What is medicinal chemistry.pptPresentation Transcript
M.KUMARASAMY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
What is medicinal chemistry?The science that deals with the discovery or design of new therapeutic chemicals and the development of these chemicals into useful medicine
A Father of ModernMedicinal ChemistryEdward E. Smissman, University of Kansas Smissman Award of the ACS Division of Medicinal Chemistry named in his honor
Everyday drugs…..Still produce a response; many are addictiveCaffeineSugarNicotineAlcoholFood additivesVitaminsHerbs
cocaineBesides being an extremely addictive and dangerous narcotic, cocaine has some medicinal use. Cocaine has been used as a local anesthetic for eye and nasal surgery.The vasoconstriction helps reduce bleeding and the systemic circulation of cocaine (into the heart, specifically).
The tobacco plant When tobacco smoke is inhaled, the nicotine passes quickly to every organ of the body. The brain and nervous system are stimulated by small doses and depressed by larger ones. Nicotine increases the heart rate and the blood pressure, and may contribute directly to the excess of thrombosis and atheroma in smokers.
HeroinDiamorphineOne of the best painkillers (“hero”)1898: on market1903: withdrawn (addictive properties)Today: still used
DRUGS "all chemicals other than food that affect living processes." The drug is a medicine. However, if a drug causes a harmful effect on the body, the drug is a poison. The same chemical can be a medicine and a poison depending on conditions of use and the person using it.
DRUGS CLASSIFICATION Drugs can be classified according to various criteria Chemotherapeutic agents - used to cure infectious diseases and cancer. (Sulfa drugs, Antibiotics) Pharmacodynamic agents - used in non-infectious diseases (Cholinergic, Adrenergic, Hallucinogenic, Sedatives) Miscellaneous agents (Narcotic Analgesics, Local Anesthetics)
DRUGS NAMEDrugs have three or more names including a:chemical name- rules of nomenclature of chemical compounds. brand or trade name- selected by the manufacturer generic or common name- common established name
MODE OF DRUG ACTION One major problem of pharmacology is that no drug produces a single effect. primary effect is the desired therapeutic effect. Secondary effects are all other effects beside the desired effect which may be either beneficial or harmful. Drugs are chosen to exploit differences between normal metabolic processes and any abnormalities which may be present.
TYPES OF MEDICINESSiddhaAyurvedhaAllopathyHomeopathyEtc………….
SIDDHAThe father of Siddha Vaidyam or Siddha Medicine. Agasthiya GuruSiddha Medicines are natural and safe without any side effects.Its a way of life formulated by Siddhars through their vision and realisation for getting peace for the mind, health for the physical body .
ANANAS COMOSUS English Name : Pine apple Family Name : Bromeliaceae Chemical constituents : Bromelin Action : Styptic, Emmenagogue, Anthelmintic, Vermicide, Diaphoretic, Aperient Uses in Siddha : It is useful in vomiting,gastralgia,jaundice . It’s juice is processed into syrup and it helps in vomiting, excessive thirst, leucorrhoea and other pitha disorders.
CITRUS AURANTIUM English Name : Sour orange, bitter orange Family Name : Rutaceae Chemical constituent : d-linalool and glucoside hesperidin Action : Refrigerant, Stomachic, Tonic Uses in Siddha : ? It is a blood purifier. ? It reduces secretion of excessive bile and improves digestion and health. ? It also helps in curing cough, diabetes mellitus, chest pain, liver disorder.
ANNONA SQUAMOSA English Name : Custard apple, Sugar apple Family Name : Annonaceae Chemical constituent : Seeds has an acrid principle Action : Coolant, Tonic, Haematinic Uses in Siddha : It is prepared as syrup and it helps to reduce heat in the body.
AYURVEDA "the knowledge for long life" Ayurveda stresses the use of plant- based medicines and treatments. All diseases originate as an inbalance in the digestive system. Up to 80% of people in India use either Ayurveda or other traditional medicines.
PAPAYA Boosts up the immune system. Increases quality of proteins in whole organism. Encourages the renewal of muscle tissue. Papaya can be use also externally as a treatment for skin wounds that don’t heal quickly, for this you can use papaya peel or ointments made out of papaya.
LEMONMouth ulcer and Throat infection.Reduce BodyFat Stomach upsetConstipation Body pain
JACKFRUIT The Chinese consider jackfruit pulp and seeds tonic, cooling and nutritious, and to be "useful in overcoming the influence of alcohol on the system.“ The seed starch is given to relieve biliousness and the roasted seeds are regarded as aphrodisiac. The root is a remedy for skin diseases and asthma
ALLOPATHY"The term allopathy was invented by German physician Samuel Hahnemann ..."Scientific medicine at the beginning of the [19th] century was heroic medicine.“
ACETAMINOPHEN Paracetamol They are widely used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and painful conditionsParacetamol is a drug used as a painkiller (analgesic) and for reducing fever (antipyretic)Other names are panadol & tylenol in US
Benadryl Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Benadryl is a medication that is used for a variety of different purposes. It can be used to treat insomnia, sneezing and runny nose due to the common cold. Healthcare providers may also occasionally recommend off-label uses for Benadryl such as for treating morning sickness, coughing, and autism.
CHEMICAL INREGULAR USE
TULSI TULSI MEANS IN COMPARABLE IT CALLED AS QUEEN OF HERBS TULSI IS AN ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ANDANTI–OXDIANT
TULSI CONTENTS OCIMUM SANCTUM TULSI CONTAINS ASCORBIC ACID CAROTENE ONE FORM OF VITAMIN -C
AMLA Used in ayurvedha Contains vitamin C 20 times the amount of vitamin C in oranges prevents jaundice indigestion regulates the blood sugar
GUAVA Contains calcium , iron, protien have more amount of vitamin A prevents poor circulation cataracts to help kidney to eliminate the waste reduce the risk of cancer and cholestrol
TURMERIC Used in sidha Contains resin,fatty substances Root contains 10% of glucosoid and turpethin Contains mixture of phenol compounds called curcumin Having starch,protien,vitamin A,etc.