Unity, coherence, development 1
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Unity, coherence, development 1

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Unity and coherence in writing is essential.

Unity and coherence in writing is essential.

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Unity, coherence, development 1 Unity, coherence, development 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Karen S. Wright
  • For writing to be as effective as possible,paragraphs and essays need to include unity,coherence, and deliberate paragraphdevelopment.
  • A paragraph has unity when each sentencedevelops the idea stated in the topic sentence.An essay has unity when each paragraph hasunity, AND when the topic sentence of eachparagraph develops the essay’s main idea (thesis). View slide
  • It is difficult to follow anessay where thoughtsleap from topic to topic. Really?? Did you say spoiled? Unity is spoiled when sentences do not support the topic Who’s spoiled? sentences. View slide
  • Hey guys ! Which sentence doesn’t fit?By 1000 BC, horse-drawn chariots were standard equipment inmost armies and a great nuisance. The chariot was hard to use. Atwo-man chariot team could manage nicely if one man drove whilethe other bombarded the enemy with spears and arrows. Arrowswere very difficult to make during this time. But when a soldierdrove along in the chariot, he had to tie the reins around his waistand control the horses with his body to keep his hands free forfighting. from Suzane Jurmain Once upon a Horse
  • Notice how each sentence supports the topicsentence to produce unity. Topic Sentence By 100 BC, horse-drawn chariots were standard equipment in most armies, and soldiers had discovered that the world’s greatest weapon was also the world’s greatest nuisance. The chariot was hard to use. A two-man chariot team could manage nicely if one man drove while the other bombarded the enemy with spears and arrows. But when a soldier drove along in the chariot, he had to tie the reins around his waist and control the horses with his body to keep his hands free for fighting. Suzane Jurmain Once upon a Horse
  • When sentences in a paragraph flow together insuch good order, and the relationships betweenthe details are so clear, then a paragraph hascoherence.Coherence is achieved in several ways: Chronological order Spatial order Oder of importance Logical sequence Connections—direct references and transitions
  • “Keep all of your ducks in a row.” Logical Order=Coherence. Your TurnChronological order and clear relationships between the details producecoherence. Which words bind these sentences together cohesively? By 1000 BC, horse-drawn chariots were standard equipment in most armies, and soldiers had discovered that the world’s greatest weapon was also the world’s greatest nuisance. In the first place, the chariot was hard to use. Secondly, a two-man chariot team could manage nicely if one man drove while the other bombarded the enemy with spears and arrows. But when a soldier drove along, he had to tie the reins around his waist and control the horses with his body to keep his hands free for fighting. Suzane Jurmain Once upon a Horse
  • “Keep all of your ducks in a row.” Logical Order=Coherence. Chronological order and clear relationships between the details produce coherence. Which words bind these sentences together cohesively? By 1000 BC, horse-drawn chariots were standard equipment in most armies, and soldiers had discovered that the world’s greatest weapon was also the world’s greatest nuisance. In the first place, the chariot was hard to use. Secondly, a two- man chariot team could manage nicely if one man drove while the other bombarded the enemy with spears and arrows. But when a soldier drove along, he had to tie the reins around his waist and control the horses with his body to keep his hands free for fighting. Suzane Jurmain Once upon a Horse
  • After developing astrong focusthrough unity andcoherence, thenext step is topaint a picture inyour reader’s mindwith examples anddetail. How canthis be done?
  • P A R A G R A P HProcess D Definition E V E L O P M E N T Statistics Story
  • Paragraph Development Word PictureExplanation Analogy
  • What technique develops this paragraph?A process, definition, story, statistics, word picture,an analogy, or an explanation?Melton was one of those miserable in-between littleplaces, not large enough to be a town, nor small enoughto be a village -- that is, a village in the rural, charmingsense of the world. Melton had no charm about it. It wasmerely a nondescript collection of houses and buildings ina region of farms -- one of those sad American places withsidewalks, but no paved streets; electric lights, but nosewage; a station, but no trains that stopped, save a jerkylocal, morning and evening. And it was 150 miles from anycity at all -- even Sioux City. “Cora Unashamed,” Langston Hughes
  • In the following paragraph, there are elementsthat diminish development. What are they? Although many people scorn the idea of having one or two four-legged pets thinking they require so much care, there are actually quite a few advantages to keeping pets. First of all, pets welcome their owner home from a long day of work. Related to this, is the second advantage of having pets is that they are incapable of being disloyal. Perhaps pets require some care, but it would be wise to look at all they add to life.
  • In the following paragraph, there are elementsthat diminish development. What are they? Although many people scorn the idea of having one or two four- legged pets thinking they require so much care, there are actually several advantages to keeping pets. First, pets welcome their owner home from a long day of work. Second, pets are incapable of being disloyal. Perhaps pets require some care, but it would be wise to look at all they add to life.
  • Put it All TogetherUnity, coherence, anddeliberate paragraphdevelopment produceorganized paragraphsand essays—this kindof “sticking together”makes a unifiedwhole.