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Cloud computing

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  • 1. Cloud Computing – Issues, Research and Implementations KARTHIK L. REDDY (1DS05CS021)
  • 2. WHAT IS CLOUD COMPUTING ?
    • Cloud computing is a long-established concept with a new name.
    • The simple definition is that it involves using Web-based computing tools and storing information on remote servers maintained and operated by another company.
    • The cloud is a metaphor for the Internet, based on how it is depicted in computer network diagrams, and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals .
  • 3. What is Cloud Computing?
  • 4. Cloud Computing
      • A pool of highly scalable, abstracted infrastructure, capable of hosting end-customer applications, that is billed by consumption
      • An emerging computing paradigm where data and services reside in massively scalable data centers and can be ubiquitously accessed from any connected devices over the internet .
      • Cloud computing really is accessing resources and services needed to perform functions with dynamically changing needs.
  • 5. Evolution of Computing
  • 6. COMPARISONS
    • CLOUD COMPUTING
      • long-lived services based on hardware virtualization
      • individual user can get most of the resource
      • resources are exposed (mostly as VM)
      • To sum it up, Cloud provides a centralized computing ecosystem that scales up to the consumer need
    • GRID COMPUTING
      • short-lived batch-style processing (job execution)
      • individual user can only get fraction of resource pool
      • Opaque with respect to resource
      • To sum it up, Grid computing is the application of several computers to a single problem at the same time.
  • 7.  
  • 8. CLOUDS
    • " Clouds are vast resource pools with on-demand resource allocation. The degree of on-demandness can vary from phone calls to web forms to actual APIs that directly requisition servers.
    • Clouds are virtualized. On-demand requisitioning implies the ability to dynamically resize resource allocation or moving customers from one physical server to another transparently. This is all difficult or impossible without virtualization.
    • Clouds tend to be priced like utilities (hourly, rather than per-resource),
  • 9. ARCHITECTURE
    • Cloud architecture comprises hardware and software designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator .
    • It involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services.
    • Cloud architecture extends to the client, where web browsers and/or software applications access cloud applications
  • 10. KEY CHARACTERISTICS
    • Scalability ->meets changing user demands quickly without users having to engineer for peak loads. If one server can process 1,000 transactions per second, two servers should be able to process 2,000 transactions per second, and so forth.
    • Multi-tenancy-> enables sharing of resources and costs among a large pool of users, allowing for: 1. Centralization of infrastructure
    • 2. Peak-load capacity increases
    • 3.Utilisation and efficiency improvements.
  • 11. KEY CHARACTERISTICS
    • SLA-driven : The system is dynamically managed by service-level agreements that define policies such as how quickly responses to requests need to be delivered.
    • Self-healing : In case of failure, there will be a hot backup instance of the application ready to take over without disruption (known as failover).
    • Device and location independence enable users to access systems regardless of their location or what device they are using, e.g., PC, mobile.
    • Sustainability comes about through improved resource utilization, more efficient systems and carbon neutrality. Nonetheless, computers and associated infrastructure are major consumers of energy.
  • 12. KEY CHARACTERISTICS
    • On-demand allocation and de-allocation of CPU, storage and network bandwidth.
    • Performance is monitored and consistent, but can suffer from insufficient bandwidth or high network load.
    • Service-oriented : The system allows composing applications out of discrete services that are loosely coupled (independent of each other). Changes to or failure of one service will not disrupt other services. It also means I can re-use services.
    • Security typically improves due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but raises concerns about loss of control over certain sensitive data.
  • 13. COMPONENTS
  • 14. CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURE
    • Cloud infrastructure , such as Infrastructure as a service, is the delivery of computer infrastructure, typically a platform virtualization environment, as a service.
    • For example:
    • 1.Full virtualization ( GoGrid , Skytap )
    • 2 . Grid computing ( Sun Grid )
    • 3.Management ( RightScale )
    • 4. Compute ( Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud )
  • 15. CLOUD STORAGE
    • Cloud storage involves the delivery of data storage as a service, including database-like services, often billed on a utility computing basis, e.g., per gigabyte per month. For example:
    • Database ( Amazon SimpleDB , Google App Engine 's BigTable datastore)
    • Network attached storage ( MobileMe iDisk , Nirvanix CloudNAS)
    • Synchronisation ( Live Mesh Live Desktop component, MobileMe push functions)
    • Web service ( Amazon Simple Storage Service , Nirvanix SDN)
  • 16. CLOUD PLATFORMS
    • A cloud platform , such as Platform as a service, the delivery of a computing platform, and/or solution stack as a service, facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. For example:
    • Web application frameworks
      • Ajax ( Caspio )
      • Python Django ( Google App Engine )
      • Ruby on Rails ( Heroku )
    • Web hosting ( Mosso , Clustered Cloud )
    • Proprietary ( Azure , Force.com )
  • 17. CLOUD APPLICATIONS
    • A cloud application leverages the Cloud in software architecture, often eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computer, thus alleviating the burden of software maintenance, ongoing operation, and support. For example:
    • Peer-to-peer / volunteer computing ( Bittorrent , BOINC Projects , Skype )
    • Web application ( Facebook )
    • Software as a service ( Google Apps , SAP and Salesforce )
    • Software plus services ( Microsoft Online Services )
  • 18. CLOUD SERVICES
    • A cloud service , such as Web Service, is "software system[s] designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network“ which may be accessed by other cloud computing components, software, e.g., Software plus services, or end users directly. For example:
    • Identity ( OAuth , OpenID )
    • Integration ( Amazon Simple Queue Service )
    • Payments ( Amazon Flexible Payments Service , Google Checkout , PayPal )
    • Mapping ( Google Maps , Yahoo! Maps )
    • Search ( Alexa , Google Custom Search , Yahoo! BOSS )
    • Others ( Amazon Mechanical Turk )
  • 19. CLOUD CLIENTS
    • A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software which relies on The Cloud for application delivery, or which is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services, and which in either case is essentially useless without it.For example:
    • Mobile ( Android , iPhone , Windows Mobile )
    • Thin client ( CherryPal , Zonbu , gOS -based systems)
    • Thick client / Web browser ( Google Chrome , Mozilla Firefox )
  • 20. ROLES
    • 1. Cloud computing providers
    • A cloud computing provider or cloud computing service provider owns and operates live cloud computing systems to deliver service to third parties.
    • This requires significant resources and expertise in building and managing next-generation data centers.
    • The barrier to entry is also significantly higher with capital expenditure required and billing and management creates some overhead.
    • Amazon.com was the first such provider, modernizing its data centers which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of its capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes .
  • 21. Cloud Providers
  • 22. ROLES
    • 2. Cloud computing users
    • A user is a consumer of cloud computing . The privacy of users in cloud computing has become of increasing concern. The rights of users is also an issue, which is being addressed via a community effort to create a bill of rights
  • 23. ROLES
    • 3. Cloud computing vendors
    • A vendor sells products and services that facilitate the delivery, adoption and use of cloud computing . For example:
    • Computer hardware ( Dell , HP , IBM , Sun Microsystems )
      • Storage ( Sun Microsystems , EMC , IBM )
      • Infrastructure ( Cisco Systems )
    • Computer software ( 3tera , Hadoop , IBM , RightScale )
      • Operating systems ( Solaris , AIX , Linux including Red Hat [60] )
      • Platform virtualization ( Citrix , Microsoft , VMware , Sun xVM , IBM )
    • Other providers such as Reviora combine behind the scenes technologies to deliver software-as-a-service to customers .
  • 24. IMPLEMENTATION
  • 25. VCL
    • “ Virtual Computing Laboratory (VCL) –http://vcl.ncsu.edu is an award-winning open source implementation of a secure production level on-demand utility computing and services oriented technology for wide-area access to solutions based on virtualized resources, including computational, storage and software resources.
    • There are VCL pilots with a number of University of North Carolina campuses, North Carolina Community College System, as well as with a number of out-of-state universities – many of which are members of the IBM Virtual Computing Initiative ”.
  • 26. Cloud Service – Amazon EC2
  • 27. AMAZON EC2
    • With Amazon EC2 users can :
    • Create an Amazon Machine Image(AMI) containing the applications, libraries and configuration settings.
    • upload the AMI into Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)
    • which provides a safe, fast and reliable repository.
    • use Amazon EC2 Web service to configure security
    • and network access.
    • start, shutdown, and monitor as many instances of
    • user’s AMI as needed, using the web service APIs.
    • pay for the CPU time and bandwidth that user actually
    • consume.
  • 28. BENEFITS
    • Virtual – Physical location and underlying infrastructure details are transparent to users
    • Elastic Scalability – Able to break complex workloads into pieces to be served across an incrementally expandable infrastructure
    • Efficient – Services Oriented Architecture for dynamic provisioning of shared compute resources
    • Flexible – Can serve a variety of workload types – both consumer and commercial
  • 29. BENEFITS
    • Usage metered : Pay for what you use
    • No long term commitments : Reduce lock-in and switching costs
    • OS, Application architecture independent
    • Improved service levels and availability
    • Cloud user does not need to forecast demand
    • Increased speed to market
    • Self-service deployment
  • 30. Current Challenges
    • Data Security & Privacy
    • Regulatory Control
    • Transparency
    • Questionable Reliability & Performance
    • Vendor lock-in and standards
    • Related bandwidth costs
  • 31. Current Challenges
  • 32.
    • THANK YOU
    • Q&A