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history of Tajikistan

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  1. 1. TAJIKISTAN Whenever I say I am from Tajikistan, people say: “hmm… where‟s that?” SO, WHERE THE HELL ON THE EARTH IS TAJIKISAN??? By Karimov Karomatullo Poland,warsaw
  2. 2.  Tajikistan, officially, the Republic of Tajikistan is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia.  Afghanistan borders from the south, Uzbekistan from the west, Kyrgyzstant from the north, and the People's Republic of China from the east.
  3. 3. FACTS  Population: 8.076.598 (July 2007 est.)  Capital: Dushanbe  Area: 143.100 sq km  Major languages: Tajik/Persian, Uzbek, Russian  Major religion: Islam  Life expectancy: 61 years (men), 66 years (women) (UN)  Monetary unit: 1 Tajik Somoni= 100 Dirams 1 Euro = 5 Tajik Somoni
  4. 4. BRIEF DESCRIPTION  Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Tajik ethnic group, who share culture and history with the Persian people sand speak the Tajik language which is a branch of Persian language.
  5. 5. WHAT DOES “TAJIKISTAN” MEAN?  "Tajikistan“ means the “ Land of the Tajiks “ in Persian.  Some believe the name Tajik derives from the Persian word “Taj ” which means “Crown”.  The word "Tajik" was used to differentiate Iranians from Turks in Central Asia, starting as early as the 10th century.  According to some other sources, the name Tajik refers to a group of people who are believed to be one of the pure and close descendants of the ancient Aryans.
  6. 6. HISTORY  The territory of what is now Tajikistan has been inhabited continuously since 4.000 BCE/BC  It has been under the rule of various empires throughout history, for the longest the period under the Persian Empire.
  7. 7. TIMELINE -EMERGENCE AS ETHNIC GROUP  8th century-Tajiks emerge as distinct ethnic group; Arab invaders conquer Central Asia, including Tajikistan, and introduce Islam.  9th/10th century-Persian Samanid dynasty gains control of Central Asia and, in alliance with the caliph of Baghdad, develops Bukhara as centre of Muslim culture.  13th century -Genghis Khan conquers Tajikistan and the rest of Central Asia, which becomes part of the Mongol Empire.
  8. 8. TIMELINE -SOVIET RULE  1921-Northern Tajikistan becomes part of the Bolshevik-designated Turkistan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR).  1924-Tajik ASSR set up by Soviets and becomes part of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR).  1929-Tajik ASSR upgraded to the status of an SSR and becomes distinct from the Uzbek SSR
  9. 9. TIMELINE -INDEPENDENCE & CIVIL WAR  1991-Supreme Soviet declares Tajikistan independent from the Soviet Union.  Tajikistan joins Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).  1992-Anti-government demonstrations in Dushanbe escalate into civil war between pro-government forces and Islamist and pro-democracy groups which eventually claims 50.000to 100.000 lives, displaces 1,2 million and devastates the economy.
  10. 10. TIMELINE -PEACE ACCORD  1997-Government and rebel United Tajik Opposition (UTO) sign peace accord.  1998-Rahmonovpardons all opposition leaders in exile and agrees to appoint one of the Islamist opposition's leaders as first deputy prime minister. Rebel uprising in north is crushed with the help of former opposition groups.  2000-a new national currency, the Somoni, introduced.  2001-Tajikistan is quick to offer support to the US-led anti-terror coalition, set up after the September 11 attacks on the US.
  11. 11. TIMELINE -REFERENDUM  2003-Referendum vote goes in favor of allowing President Rahmonov to run for a further two consecutive seven-year terms when his current one ends in 2006.  2004July -Parliament approves moratorium on death penalty.  2005June -Russian border guards complete withdrawal, handing the task over to Tajik forces.  2006-Said Abdullo Nuri, leader of the opposition Islamic Revival Party, dies.
  12. 12. TIMELINE -PRESIDENT ELECTION  2006 November -President Emomali Rahmon wins a third term in office.
  13. 13. ECONOMY (1)  Tajikistan was the poorest country in Central Asia as well in the former Soviet Union following a civil war after it became independent in 1991.  Tajikistan's economy grew substantially after the war. The GDP of Tajikistan expanded at an average rate of 9,6% over the period of 2000-2004according to the World Bank data.  This improved Tajikistan's position among other Central Asian countries(namely Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), Tajikistan is an active member of the Economic Cooperation Organization(ECO).
  14. 14. ECONOMY (2) A new bridge between Afghanistan and Tajikistan has been built which will help the country have access to trade lines with South Asia.  Tajikistan ranks third in the world in terms of water resources per head. A proposed investment to finish the hydro-power dams Rogun and Sangtuda I and II would substantially add to electricity production, which could be exported for profit. If finished, Rogun will be the world's tallest dam.
  15. 15. ECONOMY (3)     
  16. 16. CUISINE OF TAJIKISTAN   Traditional Tajik cuisine has much in common with Persian cuisine, and features such dishes as osh (rice, carrot, meat, olive oil), shashlik(either beef or lamb), sumalak(special sweet dish made from wheat germ),mantu(usually lamb or ground beef)  Sumalakis prepared for Navruz (the first day of spring and the beginning of the Iranian year).Women take a special party for it during the night, and cook it from late in the evening till the daylight, singing related songs.
  17. 17. OSH
  18. 18. Shashlik
  19. 19. Sumalak