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    1. 1. PRESENTATION BY = KARTIKEYA MAHESHWARI CLASS = 10 Presentation to = Mr. Pankaj somani sir 7/1/2013 1
    2. 2. I 'am the student of class 10 th . My name is Katikeya Maheshwari . I‟ ‟am happy because I get the chance to make the presentation of English . Our English teacher name is Mr. PankajSomani sir . He was a great teacher of English . I give thank to him that he give the presentation of English . This presentation is veryimportant in FA=1 This mark will added in FA=1 . This will be add 40% in our Examinations„ . I „am grateful to my parents ,teacher for helping me in this project . Now I startmy presentation. 7/1/2013 3
    3. 3. SR.No CHAPTER AUTHOR 1 Two Gentlemen of Verona A.J.Cronin 2 Mrs. Packletide’s Tiger Saki 3 The Letter Dhumaketu 4 The Frog & The Nightingale Vikram Seth 5 Mirror Sylvia Plath 6 Not Marble , Nor The Gilded Monuments William shakespeare 7 The Dear Departed Stanley Houghton7/1/2013 4
    4. 4. 7/1/2013 5 About The Author A.J.Cronin(1896-1974)was a doctor by training. He practiced medicine in Wales & in London .It was while recovering from a breakdown in health that he wrote is first novel Hatter‟s castle . It was a huge success . Cronin gave up practicing medicine & took to writing as career . He wrote a number of novel & short stories among is best known novels are the Citadel, TheKeyOf Kingdom & The Spanish Gardener . Some of his novels has been made into successful film. The title of the story is that one of the early plays of Shakespeare . The story recount the hard life chosen by to young boy so that they could pay for the treatment of their sister afflicted with tuberculosis . The boys sacrifice ,their sincerity & devotion to the cause & the maturity they display in their action gives a new hope for humanity.
    5. 5. In this chapter “ Two Gentlemen Of Verona “ The narrator was driving through the foothills of alps with his friends . Two small boys stopped them just outside the city of Verona . The boys wanted to sell wild strawberries to them their driver Luigi cautioned the narrator and his friends not to buy fruit from these filthy , poor, dirty children . He said they could get better fruit in Verona .Two boys were wearing shabby clothes from discarded army clothes. One of them was wearing a old jersey & khaki plants which had been cut off to resize them . The other boys wore an ill fitting old army tunic which had been he shortened . The colour of their skin was brown and their hair were uncombed & mixed up . Their eye were dark coloured , thoughtful & sincere. The narrator & his friend found the boys interesting & strangely facing . Narrator & his friends found out about them . They were brothers . The elder one Nicola was 13 year old & younger one Jacopo was shorter & 12 year old . The narrator & his friend bought the largest fruit basket from the boys & left for the town of Verona .7/1/2013 6
    6. 6. Next morning when the narrator and his friends went out of their hotel room to the public square, ; they saw the same boys shining shoes to earn some money near the fountain. They were busy as there were many costumers. After some time the boys did not have too much customers ; the narrator and his friend went up to the boys the boys smiled at them. The narrator said to them that they had thought they picked fruit & sold it to earn their livelihood . Nicola told the narrator that they did many thing to make living . He said they even took tourist around they town to show them places of tourist interest . They showed Juliet's tomb & other places of tourist‟s attraction . Nicola looked at the narrator & his friend wishing to get some work . The narrator agreed happily & asked the boys to take around the town . The narrator & his friends went around with Nicola & Jacopo . The narrator found the mannerism & behaviour of the two boys interesting . They were innocent children . Jacopo was full of life & Nicola always had a charming smile . Yet their eyes were sober showing maturity of a much older age . The two boys came in handy whenever the narrator & his friends need them the entire week . Nicola & Jacopo ran errands like telling them the names of good restaurant , getting pack of American cigarettes or getting seats for the opera 7/1/2013 7
    7. 7. . The boys could be trusted whenever there was any need of any kind . Their readiness to work was very appealing . Even in this hot summer weather they continued to shine shoes , sell fruits , sell newspaper , took tourist around & did all odd jobs eagerly without paying attention to the heat . One night the narrator & his friends found the boys sitting under the street light . It was sitting with a bundle of newspaper near his feet . Jacopo was sleeping with his head over Nicola's shoulder. The narrator asked Nicola the reason for him to be so late at night . Nicola told him that they were waiting to sell all their reaming newspapers to people in the last bus which come in from Padua. The narrator noticed they were not feeling bad or grumbling about it . The narrator went to fountain to have his shoes shined the next morning. He told Nicola that he had noticed the two brothers working so much that they must be making a lot of money .They were not using this money on clothes & used very little money on food .They were eating small portion of inexpensive food like black bread & figs. The narrator wonder what they did with their money 7/1/2013 8
    8. 8. Nicola had not expected anyone to notice or comment about their personal matter . This also made him feel embarrassed & turn pale as he did not want to share his problems with anyone . The narrator wandered if he was saving the money to move to America . Nicola s told him that it would make them happy to go to state but presently they had some other so he was uncomfortable telling the gentlemen what he wanted to with his money . She he just said it was some scheme . The narrator informed Nicola that he could do anything for the boys . Nicola did not wish to ask for any favour but Jacopo told him that the two brothers went to the countryside to a place called Poleta every Sunday . It was 30 kilometre for the town & they haired bicycle to go there . Jacopo asked him could send them there by his car . The narrator had already asked his driver Luigi to take a holiday on Sunday so he assured the boys that he would driver them there himself . Nicola started at his brother with irritation as he did not like fevers. He just told the narrator that they would not like to burden him but the narrator told him it was not burden or problem for him . 7/1/2013 10
    9. 9. 7/1/2013 11 Nicola agreed unwilling . They drove to the village the next afternoon . The village was suited high on the hillside . The narrator thought the boys would be going to some ordinary locality but Jacopo asked him to stop in friends of a huge red - roof mansion with high stone wall around it . The to boys went in living the narrator shocked . The boys told him they would not take more than an hours & suggested he could have coffee in the village while he waited . The narrator was very curious so he followed the boys . He ran the door bell of the mansion firmly . A woman open the door . She was wearing spectacle & white uniform of a nurse . The narrator inquired about the two boys he had dropped their . The nurse seemed to know them buy name as she said happily that she would take the narrator to Nicola & Jacopo . This mansion was a hospital . The nurse guided the narrator through the lobby to a small room & showed him through a glass partition where the two boys were sitting by the bed side of girls . The girl was about 20 year old . She seemed weak & was sitting up with the support of pillow listing to the boys . She was wearing a beautiful jacket made of lace . Anyone who looked at the three of them could see close similarity in their look & could easily said she was the sister . On a table by her side there was a flowers vase with wild flower , fruit dish & some books .
    10. 10. The nurse asked the narrator to go inside because Lucia will be pleased to see the visitor .Narrator refused & moved away because he did not wish to interrupt & disturb the family union . The narrator pleaded with the nurse to tell him all she knew about them when he stopped by the stairs . The nurse willing told the narrator that Lucia was their sister & the only family to the boys to the boys . The boys lived with their father who was a popular singer . Lucia was training to take to singing as a career and they were all used to a shelter , protected & wealthy lifestyle . In the beginning of the war their father was killed . After some time a bomb fell on their home & it was demolished . The three children become homeless . Now they were exposed to the extreme condition of poverty , hunger & homelessness in cold winters . They managed to built a shack in the debris & ruins with their own hand & survived in such odd condition for months . The German ruled the city for three years . The boys began to dislike the German intensely . When people secretly began uniting to campaign against the German these boys joined them immediately . The boys returned to their sister after the war was over & there was peace once again . They found out that she was affected with tuberculosis of the spine .12
    11. 11. 7/1/2013 14 The boys did not back off or break down . They took their sister to the hospital & convinced them to keep her there for treatment . She was under treatment for last twelve months & showed good recovery . They beloved that she would be fully cured & able to walk & dance once again . After the war there was a shortage of food & prices had gone up so the hospital had to charge a fee if they had to provide services . She said Lucia „s brother made their payment every week regularly . She knew there was shortage of work in Verona but had never asked the boys how they managed to earn . She did not know what they did for a living but was sure that they did their work well . Narrator agreed that the boys did their best . The narrator waited outside till the boys came out . None of them spoke on the way . The narrator knew they did wish to disclose their personal problems . He kept quiet because he did not want them to think that he has been following them to interfere in their personal matter . Since they were satisfied at safeguarding their committed , sincerity & love for the family . Their unselfish sacrifice gave a new meaning and elevation to humanity . Human society is founded on high values and such children were an assurance to uphold the values in society .
    12. 12. 7/1/2013 15  Read the following extracts and choose the correct option. 1. “Won’t you go in?” “Lucia will be pleased to see you.”  (i) Identify the speaker.  (a) The author  (b) Nicola  (c) Jacopo  (d) the Nurse  (ii) Lucia is supposed to be :  (a) the sister of the boys  (b) aunt of the boys  (c) narrator’s friend  (d) the driver’s niece  (iii) Lucia would have welcomed the author because :  (a) she knew him well  (b) she was bed-ridden and would have loved stranger’s visit  (c) he had helped her brothers (d) she was friendly by nature  Answers : (i) (d) (ii) (a) (iii) (c)
    13. 13.  2. “For months they had barely kept themselves alive.”  (i) This means that :  (a) they had no desire to live  (b) they were weak-willed  (c) they had great difficulties during the war  (d) they were lazy  (ii) The boys had kept alive by :  (a) eating a lot  (b) begging for work  (c) building a house out of the rubble  (d) taking people for sightseeing  (iii) The above reflects on the qualities of boys like :  (a) diligence  (b) perseverance  (c) compassion  (d) determination  Answers : (i) (c) (ii) (c) (iii) (b) 7/1/2013 16
    14. 14.  3. They had always known a comfortable and cultured life. (i) Identify ‘they’ :  (a) the narrator and his friend  (b) Nicola and Jacopo  (c) some tourists  (d) the guide at Juliet’s tomb  (ii) By ‘comfortable life’ means :  (a) inherited money  (b) lot of salary  (c) parents were reasonably well-off  (d) parents were musicians  (iii) The effect of this upbringing was :  (a) boys had a tough time  (b) they couldn’t survive  (c) they had to face more struggle  (d) their determination increased  Answers : (i) (b) (ii) (c) (iii) (d) 7/1/2013 17
    15. 15.  4. “I knew they would prefer to feel that they had safely kept their secret.”  (i) The writer had the above feeling because :  (a) the boys behaved strangely  (b) they did not take the writer inside to meet their sister  (c) they sent him to the village  (d) they refused to say anything  (ii) The above behaviour reflected upon the boys’  (a) cleverness  (b) reticence  (c) maturity  (d) introvert nature  (iii) The writer kept quiet because he wanted to :  (a) keep their friendship  (b) ignore them  (c) be indifferent  (d) retain their dignity  Answers : (i) (d) (ii) (c) (iii) (d) 7/1/2013 18
    16. 16.  5. “May be you’d like to go to the ‘cafe’ in the village for a drink”.  (i) The boys said this because :  (a) they wanted to avoid the writer  (b) they wanted to cheat him  (c) they were cracking a joke  (d) they were not bothered  (ii) The above reflects upon the boys’ character attributes like :  (a) ignorant  (b) uncivilised  (c) tactful  (d) rude  (iii) The writer also listened to the boys because  (a) he was not interested  (b) he wanted to keep their secret  (c) he did not wish to hurt them  (d) he had no other option  Answers : (i) (a) (ii) (c) (iii) (c) 7/1/2013 19
    17. 17.  Read the following extracts and answer the questions. 1. “Nicola, the way you and Jacopo work, you must earn quite a bit. You spend nothing on clothes. You eat little enough ... .’’ (a) Who said the above lines?  Ans : These lines are spoken by the narrator.  (b) Why did the speaker get the feeling that the boys were not spending any money?  Ans : The boys were always seen wearing torn clothes and they seemed to hardly eat anything except black bread and fig.  (c) What do the above lines reflect about the two boys?  Ans : The boys were of sacrificing nature and they cared very deeply for their sister. Her well-being was their sole concern. 7/1/2013 20
    18. 18.  2. I had already told Luigi he might take the day off. However I answered, “I’ll drive you out myself.”  (a) Who was Luigi? Ans : He was the driver of the narrator. (b) Why did the speaker offer to drive himself? Ans : Luigi had been granted a holiday and the narrator did not wish to recall him and as a last gesture of good will he offered to drive himself.  (c) Where did the boys wish to go?  Ans : The boys wished to go to Poleta, 30 km away, to look up their sister. 7/1/2013 21
    19. 19.  3. When the war was over and we had peace at last, they come back to their beloved sister.  And they found her ....  (a) Identify ‘they’.  Ans : ‘They’ refers to the brothers – Nicola and Jacopo.  (b) Who is the beloved sister?  Ans : Lucia is the boys’ sister who had not been keeping well. 7/1/2013 22
    20. 20.  About the author  Saki, (1870-1916), whose real name was Hector Hugh Munro, was a British writer, whose witty stories satirized the society and culture of his day. He was considered a master of the short story. 7/1/2013 23
    21. 21.  Mrs Packletide was an English lady who was overcome with a strong desire to shoot a tiger. Basically she was not adventurous or brave but she was smitten with jealousy when her friend, Loona Bimberton, had recently been carried in an aeroplane by an Algerian pilot. Mrs Packletide wanted to outshine her and longed to prove that she was no less. Her ultimate desire was to obtain a tiger- skin and display it on the wall of her house. If she succeeded in killing a tiger, her photograph would appear in the press and she would host a party in Curzon Street in Loona Bimberton‟s honour, but the talk would be of her hunting expedition. She also planned to present a tiger- claw brooch on Loona's next birthday.7/1/2013 24
    22. 22. Circumstances proved to be favourable .An old and weak tiger was visiting a neighbouring village in search of food. Mrs Packletide offered to pay one thousand rupees to anyone who would help her in shooting a tiger. The villagers got very tempted as one thousand rupees was a lot of money in those days. They made all the efforts to confine the tiger within the village. Children were posted day and night on the outskirts of the local jungle to drive the tiger back to the village. Cheaper kind of goats were scattered here and there, to keep the tiger there. Mothers were told not to sing lullabys to their children loudly, lest the tiger‟s sleep should be disturbed. The only anxiety was lest the tiger should die of old age before the day of hunting.7/1/2013 25
    23. 23. On the fateful night, Mrs Packletide came along with a paid companion Miss Mebbin. A platform had al- ready been constructed in a comfortable and conveniently placed tree by the villagers. Both the ladies sat on the platform. A goat with a loud bleat was tied at proper distance from the tiger. Meanwhile the tiger appeared on the scene and slowly walked towards the goat. Mrs Packletide fired a shot with her rifle. The tiger fell down to one side. The excited villagers celebrated by beating drums and singing. Mrs Packletide was also too happy. 7/1/2013 26
    24. 24. Miss Mebbin was very clever and alert. She drew Mrs Packletide attention to the fact that the bullet had actually hit the goat and the tiger had died due to heart attack, caused by the loud report of the rifle. Miss Mebbin pointed out that the tiger bore no wound. Mrs Packletide was disappointed but she consoled herself with the thought that she possessed the tiger-skin. The villagers agreed to keep the secret for they were happy to receive the money 7/1/2013 27
    25. 25. Mrs. Packletide wasn‟t insecure about Miss Mebbin for she was a paid companion. Mrs Packletide‟s picture appeared in two weeklies. Loona refused to attend the lunch-party but coldly accepted the tiger-claw brooch. Miss Mebbin was very money-minded and cunning. She thought of exploiting this weak point of Mrs Packletide. 7/1/2013 28
    26. 26. She blackmailed Mrs Packletide by saying what would happen if Loona learnt that Mrs Packletide had shot the goat and not the tiger. Shrewd and clever, Miss Mebbin hinted that she wanted money to buy a weekend cottage near Dorking. 7/1/2013 29
    27. 27.  To keep her mouth shut, Mrs Packletide was forced to pay for that cottage. Miss Mebbin named the cottage, “The Wild Beasts.” Since then Mrs Packletide never indulged in big game shooting. She confided to her friends that “incidental expenses were too heavy for such kind of hunting”. 7/1/2013 30
    28. 28.  deviation: change  aviator : pilot l  procured : obtained  heavy harvest : large number  l counter: oppose arranged in her mind : planned  swayed : dominated  antecedents : family background : past history  infirmities : weakness  confine : restrict  l game killing : killing of other animals for food  stimulated : increased, encouraged urgency 7/1/2013 31
    29. 29.  curtail : disturb, cut short  venerable : respectable  herd- robber : meant for someone who eats the animals of the herd, i.e. the tiger  crouched: a sitting position  persistent : continuous  sighted rifle : a rifle with a clear aim  morbid : unhealthy, unnatural  an atom : a bit  irrespective : without bothering  denomination : face value of c 7/1/2013 32
    30. 30.  2. Read the lines and guess the answers to the questions given below.  (a) Why did Mrs Packletide want to kill a tiger?  Ans : It was her desire to outdo her friend that drove her to kill a  (b) What does it tell you about her?  Ans : She was publicity-crazy and jealous of her friend. tiger. (c) What is the tone of the story-writer? Ans : It is a tone of mockery, as if Mrs Packletide is an object of ridicule. 7/1/2013 33
    31. 31. . Sometimes writers highlight certain negative aspects in society or human beings by making fun of it. This is called satire. In your groups discuss whether you would classify this story as a satire? Ans : This story highlights the vanity of two women who can go to any foolish extremes. The writer pokes fun at socialites like Mrs Packletide and Loona who are largely governed by passions like „jealousy‟. They are far removed from normal human beings and their world comprises of parties, media attention and meaningless adventures. Their ultimate ambition in life is to outdo and outshine others. 7/1/2013 34
    32. 32.  They are far removed from the basic problems of life that other people face. These women have character-traits that don‟t, in any way, do them justice. Mrs Packletide has never seen struggle or dearth of money or comfort so she behaves like a social butterfly without any substance. Thousands of rupees are wasted for a tiger hunt. The people who surround them also exploit them like Miss Mebbin and the villagers. The writer clearly states that Mrs Packletide hands were used to holding generally a game of cards. Mrs Packletide birthday is celebrated not for fun or enjoyment but to humiliate and demean others. 7/1/2013 35
    33. 33. Birthday presents like tiger-claw brooch is to hurt Mrs. Loona. Despite being bitter enemies and having extreme hatred for each other, both Loona and Mrs Packletide pretend to be part of the same friends circle. The writer satirises the frivolous attitude of these vain women who exploit friendship, throw parties and celebrate birthdays to humiliate others. Their activities are not for the welfare of the society but only to fulfil their eccentricities and whims. 7/1/2013 36
    34. 34.  Saki openly laughs at the hollow values of women who become targets of ridicule and mockery. The writer also creates characters like Miss Mebbin who have no sense of loyalty for the employer and resort to blackmail for their optimum benefit. So Saki has a dig at the superficiality of the luxurious section of society who appear to be a drag for the society in general.7/1/2013 37
    35. 35. . How does the writer create humour in this story? Ans : The writer uses various techniques to create loads of humour and laughter throughout the story. The plot, situations, characters and versatile use of language has packed bundles of laughs, one after another. The bare idea of tiger hunting on the part of a rich socialite, just to outshine another, is quite funny. Mrs Packletide‟s strategy to humiliate Loona, at the luncheon party with the tiger in the background is full of humour. The selection of tiger who has a royal past and the steps taken by the villagers are quite entertaining. 7/1/2013 38
    36. 36.  The behaviour of the tiger when he sights the goat, or the killing of goat instead of tiger, add to the reader‟s interest. Miss Mebbin, the paid companion, exploits the entire situation to her credit and proves to be the smartest. Saki scores in characterisation of Mrs Packletide and Loona who are vain to the extreme and their concept of adventure and media attention is funny. Miss Mebbin‟s money- mindedness, greed and the way she safeguards money at all costs is very interesting. All the three female characters are epitomes of vanity and pretension. Even the villagers, in their innocence, connive to keep the funny secret. 7/1/2013 39
    37. 37.  . Do you think the writer is trying to make fun of the main characters in the story i.e., Mrs Packletide, Miss Mebbin and Loona Bimberton? Narrate the instances from the story that point to this fact.  Ans :Through the characters like Mrs. Packletide and Loona Bimberton, the writer wants to highlight the vanity of two women who can go to any foolish extremes. He pokes fun at them who are largely governed by passions like jealousy. They are far removed from normal human beings and their world comprises of parties, media attention and meaningless adventures. They unnecessarily waste thousands of rupees just to outshine each other. Despite being bitter enemies and having extreme hatred for each other, both Loona and Mrs. Packletide pretend to be the part of the same friends circle. Their activities are not for the welfare of the society but only to fulfil their eccentricities and whims. The writer has created another character like Miss Mebbin who has no sense of loyalty for her employer and resorts to blackmail Mrs. Packletide for her optimum benefit. After threatening Mrs. Packletide that she would tell Loona that she had shot at goat and not the tiger and the latter‟s death was caused by a heart attack, she was able to procure a week-end cottage from her. All the three characters are the epitome of vanity and pretentions. 7/1/2013 40
    38. 38.  Mrs. Packletide develops extreme jealousy for Loona Bimberton. She gives vent to her feelings by writing a dairy entry. As Mrs. Packletide, write the diary entry.  Ans :Dear Diary, Today I am feeling extremely jealous for Loona Bimberton who had recently been carried in an aeroplane by an Algerian pilot. I have been belittled by her adventure. I am no less than her in any way, be it money, life style or fame. I could not bear to see her photographs in the newspapers. So, I have decided to outshine her by hunting a tiger and possessing its skin. I will invite photographers of all the leading magazines to click my photographs with the tiger. I have also planned to throw a party pretending to honour Loona for her adventure but most of the talk would revolve round my bravery of killing a tiger. This would make Loona squirm with embarrassment. To humiliate her more, I would even present a tiger-claw brooch to Loona on her birthday. What do you say??? Isn‟t it a brilliant idea? Packletide. 7/1/2013 41
    39. 39. 7/1/2013 42  . You are Mrs Packletide. You are indebted to the villagers who never let you down at any juncture whereas your companion Miss Mebbin, on whom you relied heavily, stabbed you in the back. Write a letter to a friend regarding the faith and betrayal you faced from the people around you, giving vent to your inner feelings.  Ans : Oxford Street ABC City 10 July, 2011 Dear Alice, I could not write to you since there were so many preoccupations that needed to be sorted out in my personal life. If you remember, I had mentioned that I was planning to shoot a tiger. The tiger was shot and all the villagers helped me in every way. Some lay in ambush for my protection, others tried their best to stop the tiger from going to the neighbouring village. They even arranged for a goat and gave all kind of support, when it was discovered that I had shot the goat instead of the tiger. But my paid companion, Louisa who was supposed to be loyal, threatened to divulge this secret to my arch rival Loona. Out of compulsion, I had to honour her by gifting her a very expensive cottage as blackmail. Imagine my state of mind when people on whom you depend stab you in
    40. 40.  ABOUT THE AUTHOR  Dhumaketu (1892-1965) was the pen name of Gaurishankar Govardhandas Josh, a prolific writer, who is considered one of the pioneers of the Gujarati short story. He published twenty-four collections of short stories, as well as thirty-two novels on historical and social subjects, and plays and travelogues. His writing is characterized by a poetic style, romanticism and powerful depiction of human emotions. 7/1/2013 43
    41. 41. Coachman Ali is very old and sick and has been regularly visiting the post office for the last five years. Unfavourable weather and failing health don‟t deter him. He religiously visits the post office every day in the hope of receiving a letter from his daughter Miriam, his only child, who had got married to a soldier and left him. 7/1/2013 44
    42. 42.  Getting a letter from Miriam becomes the most important mission for him and every day Ali is the first one to arrive and the last one to leave, but no letter ever comes for him. Everyday he goes back dejected and empty-handed. Everyone at the post office considers him mad and derives pleasure in tormenting him. 7/1/2013 45
    43. 43. Coachman Ali had been a famous shikari and a crackshot in his yester-years. When Miriam left him and did not respond, he realised the pain of suffering and separation. So he gave up hunting altogether. 7/1/2013 46
    44. 44. One day Ali is in very bad physical condition and reaches the post office with great effort. This makes him impatient and an argument takes place with the postmaster. The postmaster has his own preoccupations, he becomes irritated and calls Ali „a pest‟. Ali is humiliated, crestfallen but not bereft of hope. 7/1/2013 47
    45. 45. While leaving, Ali gives five guineas to Laxmi Das, the clerk, and extracts a promise from him that he will deliver Miriam‟s letter to his grave. Ali‟s prediction proves true and he is not seen for some time. 7/1/2013 48
    46. 46. By a strange quirk of fate, the postmaster finds himself in a similar situation. His daughter is ill in another town and he has no information of her condition. He is eagerly waiting for his daughter‟s letter, when he chances upon Miriam‟s letter for her father. Since the postman is also suffering the pain of separation, he understands the value of a child‟s letter for the father. 7/1/2013 49
    47. 47. Next morning he delivers the letter personally to Ali. He is later shocked to discover that Ali has been dead for the past three months. Laxmi Das, the clerk, recounts his last meeting with Ali and their suspicions are further confirmed to see Miriam‟s letter lying near the door. To compensate for their bad treatment, both the postmaster and Laxmi Das visit Ali‟s grave and place the letter on it. 7/1/2013 50
    48. 48. This proves to be a very traumatic experience for the postmaster. He realises that letters are not just envelopes and postcards, but they have great human worth. The newly awakened father‟s heart curses him for maltreating Ali. His only fate is now to wait for his daughter‟s letter and spend another night in restless anxiety. 7/1/2013 51
    49. 49.  Tattered : torn  Plodded : walking with difficulty  Staff : stick l Squatted : sat down  Scrub : bush  Bereft : without  Serenity : calmness  Boundless : limitless  Glimmer : shine  Relic : object survived in its primitive form 7/1/2013 52
    50. 50.  Brimming : full of  Recital : narration  Worth : value  Reproaching : blaming  Remorse : regret Precincts : space within a boundary  Lunacy : madness  Crackshot : skilled in shooting. 7/1/2013 53
    51. 51.  4. Answer the following questions by ticking the correct options :  (a) Ali’s walking to the post office daily even in biting cold weather shows his ___________.  (i) courage  (ii) optimism  (iii) foolishness  (iv) strength of will 7/1/2013 54
    52. 52.  (b) The post office is referred to as Ali’s “place of pilgrimage” as he __________.  (i) visited it daily  (ii) came there to pray for a letter from his daughter  (iii) went there with faith and hope  (iv) believed God would bless him if he went  (c) The postmaster’s rudeness to Ali reveals his ____________________.  (i) lack of empathy  (ii) preoccupation with his work  (iii) preconceived notions  (iv) insensitivity 7/1/2013 55
    53. 53.  (d) Ali did not come to the post office for several days as ____________________.  (i) he had given up hope  (ii) he was upset by the postmaster’s rebuke  (iii) he was unwell and not able to walk to the Post Office  (iv) he was busy hunting  (e) “Tortured by doubt and remorse, he sat down in the glow of the charcoal sigri to wait.” The postmaster was waiting for _________________.  (i) a letter from Miriam  (ii) a letter from his own daughter  (iii) a letter from Ali  (iv) Ali to deliver Miriam’s letter to him.  Answers : (a) (ii) (b) (iii) (c) (ii) .  (d) (ii) (e) (ii) . 7/1/2013 56
    54. 54.  5. Answer the following questions briefly.  (a) Who was Ali? Where did he go daily?  Ans. Ali had been a skilled shikari, renowned for his expertise in shooting. He had given up that profession and now he was old and sick. Daily he made his trek to the post office to enquire for a letter, which he was expecting from his daughter Miriam, who had got married and gone away.  (b) Ali displays qualities of love and patience. “Give evidence from the story to support the statement.”  Ans. Ali’s love for his daughter is unparalleled. He gave up hunting when he became a father and amidst bitter weather and sickness went to post-office daily to enquire about his daughter. He displays great patience for the touching taunts of the employees there, and even when he is on the verge of death, he instructs one clerk to keep Miriam’s letter on his grave. His patience is limitless, so is his love for his daughter.7/1/2013 57
    55. 55.  (c) How do you know Ali was a familiar face at the post office?  Ans. Ali had become a fixture at the post-office. All the clerks and the postmaster got used to him and called him a mad man. For the last five years he had been coming daily to the post office without fail.  (d) Why did Ali give up hunting?  Ans. His only daughter Miriam got married and left him. Ali then understood the real meaning of love and separation. So he gave up hunting. 7/1/2013 58
    56. 56.  (e) What impression do you form of the postmaster after reading the story ‘The Letter’?  Ans. The postmaster was also emotional and compassionate. He truly needed some situation to bring out his human qualities. When he was worried for his daughter, he realised Ali’s misery. Basically he was charitable and kind, he regretted his behaviour and went with Laxmi Das to lay Miriam’s letter on Ali’s grave. He understood the human worth of letters.  (f) The postmaster says to Ali, “What a pest you are brother.” Do you agree? Give reason.  Ans. The postmaster got irritated with Ali’s perservance and tenacity. Mindlessly he called Ali a pest. He was unjustified because till then he had not been exposed to any separation of a child from his parents. He appeared to be cruel and inhuman. As he hadn’t undergone the emotional pangs of a grieving father so he failed to gauge Ali’s misery 7/1/2013 59
    57. 57.  (g) Ali came out very slowly … eyes filled with helplessness. Why were Ali’s eyes filled with helplessness? What had exhausted was patience but not his worth?  Ans. Ali had waited endlessly for his daughter’s letter, he felt helpless. The employees at the post-office made fun of him but he couldn’t resist the temptation of seeing Miriam’s letter. When he was insulted by the post master, who called him a ‘pest’, Ali’s patience was exhausted but his unflagging hope told him that a letter would surely arrive.  (h) ‘Tortured by doubt and remorse, he sat down in the glow of the charcoal sigri to wait.’ Who is tortured by doubt and remorse? Why? What is he waiting for?  Ans. The postmaster’s heart is beating with anxiety to hear from his own daughter. The newly-awakened father’s heart was blaming him for having failed to understand Ali’s anxiety. He was tortured by doubt and remorse. For the first time he had understood what a father feels without hearing any news from his daughter. His heart was brimming with sympathy for Ali because his emotional condition was similar to that of Ali. 7/1/2013 60
    58. 58.  1. What is the theme of the lesson ‘The letter’ written by Dhumaketu?  Ans : Love is the foundation of the entire universe and the desire to love and be loved is intrinsic in the nature of Man. The relationship of a parent and child forms the core-centre of the universe and no other relationship can equal it in intensity. Grief and separation from a child becomes very poignant and unbearable for a father and eternal wait for a child’s letter can prove to be real torture. Coachman Ali is a symbol of endless patience, perseverance and his unshaken faith in Miriam’s letter doesn’t end with his death. Moreover, a grieving father can only understand the trauma and suffering of another father. Pain and suffering bring people together even. In the last five years he never received any letter. So the post office people regarded him to be a mad man. Moreover, Ali appeared to be lost in his own world, without being bothered by any sarcastic remark or being deterred by unfavourabe weather. 7/1/2013 61
    59. 59.  2. “Ali’s wait for his daughter’s letter extends beyond his grave.” Bring out the truth of this statement by referring to the lesson ‘The Letter.’  Ans : A parent’s entire life revolves around his child. A father is totally oblivious of his discomfort of suffering in looking after his child. A child forms the core- centre of its parents’ universe. Pain of separation from a child is intolerable for a father. Coachman Ali’s life had changed dramatically after his daughter Miriam left him, after getting married to a soldier. Ali was desperate to know of her welfare but for five long years he never received a reply. Sickness, ridicule, sarcasm, nothing seemed to affect him. Ali relentlessly visited the post office before dawn and came back only after night. His diehard optimism and unshaking faith in Miriam’s letter remained steadfast. The death of his physical body couldn’t stop this eternal quest. He promptly appears to receive Miriam’s letter, at the stroke of five. An unearthly light and tears on his face, made the postmaster shrink back in fear and amazement. Ali ceased to exist in his physical body but the yearnings of his indomitable spirit is satisfied. His infinite patience wins in the end, even though he is dead. 7/1/2013 62
    60. 60. 7/1/2013 63 About the author Seth was born on 20 June 1952 in a Punjabi family to Leila and Prem Seth in Calcutta (now Kolkata). Seth spent part of his youth in London and returned to his homeland in 1957. He received primary education at Welham Boys' School and then moved to The Doon School. While at Doon, Seth was the editor-in-chief of The Doon School Weekly.[1] After graduating from The Doon School in India, Seth went to Tonbridge School, England to complete his A-levels,[2][3][4] where he developed an interest in poetry and learned Chinese. After leaving Oxford, Seth moved to California to work on a graduate degree in economics at Stanford University. He then went on to study creative writing at Stanford and classical Chinese poetry at Nanjing University in China. Having lived in London for many years, Seth now maintains residences near Salisbury, England, where he is a participant in local literary and cultural events, having bought and renovated the house of the Anglican poet George Herbert in 1996,[5] and in Delhi, where he lives with his parents and keeps his extensive library and papers.
    61. 61. In a bog, which was called Bingle Bog, there lived a frog, who was crazy about his singing and incessantly sang from the evening to the morning light. All the creatures living in the bog found his songs to be most unpleasant and they tried to beat and insult him, but the frog was very insensitive and boastful. The frog kept singing with extreme passion because this was his way of expressing his heart-felt elation.7/1/2013 64
    62. 62. 7/1/2013 65
    63. 63. One day the creatures of the bog were pleasantly surprised to hear a very melodious and soothing song sung by a nightingale. The frog was shocked and felt jealous. He wanted to be the undisputed singer of the bog. The nightingale‟s song created a sensation and all the creatures praised it tremendously.7/1/2013 66
    64. 64. The frog was very cunning and he introduced himself as the owner of the tree, on which the nightingale sang. He also boasted that he was a music critic, who wrote for „Bog Trumpet‟. 7/1/2013 67
    65. 65. The nightingale was impressed that a musician like Mozart was taking interest in her. When the frog offered to train her for a modest fee, the nightingale felt that her dream had come true. The exploitation of the nightingale began. The frog would organise musical concerts and mint money. He would make the nightingale practise even in adverse weather. 7/1/2013 68
    66. 66. 7/1/2013 69
    67. 67.  He instructed her to sing passionately and with full force, since that was what the public wanted. Initially a number of creatures flocked to listen to her, but later the crowd dwindled because the nightingale‟s songs became routine, lustreless and her voice was tired. The frog would scold and humiliate her for no reason. One day, out of sheer stress and fatigue, the nightingale‟s vein burst and she died. 7/1/2013 70
    68. 68. The frog called the nightingale „stupid‟, „nervous‟ and „without originality‟. His ego was satisfied and he again became the „unrivalled singer‟ of the bog. 7/1/2013 71
    69. 69. 7/1/2013 72
    70. 70.  dusk : late evenings blared : loud & irritable sound  stilled : reduced  dumbstruck : as if under a spell  waded : came through water 7/1/2013 73
    71. 71.  twitched :moved, shook  wield : use  Mozart : a great musician from Austria  twittering : talking with great excitement  mid-flight : In the middle of changing notes frills : embellished musical compositions  precision : accuracy  bounced : just went on  addicted : used to, become habitual  prone : used to 7/1/2013 74
    72. 72.  . “We must aim for better billings You still owe me sixty shillings”.........  Explanation ... The frog’s greed is insatiable. He coaxes the nightingale to sing more passionately, so that more creatures come to hear her and he can mint more money. Moreover, he exploits her further by charging her for giving music training.  Which are the different ways is which the frog asserts his importance ?  Ans. The frog pretended to be a great singer and he also said that he was the reporter of Bog ‘Trumpet’. He boasted that he was a music critic and a musician like Mozart and was ready to train her. 7/1/2013 75
    73. 73.  Why was the frog angry ?  Ans. The nightingale’s songs became dull, listless and routine due to exertion and stress. The crowds dwindled and stopped coming for the nightingale’s songs. He was not making money so he was very unhappy.  Why does the frog persist in singing though no one in the bog wishes to hear him?  Ans. The frog is too conceited and has an exaggerated opinion of himself as a singer. He thinks that his voice is a ‘splendid baritone’. He wishes to remain the unrivalled singer of the bog. The frog is loud and most unmusical. All the creatures of the bog tried all the tricks  to drive him away. But the frog is too thick-skinned and continues to sing his ‘crass cacophony’ from the sumac tree. The frog was so passionate about his singing that he would sing incessantly from evening till morning light. This was his way of expressing his heart-felt joy, he claimed. The frog is a hypocrite, who only lives for himself. He is least concerned for the discomfort he is causing to others. 7/1/2013 76
    74. 74.  3. What does the poet wish to convey in the poem ‘The Frog and the Nightingale’?  Ans. This is an allegorical poem by Vikram Seth and reveals a deeper meaning beneath the emotional story line. The frog is a living symbol of cunning and conniving  people, while the nightingale represents innocence and vulnerability to the extreme. Artists like the frog are shams without substance and thrive on the misfortune of others. They are loathed, hated and have little worth themselves, so they derive sadistic pleasure in tormenting and exploiting others. Naturally talented singers are sometimes not worldly- wise, so they fall prey to scheming ‘touts’. The poet ridicules such music organisers who mint money by cheating and exploiting others. There is a hint of satire evident, when the poet talks about money making people, who make false promises and destroy natural talent. The poet also highlights the significance of public adulation in the life of an artist like the nightingale. She is innocent to praise and admiration but gradually, she also becomes addicted to it. So it can be said that even modest artists wish to perform before power-packed audience and the jingle of cash-counters gives them an emotional high. The poet concludes that success is a game like tug- of-war, in which the clever survive and the innocent and vulnerable succumb to bitter defeat.7/1/2013 77
    75. 75.  About The Author   Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 - February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist and short story writer. Born in Massachusetts, she received acclaim as a professional poet and writer. She married fellow poet Ted Hughes in 1956 and they lived together first in the United States and then England, having two children together: Frieda and Nicholas. Following a long struggle with depression and a marital separation, Plath committed suicide in 1963. Plath is credited with advancing the genre of confessional poetry and is best known for her two collections The Colossus and Other Poems and Ariel. In 1982, she became the first poet to win a Pulitzer Prize posthumously for The Collected Poems. She also authored The Bell Jar, a semi-autobiographical novel published shortly before her death. 7/1/2013 78
    76. 76. This poem is written in free verse and does not depend on any rhythm to convey the message. It is a poem describing a woman‟s struggle against the falsity of lies and the truthful harshness of her own image from the perspective of an unsympathetic mirror. „I‟ in the poem represents the mirror as Sylvia Plath is trying to see the mirror‟s view of herself. 7/1/2013 79
    77. 77. The poem is written in the style of a monologue. Sylvia Plath was suffering from severe depression and she had very little compassion for herself. This poem shows how she is really scared of the truth the mirror is reflecting. Unlike other people, the mirror is free from any preoccupations or prejudices. Unlike human beings, it is free from any likes and dislikes and reflects only the truth.7/1/2013 80
    78. 78. It is omniscient like the God, and sees everywhere. The mirror has God-like powers over the woman. The mirror constantly gazes at the wall opposite to it and the wall has pink spots of age, or discoloration on it. The view in the mirror is interrupted by the „to and fro‟ movements of the woman. This refers to the passing of time and the young girl ageing into an old woman.7/1/2013 81
    79. 79. The image of the sea and water is a foreboding motif in many poems of Syliva Plath. In this poem also the mirror is compared to a lake. The mirror is able to „swallow‟ like a lake and the lake gives a seemingly crystal clear image like a mirror. The lake can also refer to the creatures, who exist in the lake because time flies too soon 7/1/2013 82
    80. 80. The mirror of the lake unemotionally observes how the woman is shaken by its reflection. Not everyone is ready to accept the reality depicted by the mirror, so people prefer to live in a world of illusions, in the dim light of candles or moonlight, which hides their flaws. The mirror is unsympathetic, it is unmindful of the tension of people and continues to reflect their true selves.7/1/2013 83
    81. 81. The mirror is supposed to be cruel but the woman cannot do without it. Repeated viewing of the mirror and seeing her own reflection leads to self- loathing as Sylvia Plath sees less and less of the young girl and more of the old woman. The old woman reflected in the mirror is reminded of her past youth and she feels herself trapped in the cruel jaws of time like a fish. 7/1/2013 84
    82. 82.  In the last lines the poetess has incorporated mythology into her poem. „Drowned‟ apparently refers to the Greek prince Narcissus who was very handsome. He kept gazing at his reflection in the lake for so long that he drowned. So the poem is about a woman who is torn between the true picture of herself and the distorted image that others see of her. She wants to escape from the reality of harsh ugliness that time inflicts upon her. 7/1/2013 85
    83. 83. 7/1/2013 86  preconceptions : pre-conceived notions or ideas  swallow : absorb  unmisted : not affected  meditate : contemplate  speckles : some blemishes or spots  flickers : hazy  agitation : to be angry or upset
    84. 84.  How does the mirror usually pass its time? What disturbs the mirror’s contemplation of the opposite wall?  Ans : The Mirror keeps gazing at the wall opposite to it. This view is sometimes interrupted by the ‘to’ and ‘fro’ movements of the woman.  Why does the mirror appear to be a lake in the second stanza? What aspect of the mirror do you think is being referred to here?  Ans : The mirror and lake are similar. The lake also gives a crystal clear image like a mirror. Just as the mirror does not hide deformities, similarly the lake also projects a true reflection, without hiding any flaws.  7/1/2013 87
    85. 85.  What is the woman searching for in the depths of the lake?  Ans : The woman explores the depths of time, goes to the depth of her past and regrets the loss of her youth.  How does the narrator convey the fact that the woman looking at her reflection in the lake is deeply distressed?  Ans : The woman bending over the lake is not happy to see her reflection which is full of flaws. The lake presents a true picture of the woman. So to give mental solace, she turns to dim light and candles, who present a better picture. The narrator wishes to convey that the woman turns to distractions to avoid the essential reality. 7/1/2013 88
    86. 86.  What makes the woman start crying?  Ans : The mirror is unsympathetic. It reveals the ugly reality. So the only reaction of the woman is tears and agitation over the loss of youth. The mirror reinforces the fact that one must accept the reality now or ever.  What do you think the ‘terrible fish’ in the last line symbolises?  Ans : The poet compares herself to a fish to point out that just as a fish depends on water, she depends on mirror. The poet used ‘fish’ to depict a creature that lives in the lake and cannot escape from it. 7/1/2013 89
    87. 87.  What do you think the ‘terrible fish’ in the last line symbolises?  Ans : The poet compares herself to a fish to point out that just as a fish depends on water, she depends on mirror. The poet used ‘fish’ to depict a creature that lives in the lake and cannot escape from it.  What makes the woman start crying?  Ans : The mirror is unsympathetic. It reveals the ugly reality. So the only reaction of the woman is tears and agitation over the loss of youth. The mirror reinforces the fact that one must accept the reality now or ever. 7/1/2013 90
    88. 88.  How does the narrator convey the fact that the woman looking at her reflection in the lake is deeply distressed? Ans : The woman bending over the lake is not happy to see her reflection which is full of flaws. The lake presents a true picture of the woman. So to give mental solace, she turns to dim light and candles, who present a better picture. The narrator wishes to convey that the women turns to distractions to avoid the essential reality.  Why does the mirror appear to be a lake in the second stanza? What aspect of the mirror do you think is being referred to here?  Ans : The mirror and lake are similar. The lake also gives a crystal clear image like a mirror. Just as the mirror does not hide deformities, similarly the lake also projects a true reflection, without hiding any flaws. 7/1/2013 91
    89. 89.  What lesson does the poem ‘Mirror’ teach us? Discuss.  Ans. This poem is an emotional expression of human suffering due to the process of ageing. Beauty, youth are just transitory and it is very difficult for women to accept it. Illusions, lies and falsehood are adopted to run away from the ugly reality. Most of us are too judgemental and we are prejudiced by our likes and dislikes. We need to see things in the right perspective. We must accept that real beauty is not just physical and we should try to transcend these physical barriers. Beauty of the soul is permanent and we should never allow ourselves to be obsessed by our physical looks, otherwise we will also become ‘trapped’ in the physicality of this world. Then there is no salvation for us 7/1/2013 92
    90. 90.  About The Author William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was born in Stratford- upon-Avon. He is considered by many to be the greatest dramatist of all time. He wrote 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems and about three dozen plays. Shakespeare used poetic and dramatic means to create unified aesthetic effects. In verse he perfected the dramatic blank verse.7/1/2013 93
    91. 91.  Sonnet 55 builds up on Horace‟s theme of poetry outlasting physical monuments to the dead. In Horace‟s poetry, the poet is himself immortalised by his poetry but in this sonnet, Shakespeare seeks to build a figurative monument to his beloved, the fair lord. The fair lord is not described or revealed is any way in this sonnet. Instead, the sonnet just addresses the idea of immortality through verse. The ravages of time is a recurrent theme in the sonnets of Shakespeare. So sonnet 55 is one of the most famous works of Shakespeare and a notable deviation from other sonnets in which he appears insecure about his relationships and his self-worth. Here we find an impassioned burst of confidence as the poet claims to have the power to keep his friend‟s memory alive evermore. 7/1/2013 94
    92. 92.  1 – 4 lines – (Not marble ...................... Sluttish time)  The first stanza talks about how time will not destroy the poem, though it will destroy the world‟s most magnificent structures. He wishes to say that poetry is stronger than these structures. At the very beginning, the poet says that whether it is marble or gold plated monuments of princes, all will get destroyed but the magnificence of his poetry will live. The subject of poetry will remain bright and will shine forever in comparison to a neglected stone monument which is spoilt with Time. Time is compared to a slut who loses her glow and beauty with time. Shakespeare compares Time unfavourably to a female subject. 7/1/2013 95
    93. 93.  5 – 8 lines – (when wasteful ...................... memory)  These lines begin with a new idea. Shakespeare has so far spoken of two destructive forces : time and war. He is here describing war destroying stone structures, which relates back to the „marble‟ and „gilded monuments‟ in line 1, that likewise do not last. The poet says that when destructive wars will take place, they will destroy statues also and due to its tumult all the work of the masons will be destroyed. Even the Sword of Mars, God of war, or the destructive fires of war will be able to destroy your memory. The poet is basically saying that even wars will not destroy the written memories of your life for they will survive even after deadly wars. 7/1/2013 96
    94. 94. Lines 9 – 14 – (Gainst death ...................... Lover‟s eyes) This stanza does not talk about survival, but of human appreciation. The poet continues to praise his subject. There is still a suggestion of survival, but survival of human appreciation and not of the verse itself. Doom refers to the Judgement day, suggesting that this poetic record of his subject will survive and be praised to the end of time. 7/1/2013 97
    95. 95.  Slight deviation of the metre in the words „„Even in‟‟ creates emphasis for this permanency. The poet is saying that death and enmity destroys everything but poetry written on the subject will survive, will move ahead, find place and will be immortalised for all generations to come. Everything else will be judged on the Judgement Day. 7/1/2013 98
    96. 96. The ending couplet is a summary of the survival theme. The couplet not only summarises the rest of the sonnet, but also seems to contradict itself. „„Judgement‟‟ goes with the talk of the judgement day in the last stanza, but implies that the subject is alive and will be judged on that day, but „ dwelling in lover‟s eyes‟‟ suggest that the subject is love itself. 7/1/2013 99
    97. 97. 7/1/2013 100 Thus Shakespeare seems to consider the subject so lovely that he is a personification of love, which could be conquered and to which no poetry can do justice. So the theme of the sonnet is that the subject will be honoured forever in the verses, though the verses are unworthy of them.
    98. 98.  outlive : live afterwards  rhyme : poetry  overturn : destroy  room : place, space  dwell : live 7/1/2013 101
    99. 99.  Why do you think the rich and the powerful people get monuments and statues erected in their memory?  Or  What, according to the poet, do the rich and  powerful long for?  Ans. The rich and the powerful people erect monuments to not only show their wealth and power but as living reminders of those people. They want the future generations to know and remember them. They are extremely vain people. 7/1/2013 102
    100. 100.  Describe how the monuments and statues brave the ravages of time?  Ans. Whether the monuments are gold-plated or otherwise, all the monuments crumble with time or they are destroyed by war. Climatic reasons, manual desperation or otherwise all crumble and break with time.  Why does the poet refer to Time as being sluttish?  Ans. A slut loses her charm and beauty with time. Similarly time also changes fast as the charms of a prostitute. Time keeps changing, so does the beauty of such an inferior female. 7/1/2013 103
    101. 101.  The poet says that neither forces of nature nor wars can destroy his poetry. In fact, even godly powers of Mars will not have a devastating effect on his rhyme. What quality of the poet is revealed through these lines?  Ans. The poet believes that his subject will be honoured forever in his verses and they will never face extinction or destruction by the powers of nature and time. The poet’s extreme optimism and deep faith in the power of love is revealed in these lines.  Describe how the monuments and statues brave the ravages of time?  Ans. Whether the monuments are gold-plated or otherwise, all the monuments crumble with time or they are destroyed by war. Climatic reasons, manual desperation or otherwise all crumble and break with time. 7/1/2013 104
    102. 102.  What is the theme of sonnet 55?  Ans. Shakespeare believes that love is eternal and everlasting. It cannot be destroyed or controlled by materialistic things that are made to stand forever, but in the end all are doomed to destruction like the gilded monuments. Not even the sword of Mars or wars can destroy love, Shakespeare’s true idea of love is that love will exist till the end of time. Since there is no end to love it will exist forever. This sonnet shares this theme with other sonnets which oppose the power of verse to death and Time’s cruel knife and promise immortality to the beloved. The concluding couplet seems to curiously satisfy the curiosity as to who is being referred to. It is enough that it lives in ‘the lover’s eyes for all the mysteries will be comprehended on the last day of judgement. What distinguishes Shakespeare from others is that he values the identity of the beloved, he recognises that the beloved has his own personal immortality, that is no way dependent upon his poetry. So the poet’s verse will continue strongly even in the face of death and dispassionate enmity. It will always live in poetry and in the eyes of the lovers who will read this. So the theme is love and the power of love that outlives all. 7/1/2013 105
    103. 103.  You were extremely impressed to read the poem, 'Not Marble, Nor the Gilded Monuments'. Write a letter to a friend telling her about the poem and your new found interest in poetry. Sign yourself as Amit / Amita of 39, D-Block, Model Town, Delhi.  Ans : Dear Mamta,  Surprised to see one more letter in succession! Yes, but I could not resist myself from telling you something about my new-found love. Do not guess it wrong–It is poetry. Mamta, you know I never liked to read poetry, as you do, although you always asked me to do so. It was only yesterday that I met a friend of mine who is a diehard fan of Shakespeare's poetry. There I got a chance to read  Shakespeare's poem, 'Not Marble, Nor the Gilded Monuments.' At first it just went over my head but when my friend explained the poem and the theme i.e. love, in her own words, I was totally engrossed. The way the poet has eternalised love, stating that it is beyond all barriers, all other things are doomed, but love will stand the test of time, is simply marvellous. I couldn't restrain myself and read the poem on my own. You will be surprised to know that I immediately went to her library and borrowed poetry books from her to read. I kept on reading the books till late at night. I am eagerly waiting for the day when you will come to my place and we both will sit together and read the poems from different poets. My regards to everyone at your end.  Waiting eagerly  Your friend,  Amita 7/1/2013 106
    104. 104.  What is the poet’s message in sonnet 55?  Ans : The poet wishes to communicate that Love is beyond all barriers, whether materialistic or physical. All the other things are doomed for destruction but love will stand the test of time. Since there is no end to love, it will exist forever. Time’s cruel knife cuts everything, changes all relations but not love. So the poet’s love for his friend will continue strongly even in the face of death and dispassionate enmity. It will live forever in the eyes of the lovers. So the theme is love and the power of love that outlives all 7/1/2013 107
    105. 105.  ABOUT THE AOUTHER 7/1/2013 108 (William) Stanley Houghton (22 February 1881–10 December 1913) was an English playwright. He was a prominent member, together with Allan Monkhouseand Harold Brighouse, of a group known as the Manchester School of dramatists. His best known play is Hindle Wakes. Early life[edit] Stanley Houghton was born at 1 Amy Villas, Doveston Road, Ashton-upon- Mersey, Sale, which was then in Cheshire, the only son of John Hartley Houghton, a cotton merchant, and Lucy Mary née Darbyshire.[1] In 1896, the family moved to 2 Athol Road, Alexandra Park, Manchester, some two miles from the city centre.[2] Houghton was educated at Bowdon College and at Manchester Grammar School. On leaving school in 1897, he started working full-time in his father's office and continued to do this until 1912. During this time he was an amateur actor and writer. In 1905–06 he was an unpaid drama critic for the Manchester City News and between 1905 and 1913 he contributed articles, theatrical notices and literary reviews to the Manchester Guardian. He also wrote a number of unpublished plays.[1]
    106. 106.  A true test of people is how they behave towards the elderly. With modernisation, reverence of the elderly seems to have suffered a grievous blow. All happiness to the elderly is parsimoniously measured out. Too often the elderly suffer death by invisibility long before their physical demise. The daughters in „Dear Departed‟ are very materialistic and like beasts of prey, they are only ready to pounce on the money and belongings of their father. Keeping father at home has become a tiresome burden. Looking towards the elderly has become a matter of comfort and financial aid rather than for inspiration and emotional strength. For a civilised society a new culture of giving needs to be ushered and one must give to the elderly without any selfish motive. We must remember that the difference between a helping hand and an outstretched palm is only a twist of the wrist. 7/1/2013 109
    107. 107. The play „The Dear Departed‟ presents an interesting situation that has tragically become common place in the world of today. The scene of the play is set in the sitting- room of a small house in a lower middle- class district of a provincial town. The setting of the play reveals that the tea-table has been laid. 7/1/2013 110
    108. 108.  Mrs Slater, a plump and active lady is in mourning and she is getting ready to receive some guests. She beckons to her daughter Victoria, who is ten year old, and instructs her to change into something sober. It is revealed that Victoria‟s grandfather has passed away and the Slater family is getting ready to receive Aunt Elizabeth and Uncle Ben. 7/1/2013 111
    109. 109.  Victoria expresses surprise at this news because her aunt and uncle had not paid them a visit for years. Mrs Slater reveals that they were coming over to talk about grandfather‟s affairs, on hearing of his death. In the meanwhile Mr Slater enters. He is a heavy man who stoops he is also in mourning dress.7/1/2013 112
    110. 110. Henry Slater is sceptical whether Elizabeth will come, for the last time when Mrs Slater and Elizabeth had quarrelled, she had vowed never to pay a visit again to their house. Mrs Slater gives Henry new slippers of her father. She also plans to take away the new bureau of the grandfather and shift it to their room, before Elizabeth and Ben arrive. Both the husband and wife, lock the front door and shift the bureau down and put their old chest of drawers there. 7/1/2013 113
    111. 111. Victoria wants to know why they were stealing grandfather‟s things but her mother tells her to remain quiet. Grandpa‟s new clock is also taken away. Meanwhile there is loud knocking at the door and the Slater's take plenty of time to look normal. Mrs Jordan and Ben pretend to be emotional at the death of Mr Abel Merryweather. Both the ladies compare their mourning dresses, criticising the other‟s outfit.7/1/2013 114
    112. 112. Mrs Jordan is surprised to discover that no doctor had been summoned to check on her father. Mrs Slater insists in a stubborn manner that she had been keen on Mr Pringle and if he was out of station, they couldn‟t be offensive and call someone else. Mrs Slater reveals that her father had been happy in the morning and he had apparently gone to pay the premium of his insurance policy.7/1/2013 115
    113. 113. He was generally going to “Ring-O-Bells‟ frequently and the night before he had come drunk and had gone to bed without having dinner. Mrs Jordan and Ben prefer to have tea before going and looking up father. All four of them start discussing about the obituary and the kind of announcement in the newspapers to be inserted. Mrs Jordan wants a long poem but Mrs Slater protests by saying that it will cost a lot. Meanwhile Mrs Jordan reveals that her father had willed his gold watch to her son Jimmy. Mrs Slater feels very offended and refuses to believe it.7/1/2013 116
    114. 114.  Victoria says that grandfather had not gone in the morning to pay his premium but had instead gone over to „The Ring of Bells,‟ the public house, managed by John Shamrock's widow. Everyone starts blaming the old man for not paying his premium. Victoria is instructed to go over to grandpa‟s room to get the receipt of the premium. Mrs Jordan is surprised to note a new bureau and she wishes to know the details, because she doubts Mrs Slater‟s version. 7/1/2013 117
    115. 115. Victoria enters, looking dazed. She gives the shocking news that ää ää ä By Stanley Houghton 1 THE DEAR DEPARTED D – 120 New Wave Communicative English – X Grandpa was stirring and moving. After some time Mr Abel Merryweather enters and is surprised to see his other daughter and son-in-law, Mr and Mrs Jordan. He reveals that he was well and just had a slight headache he notices Henry wearing his new slippers and takes them. Abeles wishes to know, why all were in mourning dresses. 7/1/2013 118
    116. 116. Mrs Jordan makes up some story to pacify him. Abel Merryweather enjoys tea and has a generous slice of the apple- pie. He grumbles and scolds Mrs Slater for taking away his bureau. Mrs Jordan gets agitated and accuses her sister of robbing her father 7/1/2013 119
    117. 117.  The husbands also join their wives in hurling accusations at each other Abel discovers about his death. He addresses his daughters directly and declares that he was going to change his will and all the money will go to the one, in whose house he dies. Both the daughters fight with each other to7/1/2013 120
    118. 118. Abel is amused and watches all the fun. At last he makes his announcement which shocks everyone. On Monday, he would go to the lawyer and alter his will, then he would go to the insurance office and pay his premium. After that he would go to the church and get married to Mrs Shorrock.7/1/2013 121
    119. 119. 7/1/2013 122 Everyone is shocked. Abel reveals that he had at last found someone who was happy to keep him. He exits with an invitation of his marriage. He also thanks Mrs Slater for shifting the Bureau down-stairs for now it will be easy to cart it away to “Ring-O- Bells.‟
    120. 120.  5. Answer the following questions briefly.  (a) How does Mrs Slater plan to outshine the Jordan's? What does it reveal about her character?  Ans. Mrs Slater has managed to procure a black dress for mourning, though it is not complete. She believes that her mourning outfit would still be better than Mrs Jordan’s, who might not have managed to arrange it also. Her obsession for a mourning dress reveals that she is a frivolous and pretentious woman who is not distressed at the death of her father and is bothered more about worldly pretensions. 7/1/2013 123
    121. 121.  (b) Why does Mrs Slater decide to shift the bureau from grandfather’s room before the arrival of the Jordans? How does Henry react to the situation?  Ans. Mrs Slater wishes to steal the bureau and shift it in her room and replace it by her old chest of drawers. The bureau was new so now with her father’s death, she wishes to possess it before her sister comes and Henry is not that greedy and suggests that his wife must-discuss it with her sister before taking it away. Later he gets persuaded by his dominating wife. 7/1/2013 124
    122. 122.  (c) What is the reason for the Jordan's taking a long time to get to the house of the Slater’s? What does it show about the attitude of the two sisters towards each other?  Ans. Mrs Jordan took a lot of time to reach the home of the Slater’s because she wanted to get a complete new mourning dress before coming. Both the sisters are not  grief-stricken at the death of their father but are trying to out shine each other in wearing their best mourning dresses. For the sisters grief is to be depicted through mourning- dress and not through the feelings in one’s heart. 7/1/2013 125
    123. 123.  (d) What does Mrs Jordan describe as ‘a fatal mistake’? What is the irony on the comment she makes on Mrs Slater’s defence?  Ans. Mrs. Jordan believes that not sending for the doctor at her father’s death was a ‘fatal mistake’. Mrs Slater clarifies immediately that since it was Mr Pringle who had always attended on her father, it would be against professional etiquette to call someone else. Mr Pringle was out of town so they didn’t call anyone else. 7/1/2013 126
    124. 124.  (e) Ben appreciates grandfather saying “it’s a good thing he did”. Later he calls him a ‘drunken old beggar’. Why does he change his opinion about grandfather?  Ans. Ben appreciates the grandfather for paying the premium of his insurance policy. When he hears that grandfather had not gone that day to pay the premium, he changes his stand and calls him a ‘drunken old beggar’ since the grandfather had gone to ‘Ring-O-Bells.’ 7/1/2013 127
    125. 125.  (f) What change does the grandfather make in his new will? What effect will it have on his daughters?  Ans. The grandfather decides that he will change his will. He decides to leave all the things to whomsoever he’s living with when he dies. The daughters get agitated and consider it unfair. Both of them compete with each other to keep grandfather with them. None of them wanted to be deprived of their share. 7/1/2013 128
    126. 126.  You are a neighbour of Mrs Slater on Upper Corn bank Street. You have witnessed the indifferent and insensitive manner in which Mrs Slater looks after her father and how the poor father contrives ways to stay out of the house. Write a letter to a friend expressing your grave concern at the way in which the elderly people are neglected.  Ans : Post Carter Road,  Mumbai  30 March, 2010  Dear Alana,  With a heavy heart, I am writing this letter as I fear for our advancing age. The Slater's are our neighbours and Mrs. Slater treats her father so badly, that I fear how our old age will fare. The old father is very sporting, friendly and happy-go-lucky and still treated badly. He is not the demanding type, but still Mrs. Slater is always cribbing about keeping him. Mr Abel, that is his name, hardly stays at home and goes about to visit people even when he is sick and should be tended. His granddaughter Victoria is the only one who cares for him but a child cannot have her way. Mrs Slater is always trying to take away Mr Abel’s things, one way or the other. These days he appears to be looking better because I have heard in the neighbourhood, that he is apparently seeing some old widow Mrs. Shorrock. At least there is some light in his life, some flicker of hope. God save us from such children. I hope we do not face any such problems. Do write to me. 7/1/2013 129
    127. 127.  Your sister,  Agatha.  2. Discuss the character-sketch of Mrs Jordan and Mrs Slater as opposed to the characters of their husbands.  Ans : Mrs Slater is clever, manipulative and mean, much like her sister Mrs. Jordan. Their aim in life is to do nothing for their father and derive maximum benefit. If Amelia takes away her father’s slippers, bureau and clock, Elizabeth wants to take away her father’s watch. Both the  ladies spare no thought for their father and worry about outdoing each other in wearing mourning dresses. For them the death of their father is like a drama that needs to be staged with best outfits. Both the husbands are henpecked and they go according to their wives. Henry knows that his wife is an opportunist but he assists her in carrying the bureau down. The husbands have no individualities except to pamper the whims of their wives. 7/1/2013 130