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  • Using the IS92 emission scenarios, projected global mean temperature changes relative to 1990 were calculated up to 2100. Climate models calculate that the global mean surface temperature could rise by about 1 to 4.5 centigrade by 2100. The topmost curve is for IS92e, assuming constant aerosol concentrations beyond 1990 and high climate sensitivity of 4.5 °C. The lowest curve is for IS92c and assumes constant aerosol concentrations beyond 1990 and a low climate sensitivity of 1.5 °C. The two middle curves show the results for IS92a with "best estimate" of climate sensitivity of 2.5 °C: the upper curve assumes a constant aerosol concentration beyond 1990, and the lower one includes changes in aerosol concentration beyond 1990. (It is assumed that the Greenhouse effect is reduced with increased aerosols.) Note: In IPCC reports, climate sensitivity usually refers to the long- term or equilibrium, change in global mean surface temperature following a doubling of CO 2 -equivalent atmospheric concentrations. More generally, it refers to the equilibrium change in surface air temperature following a unit change in radiative forcing (°C/Wm-2) (Text and picture - Adapted from UNEP/GRID Arendal, Vital Climate Graphics)
  • Read out the number of years for oil, natural gas and coal. Switch off the OHP/LCD projector and ask the participants what would happen after 45 years when oil will completely disappear from the earth. Generate a discussion.
  • Using the IS92 emission scenarios, projected global mean temperature changes relative to 1990 were calculated up to 2100. Climate models calculate that the global mean surface temperature could rise by about 1 to 4.5 centigrade by 2100. The topmost curve is for IS92e, assuming constant aerosol concentrations beyond 1990 and high climate sensitivity of 4.5 °C. The lowest curve is for IS92c and assumes constant aerosol concentrations beyond 1990 and a low climate sensitivity of 1.5 °C. The two middle curves show the results for IS92a with "best estimate" of climate sensitivity of 2.5 °C: the upper curve assumes a constant aerosol concentration beyond 1990, and the lower one includes changes in aerosol concentration beyond 1990. (It is assumed that the Greenhouse effect is reduced with increased aerosols.) Note: In IPCC reports, climate sensitivity usually refers to the long- term or equilibrium, change in global mean surface temperature following a doubling of CO 2 -equivalent atmospheric concentrations. More generally, it refers to the equilibrium change in surface air temperature following a unit change in radiative forcing (°C/Wm-2) (Text and picture - Adapted from UNEP/GRID Arendal, Vital Climate Graphics)

PCRASR PCRASR Presentation Transcript

  • ENERGY SCENERIO/CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES SHARING WITH YOU WELCOME TO U ALL V SIVAKUMAR,DIRECTOR/CRC-SR Petroleum Conservation Research Association , (Under Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas) PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • Sanrakshan Bhawan 10, Bhikaji Cama Place, New Delhi - 110066 Tel: 011-26198856, Fax: 011-26109668 http://www.pcra.org WELCOME
  •  
    • CONSERVATION
  • News Flashes Carbon Capture and Storage Raise Thermal Efficiency of Power Plants Energy Police:: Switch off ACS PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • Electricity boards switches to Energy Audit Waste becomes energy Jatropha Oppurtinity Bright ideas for energy efficiency News Flashes PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
    • CLIMATE CHANGE
    • CARBON FOOT PRINTS
    • Clean dev mechanism
    • CONCERN FOR ENVIRONMENT
    • CONSERVATION
  • The carbon cycle
    • PROBLEM IN SPACE ABOVE EARTH
    • COMMON TO ALL COUNTRIES
  • CO2 in Atmosphere 1.7% Soil and peat 3.4 % Calcareous rocks + Fossil fuels 11.3 % Living organisms on land and in sea 2.6% Ocean depths in dead corals And submarine organisms 81.0% Death + decay Volcanic emissions Respiration, decay, Fires + fuel wood Photosynthesis Burning fossil fuels Industrial processes Mining + extraction Fossilisation Via precipitation Diffusion Processes The Earth’s carbon stores
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  • Significant changes to the environment began with human civilization :
    • The discovery of fire-CO2
    • The domestication of livestock-CH4
    • The development of cultivated crops-N20
    • The building of permanent settlements-TOTAL DAMAGE .
    • MOTHER EARTH SAVES LIVING BEINGS
    • HUMAN SAYS HE SAVES THE EARTH
    ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • CO2 GENERATION
    • CARBON FOOT PRINTS  
    • PERFORMING GOOGLE TYPICAL SEARCH GENERATES 7 GM OF CO2,
    • BOILING A KETTLE FOR TEA GENERATES 15 GM CO2.
    • ONE BOTTLE OF ORANGE JUICE 1.7KG
    • 1 LITRE OF PETROLEUM FUEL 2.2 KG
    • OBAMA VISIT TO COPENHAGAN
    • PRESIDENT OBAMA’S ONE DAY VISIT TO COPENHAGEN, TO LAY USA GOAL OF CUTTING GHG GENERATE 3820 TONNES OF CO2.(1+5 AIR CRAFTS;17.4 LAKH LITRES OF ATF;2.2KG PER LITRE OF ATF)
    •  
    • FOR PETROL CAR00.15-0.2 KGCO2/KM
    1187 730 1905TONNES PETROL CAR 00.15-0.2KGCO2/KM
  • Energy Conservation Vs Energy Efficiency Incandescent Lamp 60 W Compact fluorescent Lamp 15 W Energy Efficient Equipment uses less energy for same output and reduces CO 2 emissions CO 2 Emission – 65 g/hr CO 2 Emission – 16 g/hr
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  • Global Warming MEASURE OF WARMING
    • INTER GOVT PANEL FOR CLIMATE CHANGE
  •  
  • Man-made Greenhouse Effect Source: IPCC
    • Changes to the natural greenhouse effect are
    • a result of man-made emissions of
    • Greenhouse Gases (GHG):
      • Carbon dioxide- 
      • Methane
    • organic matter decomposes
    • in the absence of oxygen:
      • wetlands
      • plantations
      • landfills
      • Bio-wastes
      • Nitrous oxide (N2O)
      • bacteria transform nitrate from fertilisers
      • Hydro- & Perfluorocarbons
      • cooling agents;
      • contrast-enhanced ultrasound
      • Sulphurhexafluoride (SF6)
      • Dielectric medium:SF6
    PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • CLIMATE CHANGE
    • THE WORLD RESPONDING AS IF IT IS A STAGE I CANCER WHEN ALL THE SCIENCE SAYS THAT IT HAS PROGRESSED CLOSE TO THE END OF STAGE III AND ABOUT TO ENTER THE IV THE FATAL STAGE
    • STEPHEN HAWKING-A BRIEF HISTORY OF TIME
    • WE DO NOT KNOW WHERE GLOBAL WARMING, WORST CASE SCENARIO IS THAT EARTH WOULD BECOME LIKE ITS SISTER PLANET,VENUS WITH TEMPERATURE OF 250DEG AND RAINING SULPHURIC ACID.
  • THE NEED OF THE HOUR CONSERVATION PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
    • CONSERVATION IS NOT REDUCING CONSUMPTION
    • CONSERVATION IS A PURPOSE BEYOND GENERATIONS
  • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES GOVT POLICY CONSERVATION SCARCITY FINANCIAL CONSTRAINT MAJOR ISSUES IN TODAYS DEVELOPMENT EFFICIENCY PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • AN EXAMPLE
    • In India for steel manufacture SEC is 6.9Gcal/ton as against 5.67Gcal/ton worldwide.
    • Improving SEC of this sector in India, major energy saving measures such as given below are being considered.
    • High capacity boilers,
    • Phasing out of small capacity inefficient BFs,
    • Top Pressure recovery turbine,
    • Phasing out of open hearth furnaces,
    • Adoption of continuous casting route.
    • 1 g cal=1000000000 cal(10-9)
  • Average Specific Consumption India Global Aluminum 90 GJ/ton 60-70 GJ/ton Paper 35-50 GJ/ton 20-25 GJ/ton
  • Share of Energy in the Manufacturing Cost 8 8 7 7 6 6
  • ENERGY SCENERIO PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • Gossips! Threats!! Katrina, Rita & Wilma!!! Crude Price Fluctuations $ 1 increase in crude price results in extra burden of >Rs 3000 Cr / annum Current Energy Scenario 130-150 2008 $/bbl 200-fear PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
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  • > 4,00,000 Expenditure Towards Crude Oil Import 81160
  • PCRA 70% Of Oil Requirement Depend On Import 450 MT out of 1100 MT of Co2 emission is from POL. India the 5th largest emitter of Co2(USA, China,Russia,and Japan) The Focus Area Is Demand Side Management With $75-80 And With 2% Conservation The Saving Potential Is Rs.8,000 Cr., One Unit Of Energy Saved Is Equivalent To 3 Units Of Energy Source
    • PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
    • * Coal
      • Global Coal reserve : 909 billion tonnes
      • (6,06,000 MTOE)
      • US has largest share : 27.1%, 2nd Russia (17.3%)
      • India :10.2 %
    • * Oil
      • Global Oil reserve : 1208 billion bbls
      • (1,65,000 MMT)
      • Saudi Arabia has largest share : 22%,
      • India : 5.7 billion bbls
      • (800 MMT)
    • # Gas
      • Global Gas reserve : 181.46 TCM
      • (1,62,00 MTOE)
      • Russia has largest share : 26.3%,
      • India : 1.1 TCM
      • (990MTOE)
    Source : *BP statistical Review, end 2006 Global Primary Energy Reserves
    • WORLD OIL DEMAND
    • 85 MILLION BBL PER DAY
    • 100MIL.BBL PER DAY BY 2015
    • 120 MIL.BBL PER DAY BY 2030
    GLOBAL DEMAND PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • INDIA
    • INDIAN CRUDE OILDEMAND
    • 2.5 MILLION BBL PER DAY
    • 5.3 MILLION BBL PER DAY BY 2025
    PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • 60% of resources of world consumed so far ENERGY SCENERIO Energy Conservation and its importance
  • Stocks of Fossil Fuels PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • The “Fifth Fuel” Energy efficiency is the alternative to coal, oil natural gas, hydropower and nuclear fuel and energy outlook forever.
  • Nuclear Hydropower Oil/Natural Gas Coal “ Fifth Fuel” Efficiency Energy
  • Efficiency
    • Electrical Efficiency - useful power output per electrical power
    • Thermal Efficiency or Fuel Efficiency - useful heat or work output per input energy
    • Energy Efficiency – Reducing consumption of energy while achieving same level of economic activity or amenity.
  •  
  • Dream survival without OIL & GAS ? PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
    • CYCLE
    • BULLOCK CART
    • WALK
    • ROLLER SKAT
    • ELECTRIC SCOOTER
    • TAKING BATH ONCE A WEEK
    • SIT AT HOME
    • OPPURTUNITY TO DEPLOY ALL
    • INNOVATIONS IN RENEWABLES
  • DREAM TO REALITY
    • OIL TO GAS
    • IMPROVEMENTS IN COAL USAGE
    • TRANSPORT SECTOR
    • GAS/HYBRID
    • THEN TO HYDROGEN
    • INDUSTRIES
    • FUEL SWITCH
    • GENERATE POWER PREFERABLY FROM
    • RENEWABLE SOURCES
    • ADOPT ONLY EFFICIENT APPLIANCES
  • 10 TH AUG’78 PCAG RECONSTITUTED AS PETROLEUM CONSERVATION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION (PCRA) AND REGISTERED AS A SOCIETY UNDER MOP&NG . PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider EMERGENCE OF PCRA
  • PCRA INDUSTRY AGRICULTURE TRANSPORT DOMESTIC COMMERCIAL
    • OIL TO GAS
    • TO SOLAR/WIND
    > GAS > TO CNG/H2 SECTROAL APPROACH
    • PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
                                                       
  • Energy Security for Transport Sector is the corner stone of our Petroleum Strategy Sector-wise Consumption of Petroleum Products PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider Petroleum Product Consumption (MMT) Sector 120 16 05 17 21 61 Total Others Agriculture Industrial Domestic Transport
  • PCRA ACTIVITIES
    • DRIVER TRAINING PROGRAM
    • TRANSPORT WORKSHOPS
    • FUEL OIL DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES
    • INSTITUTIONAL/INDUSTRY TRG PROGRAM
    • SEMINAR/TECH MEET/CONSUMER MEET
    • YOUTH/DOMESTIC PROGRAMS
  • ENERGY EFFICIENCY AREAS
    • PROCESS INDUSTRY
    • STEAM SYSTEMS
    • WELDED PLATE EXCHANGERS
    • FIRED HEATERS
    • AIR SYSTEM/NETWORK-TAILOR MADE
    • COOLING WATER/DM WATER/BFW
    • DRIVES
  • Energy saving opportunities in electric motor operation
    • Use of high efficiency motors.
    • Removal of oversized motors.
    • Delta to star connection if motor is grossly under loaded.
    • Use of variable speed drives.
  • PROBABLE CDM PROJECTS
    • ON REGIONAL/DIVISION BASIS/COMPANY BASIS
    • ROTARYEQUIPMENTS(PUMPS/COMPRESSORS)
    • ENERGY CONSUMPTION/OPTIMISATION
    • PLANNING FOR VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES
    • EVALUATION OF PRESENT AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND GO FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT VERSIONS
    • LIGHTING OFBUILDING/ RO/INSTALLATION BY SOLAR/WIND
    • PIPELINE TRANFERS
  • ENERGY AND THE COST
    • Energy today has become a key factor
    • Decides the product cost at micro level
    • The inflation / the debt at the macro level.
    • Energy cost is a significant factor in economic
    • activity
    • An energy shortage situation calls for
    • energy conservation ,
    PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
    • Energy Audit attempts to balance the total energy inputs
    • Serves to identify all the energy streams in the systems
    • Quantifies energy usage’s
    • Energy Audit helps in energy cost optimization,
    • Pollution control, safety aspects
    • Using improved energy conservation equipment’s. instrumentation’s and technology.
    PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider ENERGY AUDIT
  • Objectives of Energy Audit
    • The Energy Audit provides the vital information base for overall energy conservation program
    • Essentially energy utilization analysis and evaluation of energy conservation measures.
    PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • Important features of the Energy Conservation Act
    • BEE was established on 1st March 2002, under the Energy Conservation (EC) Act, 2001.
    • BEE is responsible for spearheading the energy efficiency in the economy through various regulatory and promotional instruments
    • Standards and Labeling
    • Industrial energy benchmarks
    • Designated Consumers
    • Certify and accredit energy auditors and energy managers
    • Energy Conservation Building Codes
    • Designated consumers : needs to
      • Appoint/designate energy managers
      • Get energy audits conducted by accredited energy auditors
      • Implement techno-economic viable recommendations
      • Comply with norms of energy consumption fixed
      • Submit report on steps taken
  •  
  • Polluting gases/elements
    • LEAD,
    • Sulfur Gases(SOX)
    • Nitrogen gases(NOX)
    • Un-burnt Carbon /HC gases
    • Particulate matters
    • Volatile organic compounds
    Atmospheric POLLUTION ALREADY ADDRESSED GREEN HOUSE GASES PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
    • WHAT IS GHG
    • GREEN HOUSE GASES ARE :
    • Carbon Di-Oxide,CO2
    • Methane ,CH4
    • Nitrous Oxide, N2O
    • Hydro Fluoro Carbons, HFC
    • Per Fluoro Carbons, PFC
    • Sulpher Hexafluoride SF6
    GHG EMISSIONS PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • Green House Gas (GHG) Global Warming Potential (GWP ) Carbon-di-oxide (CO 2 ) 1 Methane (CH 4 ) 21 Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) 310 Per fluoro carbon (PFCs) 560-9200 Hydro fluoro carbon (HFCs) 140 – 11700 Sulphur hexa fluoride (SF 6 ) Above 10,000 The value of GWP is used to compare the abilities of different greenhouse gases to trap heat in the atmosphere. GWPs are based on the heat-absorbing ability of each gas relative to that of carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as the decay rate of each gas in atmosphere Global Warming Potential (GWP) of Major GHGs
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY 23900 Sulpher Hexafluoride 560 to 9200 Per Fluoro Carbons 140 to 11700 Hydro Fluoro Carbons 310 Nitrus Oxide 21 Methane 1 Carbon Di-Oxide Global warming potential as CO2 equivalent Green House Gases under Kyoto Protocol
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY Thus world today have only two options: either to stop generating GHGs stop development synergize development with environment. concern of economic development at any cost ; PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY Initiatives taken to mitigate/CONTROL the emission, The best known being the Kyoto protocol. Under the aegis of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. UNFCCC PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • AIMS & OBJECTIVE
    • Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions
    • Technology up gradation
    • Accelerated adoption and absorption of environmentally sustainable Energy Efficient (EE) technologies
    • Removal of key barriers to Energy Efficiency measures in the sector
  • Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC
    • Signed in 1997; in force since 16 February 2005
    • Commits industrialised countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by, on average of 5.2% below 1990 levels in 2008-12
    • Individual, quantified emission targets for each industrialized country
    • Six greenhouse gases covered: Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Sulfur hexafluoride, Hydro-fluoro carbon (HFCs), and Per-fluoro carbons (PFCs)
    • “ Flexibility mechanisms” for financing emission reductions abroad:
      • Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
      • Joint Implementation (JI)
      • International Emissions Trading
    • US have not ratified; EU, China, India, Brazil are Parties (Total 183 Parties )
  • CDM: How it works Carbon Credits (CERS) Carbon Value (Euro) Emission cap Actual emissions Buyer Seller Non – Annex I Annex I The reduced GHGs in a Non–Annex I countries can be sold to an Annex I country A CDM project reduces the GHG emissions in the CDM country
  • Emission Quota Emissions Reduction An electric utility in an industrial nation is required to cut its annual carbon by 200,000 tons. The company falls shorts, trimming only 100,000 tons. To Comply with its requirement, the company buys 100,000 tons. “Certified Emission Reductions” on the carbon market. The 100,000 credits sold to the market were earned in a developing nation, where a clean energy project was certified to have reduced emissions by 100,000 tons a year. <200000 TONS 100000 TONS 100000 TONS US/EURO $ AN EXAMPLE
  • Impact of Carbon Revenue on IRR of the Project IRR Benchmark Project return excluding CDM revenue Project return including CDM revenue CDM cash flow The gap between the project return and the required return on investment threshold 12 % 15 % 16 % The CDM cash flow increases the IRR of the project making it more interesting for investors. Project Not eligible
  • Project types : Renewable Energy Hydro, Wind, Solar, Biomass, Bagasse, Geothermal, Tidal Waste Heat Recovery Cement, Steel/ Metal, Coke Ovens Waste Management Waste Water Management, MSW Management, Fuel Pellets, Power generation, Use as Fuel Transportation LPG, NG, Biodiesel, MRTS Process Change Petroleum Refineries, Oil & Gas Refineries, Fertilizer CO2 Recovery, Nitrous Oxide (N2O)Destruction, Refrigerant: HFC Abatement , Aluminum: PFC Control Energy Efficiency Efficient Generation (Efficient Machinery, T&D Loss Reduction, Thermal/ fuel, Steam Saving, Thermal Saving, Process Flyash in Cement) Efficient Utilization (Energy efficiency measures for BUILDINGS and industries), Efficient Steam Utilization in Process Industrial Fuel Switch Fossil Fuel to LPG, Natural Gas, Biomass OTHERS Plantation / Forestry, Afforestation, Reforestation
  • Potential CDM Projects in India
    • Power sector - Alternate energy source and efficiency
    • improvement of existing plants
    • Oil & Gas - Fuel switching & high conversion efficiency
    • Renewable E - Biomass, wind, solar and hydro power
    • Industry - Energy efficiency
    • Transport - Fuel switching
    • Agriculture/ - Better cultivation practices, high yielding
    • crops
  • Driver for CO2 Emission Trading
      • Differential CO2 Emissions abatement cost Developed Countries Emission Reduction Cost – Japan - $ 400/Ton of Carbon US – $ 200/Ton of Carbon Developing Countries India – $ 25/Ton of Carbon & even less
  • Benefits under CDM to India
    • India need energy efficient technologies to
    • reduce GHG emissions
    • CDM could help to overcome the financial
    • constraints associated with the adoption of
    • cleaner technologies
    • Renewable energy technologies
    • are among the low cost options for carbon mitigation
  • Indian DNA
    • The Govt. of India has constituted a 9 member National CDM Authority (NCA) during December 2003.
    • The MoEF being the nodal ministry for CC hosts the NCA headed by The Secretary, MoEF
    23
  • DNA ( Designated National Authority) - India The National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Authority Address: 115, Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, India R. K. Sethi , Member Secretary, National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Authority, Ministry of Environment and Forests Phone: (91-11) 2436 2252 Fax: (91-11) 2436 2252
  • CDM OPPORTUNITIES
    • CDM includes following potential projects:
    • Increased energy utilization of terminals;
    • Renewable energy;
    • Alternative fuels ;
    • Agriculture (methane and N2O Emission
    • Reduction Projects);
    • Industrial Process(Emission reductions of CO2,
    • HFCs, PFCs or SF6 from industry) ;
  • Host Country Approval Validation of the Project Registration Monitoring Verification/ Certification Issuance of CERs Feasibility Check PCN, PDD Responsible party involved Steps of the project Steps of the project cycle CDM Project Cycle Duration: 8 to 12 Months Project Developer 1 st Operational Entity Executive Board Project Developer 2 nd Operational Entity Executive Board Project Development CDM Application Project realization
  • Projectdesign Check if requested Implementation Monitoring & Reporting Validation Project Developer Designated Operational Entity ( e.g DNV) CDM Executive Board Verification Check if requested Issuance of CER Validation Report Verification Report The CDM Project Parties
  • PROBABLE CDM PROJECTS
    • ON REGIONAL/DIVISION BASIS/COMPANY BASIS
    • ROTARYEQUIPMENTS(PUMPS/COMPRESSORS)
    • ENERGY CONSUMPTION/OPTIMISATION
    • PLANNING FOR VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES
    • EVALUATION OF PRESENT AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND GO FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT VERSIONS
    • LIGHTING OFBUILDING/ RO/INSTALLATION BY SOLAR/WIND
    • PIPELINE TRANFERS
  • Host Country Approval Validation of the Project Registration Monitoring Verification/ Certification Issuance of CERs Feasibility Check PCN, PDD Responsible party involved Steps of the project Steps of the project cycle CDM Project Cycle Duration: 8 to 12 Months Project Developer 1 st Operational Entity Executive Board Project Developer 2 nd Operational Entity Executive Board Project Development CDM Application Project realization
  • CDM Eligibility
    • Projects reducing either of 6 GHGs ( CO 2 , N 2 O, CH 4 , PFC, HFC, SF 6 )
    • Start Date - The implementation/construction or real action of a project activity begins
    • Projects with start date after 02 August 2008 should inform Host Country DNA and UNFCCC about CDM consideration within six months of Project execution
    • CDM revenue to be considered in Planning Stage – proof to be provided
    • Projects should fall under one of the sectoral scopes
    • CDM projects must promote sustainable development in the host countries
    • Local/Regional/National policies or standards not eligible
    • Transfer of know-how and training, cannot be considered
  • General requirements for CDM projects
    • Emission reductions are additional;
    • Baseline and monitoring methodologies comply with requirements; and
    • Funding for CDM projects must not divert funding from existing official development assistance
    • CDM projects must promote sustainable development in the countries in which they are located .
  • The Indian Carbon Market by Sectors Infrastructure: 65% Energy Efficiency: 26 %
  • Type of Projects Other project activities result in emission reductions Project activities or those improvements in energy eff which reduce energy consumpn, on the supply and/or demand side Renewable energy project have a maximum output capacity Description Type II Type II Type I Category > 60 kt CO2e annually < = 60 kt CO2e annually 3 Output more than 60 GWh per year Maximum output of 60 GWh/year 2 > 15 MW < = 15 MW 1 Large Scale Small Scale S.No.
  • Concept of Baseline
    • What is baseline?
      • The baseline for a CDM project activity is the scenario that reasonably represents the anthropogenic emissions by sources of greenhouse gases that would occur in the absence of the proposed project activity.
    • The baseline can be used to determine:
      • whether a CDM project activity is additional; and
      • the volume of additional greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by a project activity.
    • A baseline shall be established:
      • By using approved/new methodologies
      • In a transparent and conservative manner
  • Estimation of Emission Reductions (ERs) Project commissioned Project based emission reductions need to be calculated and verified before they can be sold in the open market MRV i.e. Measurable, Real & Verifiable Time “ With project” emission level “ Without project” emission level = Baseline GHG emissions ERs
  • Concept of Additionality
    • Additionality is a principal condition for the eligibility of a project under the CDM
    • A CDM project activity is additional if anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases by sources are reduced below those that would have occurred in the absence of the proposed CDM project activity
    • The project would not have occurred anyway
    • Demonstrate intent to reduce GHG emissions
    • Tool for the demonstration and assessment of additionality (the additionality tool) – used to assess additionality.
  • Additionality continued…
    • The additionality tool sets out the following steps to demonstrate and assess additionality:
      • Step 1: Identification of alternatives to the project activity
      • Step 2: Investment analysis to determine that the proposed project activity is either (a) not the most economically or financially attractive or (b) not economically or financially feasible;
      • Step 3: Barrier analysis
      • Step 4: Common practice analysis
  •  
  • UNDERSTAND AND IMPLEMENT CONSERVATION AND CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM TODAY
    • C ultivate to
    • L earn
    • E fficiency
    • A dded
    • N orms
    • BEYOND BUSINESS AS USAL
    • Step 1a - Identification of realistic and credible alternatives like:
      • Proposed project activity undertaken without being registered as a CDM project activity
      • Other realistic and credible alternative scenario(s) to the proposed CDM project activity scenario that deliver outputs and services (e.g. electricity, heat or cement) with comparable quality, properties and application areas;
      • If applicable, continuation of the current situation (no project activity or other alternatives undertaken).
    • Step 1b - directed towards ensuring compliance with all mandatory laws regulations
    • Alternative(s) shall be in compliance with all mandatory applicable legal and regulatory requirements
    • Where analysis shows that there is widespread non-compliance in a country or region with mandatory laws and policies, then a scenario involving non-compliance is a valid one which may be considered
    Step 1: Identification of alternatives to the project activity
  • Step 1: Continued…
    • If non-compliance cannot be shown, then eliminate the alternative from further consideration
    • However, if the only way to comply with mandatory laws or regulations is to implement the proposed project activity, then the activity will not be considered additional.
  • Step 2: Investment analysis
    • Determines whether the proposed project activity without the revenue from the sale of  CERs is either:
    • not the most economically or financially attractive or
    • not economically or financially feasible
    • Step 2(a) involves determining which analysis method to apply - simple cost analysis, investment comparison analysis or benchmark analysis
    • If the CDM project activity and the alternatives identified in Step 1 generate no financial or economic benefits other than CDM related income, then apply the simple cost analysis (Option I).
    • Step 2(b) Otherwise, use the investment comparison analysis (Option II) or the benchmark analysis (Option III)
  • Step 2: Investment analysis continued…
    • If the simple cost analysis is chosen:
      • Document the costs associated with the CDM project activity and demonstrate that there is at least one alternative which is less costly than the project activity 
    • If the investment comparison analysis is chosen:
      • Identify the financial indicator, such as IRR, NPV, cost benefit ratio, or unit cost of service most suitable for the project type and decision-making context
    • If the benchmark analysis is chosen:
      • Identify the financial/economic indicator, such as IRR, most suitable for the project type and decision context
  • Step 2: Investment analysis continued…
    • Step 2(c) - Calculating and comparing the financial indicators of the proposed project activity and the alternatives identified in step 1
    • All relevant costs (including the costs of investment, maintenance and operation, and so on) and revenues (excluding CER revenue, but including subsidies/fiscal incentives, official development assistance and so on) should be included.
    • Assumptions across the different scenarios (project and alternatives) must be consistent
    • The investment analysis should be presented in a clear and transparent manner in the PDD
  • Step 2: Investment analysis continued…
    • Step 2(d) requires a sensitivity analysis
      • It shows whether the conclusion regarding the financial/economic attractiveness is robust to reasonable variations in the critical assumptions
    • A project activity will only satisfy the requirements of step 2 (investment analysis) if it can be shown that implementation of the project would not be the most financially/economically attractive option in any case
    • If the requirements of this step are satisfied, there is no need to conduct a barrier analysis (step 3).
    • If the investment analysis indicates, the project would have been carried out in any case, then further barriers must be identified under step 3 for the project activity to be considered additional.
  • Step 3: Barrier analysis
    • Determines whether the proposed project activity faces barriers that:
      • prevent the implementation of this type of proposed project activity; and
      • do not prevent the implementation of at least one of the alternatives
    • Barriers must prevent the project from being implemented unless it is registered under the CDM
    • These barriers may include:
      • Investment barriers
      • Technological barriers
      • Prevailing practice barriers - for example, that the project activity is the 'first of its kind'
  • Step 4: Common Practice Analysis
    • This step is a credibility check, in that if similar activities are widely observed and commonly carried out.
    • Step 4 involves analysing similar activities to describe whether and to which extent similar activities have already been implemented in the region.
  • Project Emissions
    • Project emissions refer to emissions within the project boundary attributable to the implementation of the project activity
    • Project emissions must be deducted from the emission reductions generated by the project activity.
    • Examples of Project emissions:
      • Biomass burning
      • Fossil fuel use
      • Transportation
  • Sustainable Development Criteria
    • Prerogative of the Host Party
    • Social well being:
      • lead to alleviation of poverty
      • generate additional employment,
      • improve quality of life
    • Economic well being:
      • should bring in additional investment consistent with the needs of the people.
    • Environmental well being:
      • biodiversity-friendliness;
      • Impact on human health;
      • reduction of levels of pollution in general
    • Technological well being:
      • should lead to transfer of environmentally safe and sound technologies
  • Thank you for your attention !
  • BEST WISHES TO ALL OF YOU TO ACHIEVE CLEAN CLIMATE PCRA SERVICES AT A REASONABLE COST ENERGY AUDIT/ CLEAN DEV. MECHANISM
  • NLC ONGC SCCL CPCL TNEB TPL ITCOT SAINT GOBAIN K M M L
  • END 2004 Source : PPAC ready reckoner,01.04.06 Per Capita Energy Consumption (Primary Commercial Energy) COUNTRY
    • PER CAPITA GENERATION ?
  • SOLUTIONS
    • ATTITUDE; CONSERVATION NOT CONSUMPTION
    • SHIFT TO BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY
    • ADOPT PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS THRO
    • ENERGY EFFICIENCY STEPS
    • RETROFIT EFFICIENT EQUIPMENTS
    PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • Energy Conservation Vs Energy Efficiency Incandescent Lamp 60 W Compact fluorescent Lamp 15 W Energy Efficient Equipment uses less energy for same output and reduces CO 2 emissions CO 2 Emission – 65 g/hr CO 2 Emission – 16 g/hr
  • CARBON
    • 100(KWH/M) UNITS ELECTRICITY-
    • 0.9 T/YR
    • A FAMILY OF FOUR SPENDING RS 3000/MONTH ON ENERGY CONTRIBUTES @1 TON OF CO2
    • In India on the Average
    • 1MWh of Power = 0.8 t CO2
    • So saving of 1MWh will get you 1MWHx24x365x0.8 CERs per year
    • Current rate of CER= Euro 18
    • So yearly income=Rs.1x24x365x.8x18x62
    • = Rs. 7820928/-
    TRADABLE UNITS
    • WHAT IS GHG
    • HOW IT AFFECTS US
    • GLOBAL ACTIVITIES
    • WHERE WE STAND
  • Significant changes to the environment began with human civilization :
    • The discovery of fire-CO2
    • The domestication of livestock-CH4
    • The development of cultivated crops-N20
    • The building of permanent settlements-TOTAL DAMAGE .
    • MOTHER EARTH SAVES LIVING BEINGS
    • HUMAN SAYS HE SAVES THE EARTH
    ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • ESSENTIAL FIVE
    • Human worship the five elements of nature
    • Earth as ‘Prithvi ,
    • Water as “Jal ’,
    • Agni as ‘Energy ’,
    • Air as ‘Vayu’, and
    • Sky as ‘Akash’.
    • Today human through science try to have control on all
  • Polluting gases/elements
    • LEAD,
    • Sulfur Gases(SOX)
    • Nitrogen gases(NOX)
    • Un-burnt Carbon /HC gases
    • Particulate matters
    • Volatile organic compounds
    Atmospheric POLLUTION ALREADY ADDRESSED GREEN HOUSE GASES PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
    • WHAT IS GHG
    • GREEN HOUSE GASES ARE :
    • Carbon Di-Oxide,CO2
    • Methane ,CH4
    • Nitrous Oxide, N2O
    • Hydro Fluoro Carbons, HFC
    • Per Fluoro Carbons, PFC
    • Sulpher Hexafluoride SF6
    GHG EMISSIONS PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • GREENHOUSE EFFECT- SIMPLIFIED GH Gases
  • CLIMATE CHANGE-SUSTAINABILITY
  • Global Warming MEASURE OF WARMING
    • INTER GOVT PANEL FOR CLIMATE CHANGE
  • MEASURED TEMPERATURE CHANGE
  • Man-made Greenhouse Effect Source: IPCC
    • Changes to the natural greenhouse effect are
    • a result of man-made emissions of
    • Greenhouse Gases (GHG):
      • Carbon dioxide- 
      • Methane
    • organic matter decomposes
    • in the absence of oxygen:
      • wetlands
      • plantations
      • landfills
      • Bio-wastes
      • Nitrous oxide (N2O)
      • bacteria transform nitrate from fertilisers
      • Hydro- & Perfluorocarbons
      • cooling agents;
      • contrast-enhanced ultrasound
      • Sulphurhexafluoride (SF6)
      • Dielectric medium:SF6
    PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • The carbon cycle
  • CO2 in Atmosphere 1.7% Soil and peat 3.4 % Calcareous rocks + Fossil fuels 11.3 % Living organisms on land and in sea 2.6% Ocean depths in dead corals And submarine organisms 81.0% Death + decay Volcanic emissions Respiration, decay, Fires + fuel wood Photosynthesis Burning fossil fuels Industrial processes Mining + extraction Fossilisation Via precipitation Diffusion Processes The Earth’s carbon stores
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY 23900 Sulpher Hexafluoride 560 to 9200 Per Fluoro Carbons 140 to 11700 Hydro Fluoro Carbons 310 Nitrus Oxide 21 Methane 1 Carbon Di-Oxide Global warming potential as CO2 equivalent Green House Gases under Kyoto Protocol
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY Thus world today have only two options: either to stop generating GHGs stop development synergize development with environment. concern of economic development at any cost ; PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY Initiatives taken to mitigate/CONTROL the emission, The best known being the Kyoto protocol. Under the aegis of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. UNFCCC PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • VERY SURVIVAL OF THE LIFE ON THE EARTH IS AT STAKE.
    • The 4th assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
    • the world has just eight years(2015) to act in a constructive manner .
    PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
    • The five nations with the largest total population living in
    • endangered coastal areas are all in Asia:
        • China,
        • India,
        • Bangladesh,
        • Vietnam and Indonesia
        • The sentiment is shared globally, partly concluded in
        • global meeting at Bali, Indonesia.
    CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • CLEAN DEVELOPEMENT GLOBAL ACTIVITIES PCRA – An integrated Energy Solution Provider
  • Global steps-SINCE 1990 1992 Rio Conference: 154 states signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 2001 Finalisation of the operational details of the Kyoto Protocol at COP 7 in Marrakech Nov. 2001 1995 IPCC’s, Inter govt panel on climate change,2nd report concluded that “ the <-balance of evidence suggests that there’s a discernible human influence on global climate .” 1997 The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in1997 giving industrialised countries-> a legally binding commitment to reduce their GHG emissions. 2000 First credits from GHG emission reduction projects 1994 UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994->
  • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change--UNFCCC UN Framework Convention on Climate Change signed by 184 states Annex I countries (industrialised countries) committed themselves to reduce their GHG emissions Annex I Non-Annex I countries (developing countries)
  • The Kyoto Protocol (I)
    • The Kyoto Protocol makes the UNFCCC
    • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
    • operational and legally binding.
    • The industrialised countries commit themselves
    • to reduce their collective GHG emissions by at
    • least 5% below 1990 emission levels.
  • Kyoto Protocol (Cont…)
    • The protocol list of policies for the developed countries for achieving their commitment.
      • Enhancing Energy Efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy.
      • Promoting sustainable form of development
    18
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY-THE SOLUTION > The Energy, Efficiency, Environmental Solution on climate change is the seed of all activities in sustainable development
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • Three flexible mechanisms under the
    • Kyoto protocol.
    • They are
    • Joint Implementation (JI),
    • Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and
    • International Emission Trading (IET).
    • Clean Development Mechanism Art.12
    BY Annex 1 Country IN Non-Annex 1 Country - Emission reduction alongwith sustainable development Flexibility Mechanisms for Emissions Trading
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY CDM is the mechanism involving Annex I and non Annex I nations. Under the CDM, an industrialized country with a GHG reduction target can invest in a project in a developing country without a target and claim credit for the emissions that the project achieves .
  • Climate Change : Indian Perspectives
    • strengthening of global cooperation central to any effort to address climate change
    • India demonstrated its commitment by acceding to Kyoto Protocol in August 2002 and successfully hosting COP8 in Delhi during October – November 2002
    • Delhi - COP8 provided a new direction to Climate Change in the context of sustainable development and brought technology transfer
    13
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY Opportunities to developing nations D eveloping nations can benefit through the CDM of the Kyoto protocol. Industries can develop projects that will reduce the GHG emission on a real, quantifiable term The emission reductions thereby achieved can be traded in the carbon markets.
  • Potential CDM Projects in India
    • Power sector - Alternate energy source and efficiency
    • improvement of existing plants
    • Oil & Gas - Fuel switching & high conversion efficiency
    • Renewable E - Biomass, wind, solar and hydro power
    • Industry - Energy efficiency
    • Transport - Fuel switching
    • Agriculture/ - Better cultivation practices, high yielding
    • crops
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • WHAT YOU SHOULD DO
    • Energy Efficiency – Key Steps:
    • • Formulation/Review of Company/Corporate energy policy and
    • energy objectives
    • • Understand existing energy performance analysis system,
    • energy metering, instrumentation , controls & Analyze existing
    • system
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • • WHAT YOU SHOULD DO
    • Conduct Internal EnergyAudit/ Benchmarking exercise
    • Compare with external international benchmarks,
    • • Finalize best operation and maintenance practices
    • • Conduct training to engineers /energy managers
    • Formulate benchmarks for plants and set up best practices.
    • • Set energy budgets and targets at product, utility
    • and process levels.
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • • WHAT YOU SHOULD DO
    • Formulate reports
    • Assess of energy consumption/ performance.
    • Include feed back reports and action taken.
    • Include the aspect of specific energy consumption
    • identify the new targets based on statistical methods.
    • • Include the scheme of rewarding the best performers
    • individual/areas .
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • The Kyoto-protocol :potential CDM project,
    • means
    • “ GHG reductions that are additional to any that would occur in the absence of the project activity ”.
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY Contribution in GHG reduction: The project must demonstrate reduction of GHG that would not have otherwise occurred. Baseline without the project is estimated & benefits are calculated over this baseline.
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY Climate Change Financing CDM is the option for climate change with financing available . The Certified Emission Reduction (CER) can be accounted/accumulated Under CDM.
  • TRADABLE UNITS
    • In India on the Average
    • 1MWh of Power = 0.8 t CO2
    • So saving of 1MWh will get you 1MWHx24x365x0.8 CERs per year
    • Current rate of CER= Euro 18
    • So yearly income=Rs.1x24x365x.8x18x62
    • = Rs. 7820928/-
  • Driver for CO2 Emission Trading
      • Differential CO2 Emissions abatement cost Developed Countries Emission Reduction Cost – Japan - $ 400/Ton of Carbon US – $ 200/Ton of Carbon Developing Countries India – $ 25/Ton of Carbon & even less
  • Benefits under CDM to India
    • India need energy efficient technologies to
    • reduce GHG emissions
    • CDM could help to overcome the financial
    • constraints associated with the adoption of
    • cleaner technologies
    • Renewable energy technologies
    • are among the low cost options for carbon mitigation
  • Indian DNA
    • The Govt. of India has constituted a 9 member National CDM Authority (NCA) during December 2003.
    • The MoEF being the nodal ministry for CC hosts the NCA headed by The Secretary, MoEF
    23
  • DNA ( Designated National Authority) - India The National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Authority Address: 115, Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi, India R. K. Sethi , Member Secretary, National Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Authority, Ministry of Environment and Forests Phone: (91-11) 2436 2252 Fax: (91-11) 2436 2252
  • CDM OPPORTUNITIES
    • CDM includes following potential projects:
    • Increased energy utilization of terminals;
    • Renewable energy;
    • Alternative fuels ;
    • Agriculture (methane and N2O Emission
    • Reduction Projects);
    • Industrial Process(Emission reductions of CO2,
    • HFCs, PFCs or SF6 from industry) ;
  • BEST WISHES TO ALL OF YOU TO ACHIEVE CLEAN CLIMATE PCRA SERVICES AT A REASONABLE COST ENERGY AUDIT/ CLEAN DEV. MECHANISM
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