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Sesión 02 del curso …

Sesión 02 del curso
Administración Estratégica de Tecnologías de Información
EGADE Business School
Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina

Published in: Education

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  • Varios factores han originado esto: ejemplo señora tortas en toluca.
    Shift of market power to customers. Customers percive a wide selection of choices and become accustomed to shoppimg across multiple choices
    Rapid decline in barriers to market entry. Way are dioscovered to circunvent barriers to entry by creatiove and ambitious competitors.
    Accelerating technology/know how change. The half life competencies is dramatically shortened by rapid innovation. The game of advantage trhough know how is constantly restarting with all the players starting again
    Rise of multiple deep- pockets players. Multiple companies enter in one industry with the financial resources to fight it out. One big company can no longer bully all the others into submission and make them stay in theoir places
    Deregulation. El gobierno y autopridades regiulatorias desemsamblan las barreras de entrada. A meniudo fomenta la competencia intensa.
    Inability to sustain advantage. La durabvilidad de la ventaja deciende dramáticamente . Drmatic innovation shitfs in technologycal know how, y la creatividad en redefinir the produc value proposition conspire to reduce the resiliensy of any advantage
    Globalization. Time and spacve are overcome
  • En el primer cuarto del 2012 se vendieron a nivel global más iPhones que el número de bebes que nacieron en el planeta tierra
    http://www.statista.com/statistics/263401/global-apple-iphone-sales-since-3rd-quarter-2007/
    http://gizmodo.com/5879083/apple-sells-more-phones-in-a-day-than-people-make-babies
    El número de dispositivos conectados excede el número de personas en el mundo.
    La economía APP alcanzará 151 MMD en el 2017
    the so-called app economy is app-enabled sales of physical goods and services, which accounted for about $45 billion of the nearly $60 billion total at the start of 2013. By the middle of this year, the $60 billion total had reached about $72 billion, and that figure is expected to more than double to $151 billion in 2017. - See more at: http://www.computerworld.com./s/article/9240794/App_economy_expected_to_double_by_2017_to_151B#sthash.owpzc2VZ.dpuf
  • Cerca del 70% de las compañías que estaban en la lista de Fortune 1000 ya no existen ahora
    “…WHEN THE RATE OF CHANGE INSIDE AN INSTITUTION BECOMES SLOWER THAN THE RATE OF CHANGE OUTSIDE, THE END IS IN SIGHT.” JACK WELCH FORMER CHAIRMAN & CEO GE
    We are mobile and we are connected
    BIG Data
    cars will drive on their own on highways, even park on their own
    in airport lots. Your car, through a funny little robot, will be your intimate friend.
    It will guide you, anticipate your needs, propose music for your mood, choose
    when and where to refuel, and select your news.
    We're in...
    a social revolution
    a mobile revolution
    a local revolution
    a cloud revolution
    a trust revolution
    a customer revolution
  • Change the Way You Communicate Value
    You’re wearing your nicest suit. You even had it drycleaned. You and your team have spent weeks on this pitch. You know your competitors also want this account, but you’re sure that your team is the best for the job. You’ve studied the prospect’s market, their products, their challenges and their strengths. You’re crystal clear on what you can offer them. You’re
    nervous, but optimistic. You shake hands with their executive as you enter the conference room.
    The Old Way
    Your analysts have run projections. You’ve tried to anticipate the prospect’s every question. You’ve printed and bound a 30-page report, filled with charts, graphs, and bullet points. The executive thumbs through the report as you give your pitch. She checks her watch.
    “These projections look fine,” she says, “but, internally, we’ve decided to discontinue two of these brands at the end of the year. I’m not sure that this analysis will still make sense.”
    You assure her your team is still the best for the job. “We’ll run the new numbers and have it in your inbox by this afternoon,” you tell her. You’ve heard your competition is meeting with her later in the day, and you hope you can convince one of your analysts to create the revised report before someone else closes this deal.
    The Mobile Transformation
    Your team has created interactive dashboards for the prospect, and you’ve loaded them onto an iPad. They feature visually compelling maps, forecasts, and charts at an executive summary level, with the capacity to drill down into the most granular levels of the data with a single tap. The dashboard has filters for brand, location, year, and department.
    You walk into the room and hand the executive your business card and your iPad.
    “We’ve created some dashboards that demonstrate what we’ve done for our clients in the past, as well as what we expect we can do for you,” you tell her.
    “These projections look promising,” she says. “But we’re discontinuing two of these brands at the end of the year.
    Can I filter them out and see what it looks like then?”
    You nod. She spends the next hour asking—and answering—her own questions, glued to the iPad.
    “This is really exciting stuff,” she comments. “Really exciting.” She never once checks her watch.
    *******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************
    Change the Way You Work Together
    You’re the CEO of an up-andcoming medical device manufacturer. Your products compete directly with those of enormous, established conglomerates, but your growing team is talented, eager and innovative. You’ve seen your market share steadily increase over the past two years. You’re still a fraction of the market, but it’s a rapidly shifting market, and you believe there’s room for great increase in your share.
    Today, you’re gathered at an off-site with a team of executives to determine where to invest your sales and marketing resources for the coming year. You need to allocate personnel and finances among regions, market segments and product lines. The whole room knows the stakes; this year is crucial. Your larger, well-funded competitors are hot on the heels of your state-of-the-art products, and it’s critical that you allocate your limited budget to expand your footprint in the right markets.
    The Old Way
    The executives from all departments have prepared slide decks, and one by one they take the stage to present their current strategy, their vision for the future, and their recommendations. They’ve made their recommendations based on what they hear from their own teams, static reports, data from their own Excel spreadsheets—and gut instinct, based on their experience.
    By mid-day, it’s becoming clear your executives have vastly different strategic recommendations, driven by siloed pieces of information. It’s difficult to get people on the same page. Everyone sees a different version of the truth.
    Worse, as you ask deeper and tougher questions of your team, you realize that even the most experienced of them are making nothing more than guesses—about an industry that looks nothing like it did five years ago and will continue to change dramatically for a decade to come. Past experience will not be an effective way to design this company’s future.
    You’d walked into the meeting wildly optimistic. As the day draws to a close, you realize you’re going to leave with nothing more than a headache.
    The Mobile Transformation
    The executives from all departments have arrived to create your company’s strategy for the coming year. Your VP of Sales presents his recommendations, and your COO interrupts him. She disagrees with the assumptions he’s made about why and how products are selling in different regions. They go back and forth about it for a few minutes.
    It’s like they’re talking about two totally different companies, you think, as you break for lunch.
    Your VP of Product approaches you after grabbing a sandwich. “We track all this, you know,” he says. “We know exactly where the products are selling, who’s selling them, and to what type of customer. Our team uses it to prioritize feature requests. We get the data right out of Salesforce.”
    He pulls out his iPad and shows you the interactive dashboard his team uses. It clearly maps product sales by geography, with detailed drill-down into product, date and existing pipeline. “Is this data from this month?” you ask. “Sort of,” he says. “It’s actually from about two hours ago.”
    When you all settle in again after lunch, your VP of Product takes the stage. He’s connected his iPad to the projector, and he manipulates the dashboard with simple taps as he explains his analysis of the market. The other executives are silent at first—then they’re full of questions. “Can we look at this by sales rep?” asks the VP of Sales. “Or by sales manager?” He switches to authoring mode on the device. From the screen, he drags fields for sales rep and sales manager into a bar chart on the view, and your team explores this data by geography and product line. They still have a lot of questions, but now that they’re all working from the same data, right in front of their eyes, they’re able to agree on the answers.
    You smile to yourself as they work together to create a future for the company that they all believe in.
    I’m a damn good CEO, you think.
  • The Innovator’s Dilemma
    Disruption has a paralyzing effect on industry leaders. With resource allocation processes designed and perfected to support sustaining innovations, they find it difficult to respond. They are always motivated to go up-market, and almost never motivated to defend the new or low-end markets that the disruptors find attractive. Christensen and Raynor refer to this phenomenon as asymmetric motivation.
    Los administradores racionales se enfrentan el dilema del innovador: 
    ¿Debemos invertir para proteger a los fines menos rentable de nuestro negocio, de modo que podamos mantener  a nuestros clientes menos leales, y más sensible a los precios? ¿O deberíamos invertir para fortalecer nuestra posición en los niveles más rentables de nuestro negocio, con clientes que compran a precios más elevados para los mejores productos?
    A disruptive business model that can generate attractive profits at the low end, can be easily carried up-market to make higher-performance products that sell at higher price points.
  • More than finding the right strategy, it is more important for organizations to focus on the
    strategy development process.
    In every company, there are two simultaneous processes through which strategy comes to
    be defined. The deliberate strategy-making process is conscious and analytical.
  • Elementos de una declaración estratégica de una organización
    Propósito
    Propósito
    Contenido (resultados)
  • Misión: porqué exitimos
    Valores: en que creemos y como nos comportamos
    Visón: que queres ser
    Estrategia: cuál será nuestra ventaja competitiva
  • Chandler began looking at large-scale enterprise in the early 1960s. His Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the Industrial Enterprise (1962) examined the organization of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Standard Oil of New Jersey, General Motors, and Sears, Roebuck and Co. He found that managerial organization developed in response to the corporation's business.
    The thesis of each of these works is this: during the 19th century the development of new systems based on steam power and electricity created a Second Industrial Revolution, which resulted in much more capital-intensive industries than had the industrial revolution of the previous century. The mobilization of the capital necessary to exploit these new systems required a larger number of workers and managers, and larger physical plants than ever before. More particularly, the thesis of The Visible Hand is that, counter to popular dogma regarding how capitalism functions, administrative structure and managerial coordination replaced Adam Smith's "invisible hand" (market forces) as the core developmental and structuring impetus of modern business.
  • -----------------------------------------------
    The model can be extended by linking many value chains into a value system.
    Much of the advantage of supply chain management comes from understanding how information is used within each value chain of the system.
    This can lead to the formation of entire new businesses designed to change the information component of value-added activities.
    La herramienta básica para entender la influencia de las IT en las compañías es la cadena de valor. Cuando una compañía compite en cualquier industria, ejecuta actividades para la creación de valor interconectadas, tales como manejar la fuerza de ventas, fabricar un componente o bien entregar un producto y esas actividades tienen puntos de conección con las actividades y canales de proveedores y clientes.
    Debido a que cada actividad involucra la creación, procesamiento y comunicación de información, las IT tienen una gran influencia en la cadena de valor.
    La ventaja especial del internet es la habilidad de enlazar una actividad con las otras y facilitar los datos en tiempo real par la compañía y sus clientes o proveedores.
  • Value web promueven una infaestructura completamente integrada que enlaza a todos los miembros. Este enlace es electrónico y permite a los miembros coordinar agendas, compartir activos, utilizar las competencias y recursos de los otros (incluyendo sistemas y procesos) .
    Futuro-> arquitecturas plug-and-paly
    http://docs.google.com
  • La competencia Es un continuo de varios estados en una industria. En donde Hyper competition precede a la competencia perfecta.
    Uno de los puntos importantes que deben notar aquí es el cambio en la naturaleza de la ventaja competitiva en cada estado.
    Most of us have spent their careers in stable states of moderate competition , understand strategy as the ccreation of sustainable advantage.
    In hyper.. Temporary advantage
    Caso Kodak
    Lo que importa no son tu ventajas actuales sino las que vienen y con las que vas a remplazar las actuales.
    La hyper comptencia destruye la ventaja compettitiva sostenible y puede ser entendida como SCA
    Función de tiempo y costo
    Mientras más tiempo te toma replicar una ventaja o má dinero cuesta más sostenible es la ventaja. La hyper competencia reduce tiempos y costos
  • A service platform integrates multiple applications from various departments, business units, or partners to deliver a seamless experience for the customer, employee, manager, or supplier. Hiding the back-end complexity and creating a business process management plus an application integration layer that ties the various pieces together is the essence of the service platform.
    This shift is forcing parallel changes from an internal applications mindset to an external services mindset. Evidence of this paradigm shift is mounting, indicated by the rapid diffusion of enterprise portals
    People Integration. The multi-channel user interaction layer (web portals, mobile handhelds, call center interfaces, and in-store interfaces).
    Process Integration. The composite process layer (order-to-cash, target-to-engage, and invoice-to-settlement).
    Application Integration. The integration layer (security, identity management, and integration services).
  • IT Service Management or Relationship Management – T
    he discipline containing the services that are customer facing in relation to their IT infrastructure
    IT Infrastructure Management
  • Transcript

    • 1. Sesión 2Sesión 2 La organización deLa organización de la función de TIla función de TI Administración estratégica de tecnologías de información TI3031 Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina Dra. Teresa Lucio
    • 2. Reflexión de la sesión anterior Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 3. Cambio acelerado Empoderamiento de clientes Disminución de barreras a la entrada No hay un solo líder dominante La desregulación La globalización Causado por: Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 4. Impacta en 1. Demografía 2. El surgimiento del individuo 3. Economía interconectada 4. La deuda pública 5. Cambio de poder económico 6. Cambio climático 7. Tensión por los recursos 8. Urbanización 9. Tecnología Habilitadora Fuente: Future State 2030: The global megatrends shaping governments. KPMG International. November 2013 Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 5. Hablemos de Tecnología Habilitadora Publicado en Gizmodo. Disponible en línea en http://gizmodo.com/5879083/apple-sells-more-phones-in-a-day-than-people- make-babies Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 6. Tecnología en las empresas La comunicación móvil es un fenómeno disruptivo a escala mundial. Hace sólo tres años, el tráfico móvil representaron el 1% del tráfico de Internet. Hoy en día es el 13%, y para 2020 se espera que alcance el 33%. Fuente: TRENDS SHAPING THE FUTURE OF BUSINESS. Reporte de SalesForce. Sep 2013 Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 7. Habilitadora en las empresas 1. Cambiar la forma en que se comunica el valor 2. Cambiar la forma como se opera 3. Cambiar la forma de trabajar juntos Fuente: This Changes Everything. Mobile Analytics and the Future of Business. Sasha Pasulka , Tableau Software June 2013. Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 8. Papel de la tecnología Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 9. Papel de la Tecnología de Información La tecnología de información es un facilitador importante del éxito y la innovación del negocio y ayudan a la organización a tener una ventaja competitiva. Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 10. Dílema del innovador Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 11. ¿Qué hacer? 11 Tomado de la pirámide de Steve Alter; The Work System Method: Connecting People, Processes, and IT for Business Results. Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 12. Estrategia 1. En la guerra, es la ciencia o el arte de emplear todos los recursos militares, económicos y políticos de un país para alcanzar los objetivos de la guerra. 2. Arte, traza para dirigir un asunto. 3. Un plan para hacer frente a circunstancias en un futuro incierto. Se trata de un conjunto de normas por las que las medidas a ser adoptadas dependen de las circunstancias, incluyendo fenómenos naturales y las acciones de otras personas. 1. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Academic Edition 2. DICCIONARIO DE LA LENGUA ESPAÑOLA (En línea) – 22° edición 3. A Dictionary of Economics. John Black. Oxford University Press, 2002. Oxford Reference Online. Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 13. ¿Qué es? Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 14. Diferentes perspectivas, herramientas, propósitos Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 15. ¿Porqué es necesaria la estrategia? Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 16. Dimensiones de la estrategia Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 17. Estrategia de negocios Proceso de seleccionar opciones entre diferentes alternativas que compiten entre ellas como la mejor opción. Es entonces un sistema de actividades que crea un valor único y lo captura. Es planeado, perseguido y realizado. 1: What Is Strategy? By: Porter, Michael E.. Harvard Business Review, Nov/Dec96, Vol. 74 Issue 6, p61-78 2: Can You Say What Your Strategy Is? By: David J. Collis and Michael G. Rukstad. Harvard Business Review, Abr08. hbr.org Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 18. ¿¿Qué es Estrategia de negocio? Un conjunto de planes, realizados para el logro superior -a largo plazo- de la rentabilidad de los capitales invertidos en una empresa (es decir, un plan para obtener una ganancia en un entorno competitivo). Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 19. Aprendizaje Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 20. Estrategia en la organización Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 21. Estrategias genéricas 21Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 22. Ejemplo de estrategias genéricas 22 Por ejemploPor ejemplo Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 23. Estrategias genéricas en las TI Michael Treacy y Fred Wiersema (2001) en The Discipline of Market Leaders, menciona 3 enfoques de estrategia básica de negocio – Excelencia en el Servicio – Excelencia en la innovación – Excelencia en la operación 23Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 24. Evolución de la función de TI 24 Fuente: Ellen Kitzis, John Mahoney, Shape the New Role of the IT Strategist (208) Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 25. Alinear la estrategia de TI con la estrategia de negocio 25 Fuente: John Mahoney, Michael Gerrard. IT Value Performance Tools Link to Business-IT Alignment.(2007) Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 26. Valor de TI en el negocio Fuente: John Mahoney, Michael Gerrard. IT Value Performance Tools Link to Business-IT Alignment.(2007)Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 27. Valor; un constructo difícil 27Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 28. Para medir el Valor de TI en el negocio 28 Four-tier IT Business Value Model Fuente: How to Link IT Metrics to Business Value. Michael Smith (2010) Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 29. Para medir el Valor de TI en el negocio Fuente: Reporte ejecutivo de Gartner Business Performance Is the Value of IT (2009) Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 30. Hablamos de cadenas de Valor Una vez que una organización escoge su estrategia, puede utilizar una herramienta como el cadena de valor para determinar el éxito o falla de su estrategia. – Procesos de negocio – un conjunto de actividades estandarizadas para conseguir una tarea específica, por ejemplo procesar la orden de un cliente. – Cadena de valor – ve a la organización como una serie de procesos, cada uno de los cuales agrega valor al producto o servicio para cada cliente Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 31. Pearlson y Saunders: sistemas de valor Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 32. Diferencias Cadena de Valor Sistema de valor Clientes Enfocado a clientes (segmentos de mercado) Enfocado al consumidor final (individuos) Entorno Estático/Estable Dinámico/Cambiante Enfoque Específico a una industria Específico a los objetivos de negocio Integración de infraestructura Limitada Completa Visión de infraestructura Costos Valor Procesos Mejora de los propios procesos Mejora de procesos conjuntos Enfoque del Conocimiento Exclusivo Compartido
    • 33. Ejercicio en clase Dirección estratégica de almacenes y centros de distribución 33
    • 34. En un mercado complejo Fuente: IBM Research Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 35. Niveles de competencia en una industria bajo Moderado Alta intensidad Extremo Monopolios Competenci a baja o no existe Ganancias excesivas Ventaja perfecta Competencia perfecta Los productos son commodities Ganacias mínimas No hay ventaja Hyper- competencia Competencia agresiva e intensa Ganancias intermitentes y bajas Ventaja temporal Oligopolios Se evita la competencia Ganancias sostenidas Ventaja sostenida Tomado de Art of Strategic Planning for Information Technology. Board Bernard H.Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 36. Cómo es la competencia? Ventaja Innovación Valor Fin de la Lealtad La regla son mercados disruptivos
    • 37. Valor agregado por las TI 37 Referencia: M-negocios Ravi Kalakota y Marcia Robinson . Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School
    • 38. Integración (alrededor de las necesidades del cliente) Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Campus Estado de México • LastMinute • Travelocity
    • 39. Tres niveles de gestión Nivel Estratégico • Elaboración de Planes • Objetivos Generales Nivel Táctico • Control de gestión • Objetivos específicos Nivel Operacional • Tareas administrativas Computadora automatiza tareas rutinarias apoyo a la sistematización de las funciones de dirección. Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Campus Estado de México
    • 40. Clasificación 40 Fuente: Tecnologías de Información. Solución efectiva de problemas. Almaguer. Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Campus Estado de México
    • 41. Esto nos traerá conceptos como; Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School Relationship Management Customer Service Center, Project Office, Web Portal Change Management Call / Problem Management Notification / Escalation Asset Management Knowledge Management SLA Management Request Management Reporting Infrastructure Management Security Management Recovery Management Operations Management Capacity / Performance Availability Management Configuration Management Configuration Management Event Management Business Process Mgt. Software Distribution Remote Control Inventory Command Center, Subject Matter Experts Indicates Service or Discipline Interface
    • 42. Esto nos traerá conceptos como; Dr. Jorge Ramírez Medina EGADE Business School Enterprise Event Management enterprise systems management = three dimensional management of IT elements dimension 1: across processing platforms (e.g. Windows, Linux, OS/400, Novell, z/OS, etc.) dimension 2: across IT element categories (e.g. application, database, hardware, network, etc.) dimension 3: interconnection of management services (e.g. event connected to notification and problem) Firewall server HTTP Application File Space Storage Area Network Application server (Windows) Product Ordering CPU utilization Paging space core router disk input output data rate fiber network Fiber network Copper network Database server (mainframe) Database locks Table space Free handles copper network edge router fiber network fiber network application management database managementcopper network managementstorage device managementfiber network managementserver management Web server (Linux) Enterprise Event Management Service cross category event correlation problem management servicenotification service Copyright 2004, David Graves and Paul Kontogiorgis Information Technology Infrastructure Mid-level management systems
    • 43. Fin Sesión Dos