FORMATION OF HURRICANE
A tropical thunderstorm can grow into a massive hurricane
under certain conditions. Sometimes several thunderstorms
start rotating around a central area of low pressure.
This is called a tropical depression. If the depression
strengthens so that winds reach at least 39 mph, it is called a
And if wind speeds increase to more than 74 mph, it is called a
tropical cyclone or hurricane.
Once formed, hurricanes take energy from the warm
ocean water to become stronger. A storm will strengthen
if there is a supply of warm, moist air to feed it.
Warm, moist air is found above warm, tropical ocean
waters. While a hurricane is over warm water it will
continue to grow.
A hurricane dies when it moves away from the tropics.
When a hurricane moves into areas with cooler ocean
water, it weakens.
It will also weaken if it travels over land.
The rotation of the storm is due to the Coriolis
Effect, a product of the Earth's rotation.
This causes the air being drawn into the central
low pressure to curve. The air rises as it rotates.
This rising air, which is saturated with water, cools
and condenses, forming clouds. Hurricanes do not
occur within 300 miles (500 kilometers) of the
equator because there is no Coriolis Effect at the
Hurricane Sandy was an Atlantic tropical cyclone which
affected parts of the Caribbean, Mid-Atlantic and
Northeastern United States in late October 2012, and
became the largest Atlantic hurricane in diameter, with
winds spanning 1,100 miles (1,800 km).
It is expected to make landfall in the East Coast of the
United States and Eastern Canada (Nova Scotia).
Sandy is the eighteenth tropical cyclone, eighteenth
named storm, and tenth hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic
At least 43 people were killed: 40 in the Caribbean and three in the Bahamas.
On October 25, Sandy got weaker and became a Category 1 hurricane.
Bloomberg said the city's transportation department estimates $1 billion in
incremental costs, including nearly $800 million for street reconstruction alone.
The mayor estimated that Sandy cost the New York City economy about $5.7
billion in lost productivity.
In New Jersey, Gov. Chris Christie said Friday Sandy had caused more than $29
billion in damage in his state.
Hurricane Sandy left at least 121 people dead across the U.S., with 43 of those
deaths in New York City. Another 67 were killed in the Caribbean and two
people died in Canada.
A lot of public schools on the Treasure Coast and in Palm Beach County, Florida
were closed for Friday October 26. FEMA announced that they will monitor Sandy
and help those in need in the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic and New England states.
FLOOD AND COASTAL FLOOD WATCHES...WARNINGS...AND ADVISORIES
ARE IN EFFECT OVER PORTIONS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC AND
FOR INFORMATION SPECIFIC TO YOUR AREA...INCLUDING WATCHES
AND WARNINGS. PLEASE MONITOR PRODUCTS ISSUED BY YOUR
WEATHER SERVICE OFFICE AT WWW.WEATHER.GOV.
The president authorized an emergency declaration for
New Hampshire, Virginia and West Virginia, the FEMA
The president also has authorized emergency
declarations for Connecticut, Delaware, the District of
Columbia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New
York, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island.
The president's actions, the release said, authorizes
FEMA to coordinate all disaster relief efforts to provide
assistance for required emergency measures, directly to
state, tribal and local governments, to save lives and to
protect property and public health and safety.
COORDINATION AMONG VARIOUS
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
NATIONAL WEATHER DEPARTMENT
In preparation for the storm, the Nuclear Regulatory
Commission placed inspectors in all nuclear power
plants that could potentially experience impacts from the
storm. Inspectors independently verify that plant
operators are making the proper preparations and taking
actions to ensure plant safety before, during and after
the storm. Out of an abundance of caution, three
reactors were shut down during the storm while another
plant, Oyster Creek in New Jersey, is being closely
monitored due to high water levels in its water intake
structure. The NRC will continue to coordinate with other
federal and state agencies prior to the restart of the
The first emergency responders to arrive to the afflicted areas
were our Commissioned Corps officers.
On Wednesday October 31st, approximately 75 officers from
Rapid Deployment Force-2 (RDF-2) arrived in Brooklyn, New
York at the Brookdale Hospital and Medical Center to set up
and operate a Federal Medical Station.
While there, a mixture of health professionals including
nurses and physicians, provided medical support to victims.
Brookdale, set up as a federal medical needs shelter, has been
serving as a place for displaced nursing home patients as well
as displaced hospital patients and patients with special needs.
On November 13th, Rapid Deployment Force-1 (RDF-1)
relieved RDF-2 and has been working toward providing
continued care and support to the nursing patients.
Wave energy is often dismissed as impractical to use
because it is located far from people (where we need
energy). It is also difficult to harness because of the
harsh conditions equipment would have to sustain.
The Salter Sink works as a wave powered pump. Waves
push hot water into the top of the cylinder, which pumps
the water inside down.
It comes out the bottom (around 200 meters below) and
mixes with colder water.
This brings the temperature on the surface down over
time. A Salter Sink can move about a gigawatt of thermal
energy! It may take thousands of these to protect
America’s Gulf region (for example) but we estimate the
cost would be much lower than the damage caused by
one of these storms.
REHABILITATION AND RESPONSE
Mobile Emergency Response Support personnel and
teams have been deployed to support the states with
secure and non-secure voice, video, and information
services, operations, and logistics support to state
response operations as well as with any potential
requests for assistance, the FEMA release said.
Ten FEMA disability integration advisors are also
deployed to advise emergency management on alert and
warning, evacuation, and sheltering needs.
At all times FEMA maintains commodities, including
millions of liters of water, millions of meals and hundreds
of thousands of blankets, strategically located at
distribution centers throughout the United States and its
territories, including Atlanta, Ga. and Frederick, Md., if
needed and requested, according to the FEMA release.
FEMA distribution centers have an overall inventory of
more than five million liters of water, three million meals,
900,000 blankets and 100,000 cots.
FEMA and the Department of Defense established
Incident Support Bases in Westover, Mass., and
Lakehurst, N.J., to pre-position supplies, including water,
meals, blankets and other resources closer to potentially
impacted areas, should they be needed and requested
by states, according to the FEMA release.
FEMA has moved roughly 245,000 liters of water, more
than 174,000 meals and thousands of blankets and cots
to Westover Air Reserve Base; and more than 400,000
liters of water and more than 390,000 meals and
thousands of cots to Lakehurst Naval Air Station in
Lakehurst, N.J., and more commodities are en route, as
weather conditions permit.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and
FEMA activated ambulance contracts to support state
requirements to evacuate patients as needed and
HHS has personnel deployed in support of state
response efforts, including two 50-person Disaster
Medical Assistance Teams providing triage and basic
care in shelters in New Jersey. Additional medical teams
are on alert.
HHS also has personnel supporting 350 ambulances in
New York that were activated through FEMA’s ambulance
contracts. An additional Disaster Medical Assistance
Team remains pre-staged in the mid-Atlantic, prepared to
deploy quickly along the East Coast if needed.
There are a total of 82,000 trained volunteers in the
SBDR network, which is coordinated by NAMB from its
Alpharetta, Ga.-based disaster operations center.
The organization also has 1,550 mobile units that can
provide food, power, childcare, shower, laundry and a
host of other services, and it is one of the three largest
disaster relief organizations in terms of volunteers along
with the American Red Cross and The Salvation Army.
In the four days before the American Red Cross arrived
to deliver the meals cooked by Baptist volunteers, Porter
said, the Middletown Ministerial Alliance helped provide
vans from the city's various churches so food could be
distributed that way.
the team prepared 6,000 meals for American Red Cross
emergency response vehicles to deliver into the
The disaster relief team's kitchen, which has a capacity
for turning out 35,000 meals a day, has served 64,535
meals since it began operating in Middletown.
State, Tribal and local officials make determinations and
announcements about evacuations, according to the
FEMA release. States, localities and the Red Cross have
emergency shelters open in many affected communities.
To find a shelter, people can download the Red Cross
Hurricane app, visit the Red Cross web site, or call 1800-RED CROSS (1-800-733-2767).
NEW YORK (AP) — More than $664 million in federal aid
has been approved for New York's victims of Super storm
Sandy by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
The hardest hit areas of the state include Nassau County,
which has received about $224 million. Queens County,
which includes the hard-hit Rockaways, has received
The bill to repair the damage from Hurricane Sandy has
climbed to $42 billion US across New York state, officials
said Monday as they turned to the federal government for
Total Funding Received to Date: $459,174
Remaining Goal to be Funded: $40,826
Total Funding Goal: $500,000
The cost includes $32 billion for repairs and restoration,
but also includes an additional accounting of $9 billion for
mitigation of damage and for preventive measures for the
next disastrous storm
Hurricane Sandy brought 3 days of devastating rains and
winds throughout the Caribbean and the United States.
ADRA is providing clean water, food parcels, and
blankets to families in some of the worst affected
communities in the Dominican Republic where more than
1,200 homes were completely submerged in mud. In
Jamaica, ADRA has already distributed blankets and is
currently assessing the damages to homes to assist in
the rehabilitation efforts.
U.S. Transportation Secretary Raymond H. LaHood
announced in a DOT release issued today that he is
making $13 million in quick-release emergency relief
STRATEGIES TO PREVENT THE IMPACT
OF THE DIS ASTER
You must secure your property in the best possible
manner. Windows can be protected by installing
permanent storm shutters. Or you may secure your
windows with ready to install marine plywood. Keep in
mind that tapes are not going to help to prevent the
windows from breaking.
You can install straps or additional clips to fasten your
roof to the structure of the building. This will give
additional strength to the roof and will help to prevent
hurricane damage to the roof.
You must trim and groom all the trees and shrubs around
If a hurricane is likely to strike on your area, you
should gather information about it from the
television or other mass media communication
If you have the time, bring in all outside furniture
indoors. Close storm shutters and secure your
home and its properties.
Find out whether the authorities have instructed to
turn off electrical appliances. In fact, it is best to
avoid using any electrical or electronic equipment
during a hurricane.
You must ensure a supply of adequate water for
drinking, cooking and sanitary purposes.
If you have been instructed to evacuate the place, you
should do so at the earliest.
Mobile and temporary structures are very dangerous
during a hurricane. So avoid staying in such structures
during a hurricane. Move to a permanent structure before
Hurricanes winds are particularly stronger at higher
elevations. So, always move to a lower area during a
Coastal areas and areas near waterways are dangerous
during a hurricane. So, if you live in and around these
areas, it is better to move to a safer place to prevent