shade
            • Livefence posts
            • Slow erosion
    • Prosopis juliflora – central America
    • NAS, washington recommend prosopis suitable fuelwood
    • Caloric value – 8,050BTU/pound (Singh 1996)
    • Reclamation of saline and alkali soils
    • Improve soil fertility – leaf litter – 22%N, 0.4%P, 1.5 – 1.9%K
    • Not adopting – Allelopathic effect
  • 38.  
  • 39. Leucaena leucocephala
    • Origin mexico
    • Adopted to alkali soil
    • Nitrogen fixing, deep rooted
    • Used in alley cropping, energy plantation, fuelwood
    • Tamarindus indica
    • Origin Mexico
    • Adopted to saline soils
    • Resistant to termite
    • Firebreak
    • Fuel wood and charcoal(Sp.gr 0.93)
  • 40. Erosion control through Agroforestry
    • Effect of agroforestry on erosion factors
    • Rainfall erosivity
    • Soil erodability
    • Reduction of runoff
    • Ground surface cover
    • US soil conservation service – 2.2 – 11.2t/ha/yr
    • Farmers – Haiti – Hedgerow of leucaena and shrubs – erosion control (Bannister & Pellect 1998 )
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43. Tree based cropping system
            • Includes
            • Agri-silivicultural system
            • Agri-Horticultural system
            • Silvi-pastoral system
            • Horti-Silivi-Pastoral system
            • Agri-silivi-Horti-Pastoral system
  • 44. Agri-silivicultural system
    • Concurrent production of agricultural crops with tree crops
    • FAO,1990
    • Practice on terraces, field bunds alley cropping
    • Poplar in field of wheat crop (Agri+Silviculture)
  • 45.  
  • 46. Silivi-Pastoral system
    • Increases – number of grasses, legumes, trees and animals
    • Assure maximum resource combination
    • Healthy environment and rich biodiversity
  • 47. Pasture production(in t/ha/yr) – Silivi-pastoral combination in Bundelkhand region       (IGFRI, Jhansi 1998)   Tree Grass Dry forage yield(t/ha/yr) Fodder yield(leaf) Acacia tortilus Cenchrus ciliaris 3.4 3.2 Albizia lebbek Chrosopogon fulvus 7.8 5.4 Dalbergia sissoo Natural pasture 4.3 1.9 Leucaena leucocephala Cenchrus ciliaris 4.1 1.5 Albizia amara Sehima nervosum 3.3 13.5
  • 48.  
  • 49. Horti-Silvicultural system Effect of fast growing species on fruit yield of Mandarin orange     Debroy et al., 1989 Main plot Fruit yield of Mandarin (kg plant -1)   Eucalyptus Casuarina Grevillea Control Mandarin on trifoliate rootstock 2.5 7.8 5.1 6.3 Mandarin on citrange rootstock 2.1 10.9 6.8 10.1
  • 50. Agri-silvihortipastoral system Sapota yield and maize fodder yield as affected by different tree sp (Osman and Rao., 1996) 47.6 10.60 Maize + Sapota + D. sisso +grass 42.3 13.30 Maize + Sapota + Teak +grass 41.1 10.71 Maize + Sapota + casurina +grass 30.0 5.12 Maize + Sapota +Eucalyptus +grass 73.2 7.86 Maize + Sapota + grass Maize fodder yield (tonnnes per hactare) Sapota fruit yield ( Kg per plant) Treatments
  • 51. Home garden development through Agroforestry
    • Land use form – individual houses – definite fence – cultivated together with annual, perennial crops and inclusion of livestock – Wiersum, 1997
    • House garden
    • Kitchen garden(Brierley, 1987)
    • Javanese home garden(Soemarwote et al., 1990)
    • Homestead Agroforestry
    • Home garden – kerala and Tamilnadu
    • Produce high net income throught the year
  • 52.  
  • 53. Merits and Demerits of Agroforestry systems
    • Merits
      • High cropping intensity – long time period
      • Erosion control and runoff management
      • Strengthening of nutrient cycling mechanism
      • Ecologically compatible
      • Limitations
      • High labour input
      • Highly skilled management
      • Low yield – allelepathic effect
      • Difficulty – adoption of land tenure system
  • 54. conclusion
    • Agro forestry – multidisciplinary, modern science and tradition orientation
    • Management of social and economic basis
    • Expert oriented – generate employment
    • Better use of available resources
  • 55. Future thrust
    • Agroforestry relation to balancing ground water fluctuation
    • On farm adoptive research in Agroforestry system
    • Integrating Agroforestry with Horticulture
    • Appropriate feed systems with tree fodder for livestock develop for different ecological seasons .
    • Farmers participation and adoptive research be increased .
    • More thrust be given to agroforstry research on dry land farming.
  • 56. THANK YOU