Mário Carranca, 2009
 Fieldof research in Human-Computer
 Interaction

     “An affective human-computer interaction is one in
          whic...
 Adaptabilityis essential
 Paradox of adaptability and stability
                    Pleasing the user
                ...
Adaptability




                                                         4
CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
5
CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
Explicitly requesting too much information from the user will
result in deterioration of her relationship with the applica...
 Aim     on instinctive HCI
         Reading the user
     

             instead of
          prompting the user.
 Tec...
A cognitive approach




                                                                 8
CARRANCA, Mário - Affective In...
 Analysis
         of a Human-Computer Interface
 from an Affective perspective consists on
 analyzing the impacts of thi...
 Moods   affect:
     memory;
 
     cognition;
 
     evaluation;
 
     expectations;
 
     opinions;
 
     moto...
 The      X-Factors (Subbaraman, 2007):
      Emotions
  
      Sensations
  
      Moods
  
      Beauty
  
      Ex...
 Triggeringuser’s moods through stimuli
 Capture user’s emotions and use them to
  improvise and manage situations
 Gen...
 How  accurate are these evaluation methods?
 How intrusive are these evaluation methods?
 In what emotion should the d...
Real World approaches to Affective Interaction




                                             14
  CARRANCA, Mário - Aff...
 Input:
      Motion and pressure sensors
  
      Cameras
  
      Microphones
  
      Biomedical devices and sensor...
 Concept      introduced by Picard and Healey
  (1997)
 Computational objects as part of clothes and
  wearable accessor...
 Developed   by Norbert Wiener, acclaimed
  mathematician and the father of
  Cybernetics.
 The glove intercepted sound ...
Developed at MIT as part of

  Cythia Breazeal’s doctoral
  research project (late 1990s)
 Capable of demonstrating
  fa...
 Developed   at MIT Media Lab by Jocelyn
  Scheirer and Rosalind Picard
 Glove equipped with a LED measures skin
  condu...
Developments in Affective Interaction




                                                 20
CARRANCA, Mário - Affective ...
Supporting

    Affective
    Interactions for
    Real-Time
    Applications
    Developed by GAIPS at INESC-ID.

    R...
 The   SAFIRA Toolkit is aimed at developing
  affective applications.
 Its simple structure allows for easy
  integrati...
 Evaluator
          user in an MIT feedback mechanism
 experiment:
         “I liked it being set up such that as soon a...
Subbamaran, Karthi, http://www.slideshare.net/ESS/affective-

    interaction
    Amadeu, Flávia, “Humano-Computador em I...
25
CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
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Affective Interaction

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I did some brief research on the area of Affective Interaction as part of the Advanced Interaction Techniques course of 2009, and presented the results of my research work

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  • RosalindPicard, nomerecorrentenestaárea. Lider do Affective Computing Group do Media Lab do MIT.
  • Psicológicos:repercussõespsicológicas. Descriçõesverbais (think-aloud);;Checklists;;Questionários;;Self-Reporting;;Fisiológicos:reacçõesfisicas. Ritmocardíaco;;pressãosanguinea;;respiração;;EEG;;actividade muscularComportamentais: mudanças de comportamento. Expressõesfaciais;;Postura;;Modulaçãodavoz;;Desempenhocognitivo;;Gestos
  • Exemplo: e-commerce – pessoamaissusceptível a comprarartigosmaiscaros se seencontrar num estado de espiritopropício
  • Problema da incorrecta interpretação das leituras. Algumas (biomédicas) são geralmente certeiras a um primeiro nivel. Outras estão sujeitas a interpretaçãoProblema da instrusividade. Os utilizadores apreciam a sua privacidade. Alguns deles – nomeadamente os biomédicos – são muito intrusivosUm problema que pode surgir: despoletar uma emoção pode desencadear outras involuntariamenteQuestões éticas
  • Exemplos de aplicaçõesdateoriadainteracçãoafectiva
  • Umavariedade de tecnologias
  • Idealmente, a presença dos mecanismoscomputacionais é imperceptivelpara o utilizador no dia a diaRealidadeaumentada: utilizadorpode-se focarnarealidadefisica(tarefas do dia-a-dia), aomesmo tempo queestáemcontactoconstante com a realidade virtual (mecanismoscomputacionais)
  • Wiener:matemáticoamericanofamosopordesenvolvimentosnoscamposdaengenhariaelectrónica, datelecomunicação, e de sistemas de controlo. Fundadordacibernética.Cibernética: formaliza a noção de feedback, e estáintrinsecamenterelacionada com o estudo de sistemas de controlo. Aplica-se nãoapenas a nivelfisico e electrónico, comotambém a nível social.Desenvolveuaindaoutrasaplicaçõesàsemelhançadaluvaauditiva.Apologistadacomunicaçãoporanalogia.
  • Custo dos materiais: $25000Conceito do robot baseado no Gremlin, Gizmo.1 Linux 500mhz, 1 NT 450mhz, 4 Motorolla 68332, 9 PCs 400mhz, 1 PC 500mhz4 color CCD cameras, 2 wide field of view cameras, 1 0.5inch CCD foveal cameraCadaprocessadorrelacionado com umaparte dos mecanismos de captação e expressão de emoção.Video!!
  • Umaaplicaçãoprática. Emsala de aula, estudantes de ensinosecundáriousaramluvadurante a aula.Verificou-seque, emgeral, o nivel do LED era muitobaixo.Aumentavaquandoaosalunos era pedidoqueelaborassemalgumatarefaqueparaelestivesseinteresseOs alunoscomentaramque a luvalhesproporcionouumamaneira de aprenderemalgomaissobreelespróprios
  • Com o toolkit foramdesenvolvidasváriasaplicações de demonstração(James the Butler, FantasyA)http://gaips.inesc-id.pt/safira/demonstrators.html
  • Aplicaçõesque se adaptamaoutilizadorÉ sugeridoque o principio orientadordeve ser o de satisfazer o utilizador, e não o da performance oudesempenhomáximos
  • Adaptabilidadeaoque o utilizadorquerQuando e como?
  • O utilizador tem de interromper a tarefaparapodercancelarestaopção
  • Pedir feedback querequerumadistracçãoporparte do utilizador do seutrabalho = mau
  • Interpretar o que o utilizadorquer, emvez deexplicitamentelhoperguntar
  • Aproximaçãodapsicologiacognitivaao design de interfaces pessoa-máquina
  • Emoçõeslevam a Moods (estados de espirito)Moods restringem as experiências dos utilizadores
  • Usam-se variadosmecanismos e métodosparaavaliarestasreacções
  • Affective Interaction

    1. 1. Mário Carranca, 2009
    2. 2.  Fieldof research in Human-Computer Interaction “An affective human-computer interaction is one in which emotional information is communicated by the user in a natural and comfortable way, recognized by the computer, and used to help improve the interaction.” (Reynolds, Picard) 2 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    3. 3.  Adaptabilityis essential  Paradox of adaptability and stability  Pleasing the user versus satisfying the user’s needs  Artificial Intelligence as part of HCI 3 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    4. 4. Adaptability 4 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    5. 5. 5 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    6. 6. Explicitly requesting too much information from the user will result in deterioration of her relationship with the application 6 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    7. 7.  Aim on instinctive HCI Reading the user  instead of prompting the user.  Technological obstacles Standard HCI technology based on user initiative  and conscious, rational, non-instinctive decisions 7 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    8. 8. A cognitive approach 8 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    9. 9.  Analysis of a Human-Computer Interface from an Affective perspective consists on analyzing the impacts of this interaction on the user’s emotional state. Emotion: short-term subconscious reaction to stimuli  Moods: longer-term settlement of an emotion or chain  of emotions. 9 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    10. 10.  Moods affect: memory;  cognition;  evaluation;  expectations;  opinions;  motor behaviour;  what emotions are experienced (hence what  other moods can be experienced)  (Derbaix,1999)  Moods lead the user in a certain direction 10 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    11. 11.  The X-Factors (Subbaraman, 2007): Emotions  Sensations  Moods  Beauty  Expectations  Evaluations   Heuristicevaluation methods for these factors in an interface: Psychological (most common in usability evaluation)  Physiological  Behavioural  11 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    12. 12.  Triggeringuser’s moods through stimuli  Capture user’s emotions and use them to improvise and manage situations  Generate more ideas and metaphors to trigger emotional reactions in the interfaces 12 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    13. 13.  How accurate are these evaluation methods?  How intrusive are these evaluation methods?  In what emotion should the designer focus?  Should the designer actively attempt to manipulate the user’s mood? 13 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    14. 14. Real World approaches to Affective Interaction 14 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    15. 15.  Input: Motion and pressure sensors  Cameras  Microphones  Biomedical devices and sensors  Standard input technologies…   Output: VR  Robotics  LEDs  Standard output technologies…  15 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    16. 16.  Concept introduced by Picard and Healey (1997)  Computational objects as part of clothes and wearable accessories  The idea is for these objects to be in constant contact with the wearer, preferably in a way that isn’t disruptive of her activities  The applications of this concept precede Picard and Healey by many years 16 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    17. 17.  Developed by Norbert Wiener, acclaimed mathematician and the father of Cybernetics.  The glove intercepted sound stimuli through electromagnetic components  The stimuli were converted into analogous tactile stimuli for the deaf wearer to feel  Wiener defended that: “Analogy is communication, and communication is  analogy” 17 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    18. 18. Developed at MIT as part of  Cythia Breazeal’s doctoral research project (late 1990s)  Capable of demonstrating facial expressions and vocalizations  Equipped with several multi-purpose cameras and a microphone  Stimuli processed by several computers using MIT cross-department software over different operating systems 18 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    19. 19.  Developed at MIT Media Lab by Jocelyn Scheirer and Rosalind Picard  Glove equipped with a LED measures skin conductivity, or electrodermal response to stimuli, a reliable indicator of psychological arousal “Arousal has been found to be a strong predictor of  attention and memory”  The LED’s intensity changes according to the wearer’s electrodermal response 19 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    20. 20. Developments in Affective Interaction 20 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    21. 21. Supporting  Affective Interactions for Real-Time Applications Developed by GAIPS at INESC-ID.  Researchers searched to inspire themselves in the way  humans make decisions, and compute algorithms that simulate it It was the first project in this area under the European  Commission’s support 21 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    22. 22.  The SAFIRA Toolkit is aimed at developing affective applications.  Its simple structure allows for easy integration: 1. Affective Acquisition  2. Emotion Processing  3. Affective Expression  4. Inter-component Messaging  22 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    23. 23.  Evaluator user in an MIT feedback mechanism experiment: “I liked it being set up such that as soon as I realized  there was a problem, I could gripe.”  Users like to be able to convey their feelings about an interface without wasting time or losing their reduced attention span  Affective interaction is an area with many possibilities to be explored  Technology is still a barrier, but the progress in micro and nanotechnology has proved useful 23 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    24. 24. Subbamaran, Karthi, http://www.slideshare.net/ESS/affective-  interaction Amadeu, Flávia, “Humano-Computador em Interações Afetivas”  Bynum, Terrell Ward, “Norbert Wiener’s Vision: The Impact of “the  Automatic Age” on Our Moral Lives” Picard, Rosalind, “Affective Computing”  Ferreira, Cristina Alexandra, “Abordar a computação afectiva sob várias  perspectivas” Paiva et al., “SAFIRA- Supporting Affective Interactions in Real-time  Applications” Paiva et al., “SenToy in FantasyA: Designing an Affective Sympathetic  Interface to a Computer Game”, 2002 Derbaix, C., Pecheux, C.: “Mood and children: Proposition of a  measurement scale”, 1999 Starner et al, “Augmented Reality Through Wearable Computing”, 1997  Post et al, “E-broidery: Design and fabrication of textile-based  computing”, 2000 Picard and Scheirer, “The Galvactivator: A glove that senses and  communicates skin conductivity”, 1997 24 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
    25. 25. 25 CARRANCA, Mário - Affective Interaction
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