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The Success of high performing companies and organizations results as much from what happens behind the scenes as from lea...
POWER AND POLITICS<br />
What is power?<br />
Power is…<br /><ul><li>The capacity of team, person or an organization to influence others.
The potential to influence others.
It  requires one person’s perception of dependence on other.</li></li></ul><li>Influenceablity of power…<br /><ul><li>Depe...
Age.
Gender.
Personality.
Culture.</li></li></ul><li>Dependency - the key to power<br /><ul><li> Importance.
Scarcity.
Non substitutability.</li></li></ul><li>Power and Dependence<br />Person<br />A<br />Person B’s counterpower over Person A...
Bases of power in organization.<br />1.Formal  (positional).<br />2.Informal (personal) .<br />
1. FORMAL POWER<br /><ul><li>Reward power.
Coercive power.
Legitimate power.
Process power.
Information power.
Representative power.</li></li></ul><li>2.INFORMAL POWER<br /><ul><li>Expert power.
Rational persuasion.
Referent power.</li></li></ul><li>CONSEQUENCES OF POWER<br />Commitment<br />Compliance<br />Resistance<br />Sources of Po...
POWER TACTICS<br />Legitimacy<br />Rational persuasion<br />Inspirational appeals<br />Consultation<br />Exchange<br />Per...
ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS <br /><ul><li>Involves Intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self interest of in...
Politics is a necessary function resulting from differences in the self interests of individuals.</li></li></ul><li>FACTOR...
1.INDIVIDUAL FACTORS<br /><ul><li>Authoritarian(Machiavellianism).
Self-monitoring.
High risk propensity.
Internal locus of control.
High need for power,status,security or autonomy.</li></li></ul><li>2.ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS.<br />Competition.<br />Level ...
FACTORS INFLUENCING POLITICAL BEHOLDER<br /> Individual factors<br />Political Behavior<br />Low                          ...
Averted punishments</li></ul>Organizational factors<br />
POLITICAL TACTICS<br />Attacking or blaming others.<br />Using information as a political tool.<br />Creating a favorable ...
Response of politics in organization.<br />Organization politics may threaten employees…<br /><ul><li>Decreased job satisf...
Increased anxiety and stress.
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Power And Politics

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  1. 1. The Success of high performing companies and organizations results as much from what happens behind the scenes as from leaders’ more visible actions.<br />Premise…<br />
  2. 2. POWER AND POLITICS<br />
  3. 3. What is power?<br />
  4. 4. Power is…<br /><ul><li>The capacity of team, person or an organization to influence others.
  5. 5. The potential to influence others.
  6. 6. It requires one person’s perception of dependence on other.</li></li></ul><li>Influenceablity of power…<br /><ul><li>Dependency.
  7. 7. Age.
  8. 8. Gender.
  9. 9. Personality.
  10. 10. Culture.</li></li></ul><li>Dependency - the key to power<br /><ul><li> Importance.
  11. 11. Scarcity.
  12. 12. Non substitutability.</li></li></ul><li>Power and Dependence<br />Person<br />A<br />Person B’s counterpower over Person A<br />Person<br />B’s Goals<br />Person A’s power over Person B<br />Person<br />B<br />
  13. 13. Bases of power in organization.<br />1.Formal (positional).<br />2.Informal (personal) .<br />
  14. 14. 1. FORMAL POWER<br /><ul><li>Reward power.
  15. 15. Coercive power.
  16. 16. Legitimate power.
  17. 17. Process power.
  18. 18. Information power.
  19. 19. Representative power.</li></li></ul><li>2.INFORMAL POWER<br /><ul><li>Expert power.
  20. 20. Rational persuasion.
  21. 21. Referent power.</li></li></ul><li>CONSEQUENCES OF POWER<br />Commitment<br />Compliance<br />Resistance<br />Sources of Power<br />Consequences of Power<br />Expert<br />Power<br />Referent<br />Power<br />Legitimate Power<br />RewardPower<br />Coercive<br />Power<br />
  22. 22. POWER TACTICS<br />Legitimacy<br />Rational persuasion<br />Inspirational appeals<br />Consultation<br />Exchange<br />Personal appeals<br />Ingratiation <br />Pressure<br />Coalitions <br />
  23. 23. ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS <br /><ul><li>Involves Intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self interest of individuals or groups.
  24. 24. Politics is a necessary function resulting from differences in the self interests of individuals.</li></li></ul><li>FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE POLITICS<br />Individual factors.<br />Organizational factors.<br />
  25. 25. 1.INDIVIDUAL FACTORS<br /><ul><li>Authoritarian(Machiavellianism).
  26. 26. Self-monitoring.
  27. 27. High risk propensity.
  28. 28. Internal locus of control.
  29. 29. High need for power,status,security or autonomy.</li></li></ul><li>2.ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS.<br />Competition.<br />Level in organization.<br />Low trust.<br />Role ambiguity and counter norms.<br />Unclear evaluation systems.<br />Democratic decision making.<br />
  30. 30. FACTORS INFLUENCING POLITICAL BEHOLDER<br /> Individual factors<br />Political Behavior<br />Low High<br />Favorable outcomes<br /><ul><li> Rewards
  31. 31. Averted punishments</li></ul>Organizational factors<br />
  32. 32. POLITICAL TACTICS<br />Attacking or blaming others.<br />Using information as a political tool.<br />Creating a favorable image.<br />Developing a base of support.<br />Association with influential people.<br />Creating obligations.<br />
  33. 33. Response of politics in organization.<br />Organization politics may threaten employees…<br /><ul><li>Decreased job satisfaction.
  34. 34. Increased anxiety and stress.
  35. 35. Increased turnover.
  36. 36. Reduced performance.</li></li></ul><li>Positive aspects of organizational politics.<br />Overcoming personnel inadequacies.<br />Coping with change.<br />Substituting for formal authority.<br />
  37. 37. Defensive behavior.<br />Avoiding action.<br />overconforming, Buck passing, playing dumb, stretching, stalling.<br />Avoiding blame.<br /> Buffing, Playing safe, Justifying, Scapegoating, Misrepresenting.<br />Avoiding Change.<br />prevention, self protection.<br />
  38. 38. Ethical Guidelines for Political Behavior <br />Unethical<br />Ethical<br />Question 1<br />Is the action <br />motivated by <br />self-serving <br />interests which<br />exclude the <br />goals of the <br />organization?<br />Yes<br />Question 3<br />Is the political<br />activity fair<br />and equitable?<br />Yes<br />No<br />No<br />Unethical<br />Yes<br />Question 2<br />Does the political<br />action respect<br />individual rights?<br />No<br />Unethical<br />
  39. 39. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT.<br />The process by which people attempt to control or manipulate the reactions of others to images of themselves or their ideas.<br />Itis a behavior that people direct toward others to create and maintain desired perceptions of themselves.<br />
  40. 40. Impression Management Techniques.<br />Conformity.<br />Excuses.<br />Apologies.<br />Self-promotion.<br />Flattery.<br />Favors.<br />Association.<br />
  41. 41. Harvard BusinessReview<br />“Power and Politics in Organisational Life”<br />By – Abraham Zaleznik.<br />
  42. 42. The Issue…<br />Companies undergo critical conflicts in organizational politics.<br />The competition for power is characteristic of all political structures.<br />A political pyramid exists when people compete for power in any economy.<br />Characteristics of all political structures is the incessant need to use whatever power one possesses.<br />
  43. 43. Power relations<br />Organizational life within a political frame is a series of contradictions.<br />It deals with sources of authority and their distribution.<br />The formal organizational structures implements a coalition among key executives.<br />
  44. 44. Knudsen’s case…<br />Knudsen –new comer was named the President of the company.<br />His power structure was dependent on forming an alliance with Iacocca.<br />Knudsen and Iacocca competed for power.<br />Knudsen’s case coalition failed.<br />
  45. 45. Problem-solving approach<br />Organization structure is an instrument rather than an end.<br />Organization structure can be changed but should not be tinkered with.<br />Organization structure expresses the working coalition attached to the chief executive.<br />Organization structure represents a blend of people and job definitions.<br />Organization structure is a product of negotiation and compromise among executives who hold power bases.<br />
  46. 46. JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT<br />Perception of organizational politics.<br />By - Christopher P Parker<br />Stacy L Jackson.<br />
  47. 47. Factor analysis of data from an organizational climate survey suggest that organizational politics is an important dimension of peoples' perceptions of the work environment.<br />Measures of perceived intergroup cooperation, clarity of roles and responsibilities, and fairness of rewards / recognition were most predictive of politics perceptions.<br />
  48. 48. Gandz and Murray (1980) reported that 60% of their survey respondents agreed with the statement that "most casual conversation appears to be about things I would consider as workplace politics" .<br />
  49. 49. REFERENCES<br />ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR 11th edition by Stephen P. Robbins <br />ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 4th edition by Steven L McShane, Mary Ann Von Glinow & Radha R Sharma.<br />HBR – May-June 1970 , (Executive Power – Its use and misuse)<br />Article – journal of management,sept-oct 1995(perception of organizational politics).<br />
  50. 50. By –<br />Karthiga. D<br />Makhzoom Razi<br />
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