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Glucose english

Glucose english



for diabetes regular monitering of blood glucose level is essential.th

for diabetes regular monitering of blood glucose level is essential.th
Hence everybody should know what are the normal blood glucose levels.



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    Glucose english Glucose english Presentation Transcript

      For SriLankan Science Student
      Glucose and Diabetes
      Part 1
    • Glucoseis a hexose monosaccharide which belongs to Carbohydrates, a
      Group of organic compounds found in living organisms.
      Chemical formulae - C6H12O6
      Structural formulae
    • Glucose found in many ripened fruits
      By eating these fruits your body gets glucose
    • The other sources of glucose are Tubers like potatoes and yams, grains such as rice, wheat ect. Or food made out of their flour.
      They contain starch, a form of stored carbohydrates which are digested and converted in to glucose in the digestive system and are absorbed to the blood.
      Sucrose or the ordinary Table sugar is an another carbohydrate which is turned into glucose within the body.
      Sucrose, is probably the single most abundant pure organic chemical in the world and the one most widely known carbohydrate.
      Sucrose is present in pure state in sugar cane and sugar beets
      sugar beets
      sugar cane
    • Carbohydrates are digested in the elementary canal as follows..
      a).In the mouth
      Starch SalivaryAmylaseMaltose
      b).In small intestine
      Starch Amylase Maltose
      Maltose Maltase Glucose
      SucroseInvertase Glucose + Fructose
    • Sugars such as galactose, glucose, and fructose that are found naturally in foods or are produced by the breakdown of disaccharides and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides ) enter into absorptive intestinal cells of villi in the small intestine
      absorptive intestinal cells
      Small inteestine
      After absorption, they are transported to the liver
      where galactose and fructose are converted to glucose and released into the bloodstream.
      Glucose is used by the body as a primary source of energy.
      The glucose may be sent directly to organs that need energy
      Excess amounts of glucose in the body is converted to glycogon in the liver
      or muscles, or it may be converted to and stored as fat for later use.
      Cells need a stable environment to survive.
      Homeostasis is the mechanism that allows living organisms to maintain
      relatively constant levels of temperature, pH, ions and water balance.
      Cells derive their energy from glucose, and it is vital that glucose levels be tightly regulated
      Too much glucose is toxic to cells while too little glucose leads to starvation
      What is the normal range for blood sugar levels,
      The blood sugar level is the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
      It is expressed as millimoles per litre (mmol/l). Or milligrams per deci litre (mg /dl.)
      Normally blood glucose levels stay within narrow limits throughout the day: 4 – 8 mmol/l.
      (70 - 150 mg. /dl.)
      Levels typically are lower in the morning, and rise after meals.
      Therefore three blood glucose levels are defined.
      Blood sugar levels
      1.Fasting Blood Sugar –FBS
      2.Post prandrial Blood Sugar- PBS
      3.Random Blood Sugar-RBS
      Fasting Blood Sugar-
      The'fasting blood sugar' test checks glucose levels after an 8- 10 hour fast.
      The blood sample is collected in the morning, before the breakfast.
      This is the first test performed when checking for diabetes
      The normal FBS range is 82 - 110 mg/dl
      ( 4.4 - 6.1 mmol/l&
      (But some say it is 70-120 mg/dl)
      Postprandial Blood Sugar
      The ‘postprandial blood sugar' test
      measures glucose levels two hours after eating a meal.
      Normal glucose levels for this test fall between
      70 and 145 mg/dl
      Random blood sugar
      Random blood sugar testing checks glucose levels randomly throughout the day, regardless of meal times.
      . Several random measurements may be taken throughout the day.
      This levels vary widely,.
      RBS levels should be between 70 and 125 mg/dlin order to be considered normal for random testing.
      Random testing is useful because glucose levels in healthy people do not vary widely throughout the day.
      Random Blood glucose levels that vary widely may mean a problem.
      This test is also called a casual blood glucose test.
      How Does the Body Control Blood Sugar Levels?
      Glucose concentrations in the blood stream are primarily controlled
      by the action of two antagonistic pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon.
      Glucose is first detected in the bloodstream by glucose transporter receptors expressed on the surface of specialized pancreatic cells known as alpha- and beta-cells
      After you have eaten a meal,
      the blood glucose levels will begin to rise because the carbohydrates in the food are digested and absorbed.
      Beta-cells respond to rising levels of blood glucose by secreting the hormone insulin
      This insulin then binds to receptor proteins in cell membranes (particularly in the liver).
      This causes more channels in the plasma membrane to open so that more glucose can enter the cell.
      Insulin restores normal levels of glucose in the blood by signaling body tissues to take up glucose for energy,
      or to convert glucose to glycogen and lipids
      as future energy stored in the liver, muscle and fat cells.
      All these reactions work together to lower the glucose levels back to normal
      If you have been doing a lot of exercise, and glucose is being used up, the blood glucose level fall below the normal range.
      Then alpha cells will recognize this and stimulate alpha cells to produce glucagon.
      • This causes the release of an enzyme that breaks
      glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis ) in muscle cells and liver cells.
      • Glucagon also stimulate adipose tissue to digest lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.
      • Glucagon also stimulates the liver to synthesize
      glucose from glycerol in the blood
      All these reactions work together to raise glucose levels back to normal.
      Blood sugar levels rising consistently above 150 mg/dl are indicative of
      Diabetes mellitus
      Diabetes mellitus
      Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin action, insulin production, or both
      Diabetes mellitus (the medical term) is commonly referred to as Diabetes (common name).
      It was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world.
      Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine.
      The primary Clinical signs of Diabetes mellitus is,
      .Hyperglycemia(high blood glucose level).
      This is generally a glucose level higher than 10 mmol/l (180 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15-20 mmol/l (270-360 mg/dl). However, chronic levels exceeding 7 mmol/l (125 mg/dl) can produce organ damage.
      The following symptoms may be associated with acute or chronic diabetes.
      • Polyphagai - frequent hunger, especially pronounced hunger
      Polydpsia - frequent thirst, especially excessive thirst
      Polyuria - frequent urination, especially excessive urination
      Blurred vision
      Weight Loss
      Poor wound healing (cuts, scrapes, etc.)
      Dry mouth
      Dry or itchy skin
      Tingling in feet or heels
      Recurrent infectionssuch as
      vaginal yeast infections,
      groin rash,
      external ear infections (swimmer's ear)
      Cardiao vascular arrhythmia
      Uncontrolled hyperglycemia or diabetes mellitus over time damages the following organs.
      Eyes, Nerves,
      Blood vessels,
      Kidneys, Heart,
      causing organ dysfunction and failure.
      Risk Factors
      A number of risk factors are attributed to the incidence of diabetes, including family history, age, ethnicity, and social group characteristics, as well as behavioral , lifestyle, psychological , and clinical factors
      Types of Diabetes
      There are three main types of diabetes(as indicated in the Wikipedia)
      Type 1 diabetes:results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
      Type 2 diabetes:results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, (previously known as non- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or NIDDM and adult-onset diabetes)
      Gestational diabetes:is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
      Diabetes At A Glance
      Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
      Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose.
      Absence or insufficient production of insulin causes diabetes.
      The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent).
      Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst and hunger as well as fatigue.
      Diabetes is diagnosed by blood sugar (glucose) testing.
      The major complications of diabetes are both acute and chronic.
      Acutely: dangerously elevated blood sugar, abnormally low blood sugar due to diabetes medications may occur.
      Chronically: disease of the blood vessels (both small and large) which can damage the eye, kidneys, nerves, and heart may occur
      Risk factors and monitoring Diabetes will be discussed next secession
      All information available here is for Educational purposes only and not for diagnostic purposes. If you have or suspect you have health problem , you should consult your family doctor
      Please comment
      I am a high school Biology teacher