Educational Technology“Technology is commonly thought of in terms of gadgets, instruments, machines and devices … most (educators) will defer to technology as computers.” (Muffoletto, 1994)
The history of “Educational technology … canbe traced back to the time when tribal priestssystemized bodies of knowledge, and earlycultures invented pictographs or sign writingto record and transmit information.”(Paul Saettler, 1990)
The invention of the printingpress in the late 15th centurygave rise to some of the firstforms of mass communication, byenabling the publication of booksand newspapers on a scale muchlarger than was previouslypossible. The invention alsotransformed the way the worldreceived printedmaterials, although booksremained too expensive really tobe called a mass-medium for at A book is a collection of sheets ofleast a century after that. paper, parchment or other material with a piece of text written on them, bound together along one edge within covers. A book is also a literary work or a main division of such a work. A book produced in electronic format is known as an e-book.
Recordings (gramophone records, magnetic Cinema from about 1900 tapes, cassettes, cartridges, CDs, DVDs) from the late 19th centuryThe 19th century paved in the advent of effectivetechnological development including the production oftextbooks, use of blackboards and improvements inwriting implements like pen and ink. Photography was Cinema 1900’sinvented, giving a way to a movement called “Visual Radio from about 1910Instruction”. Television about 1950 Internet from about 1990 The notion of "mass media" was generally restricted to print media up until the post-Second World War, when radio, television and video were introduced.
By 1920, visual media became widely accepted. Then came the publication of audio-visual media texts. In 1926, educational films were used as instructional media.In 1932, the first instructionaltelevision program was aired at theState University of Iowa. Aboutthe same time, the 16 mm soundmotion picture was developed andthis served as the educationalworkhorse during the audio-visualmovement of the time.
Introduced in late 1970’s.Adopted by public school systems during 1980’s. •Apple II
Software Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC) Initially largest provider of educational software. Funded by National Science Foundation.
Internet & the World Wide WebThe Internet (also known simply as "the Net" or less precisely as "theWeb") is a more interactive medium of mass media, and can be brieflydescribed as "a network of networks". Specifically, it is the worldwide,publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networksthat transmit data by packet switching using the standard InternetProtocol (IP). It
• While many schools restrict access to blogs, WIKI’s etc… …others embrace it.
Social Networking Tools• 96% percent of U.S. students ages 9 to 17 who have internet access use social-networking technology to connect with their peers (chatting, text-messaging, blogging, or visiting online communities such as Facebook, MySpace, and Webkinz) – One of the most common topics of discussion…education – Nearly 60 percent of students report discussing education-related topics
Four Different Views Of Educational Technology1. Association for Educational Communications & Technology (AECT) Audiovisual Media Communications: Begun in 1923. Initially centered on radio. Quickly extended focus to include instructional film strips and educational television. Today, it includes global satellite broadcasting, two-way audio, and visual communications. “Branch of educational theory and practice concerned primarily with the design and use of messages which control the learning process.” (Saettler, 1990, p. 9) Resource: AECT website: http://www.aect.org/newsite/
Four Different Views2. ISPI:Instructional systems approach based on Behaviorist theories“Systematic approach to designing, developing, and deliveringinstruction matched to carefully identified needs.” (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1997) Website: http://www.afc-ispi.org/
INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING EDUCATORS ASSOCIATION3. International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) is the professional organization for technology, innovation, design, and engineering educators. Instructional systems approach based on Behaviorist theories.Industry trainers and vocational teachers.Schools should prepare students for work force Learningabout technology as used in the “real world” is essential.Includes robotics, manufacturing systems, computer-assisted design (CAD). ITEEA website: http://www.iteea.org/Resources/resources.htm
4. ISTEPrimary focus encompassed both instructional andsupport applications of computers. This group began bytrainers and educators who predicted that computerswould revolutionize education. ISTE is influenced bytechnical personnel, such as programmers and systemsanalysts. ISTE website.
EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Uses Governed by Techniques, Theories & methods Tools: Goal oriented problem-from multiple knowledge domains Film, Video, Co solving systems which are standardized and mputers approach reproducible to Guide change agency and Design, develop and evaluate transformation of educational human and mechanistic resources systems and practices effectively & efficiently In order to In order to Facilitate and Contribute to leverage all change within aspects of society learning.
Our Definition: “A combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies.” (Roblyer, 2000)